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Full text of "Arabic manual, a colloquial handbook in the Syrian dialect for the use of visitors to Syria and Palestine, containing a simplified grammar, a comprehensive English and Arabic vocabulary and dialogue, the whole in English characters carefully trasliterated, the pronunciation being fully indicated"



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LUZAC'S ORIENTAL GRAMMARS SERIES. 



LUZACS ORIENTAL GRAMMARS SERIES. 
Vol. I. Manual of Hebrew Syntax. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2S. 6d. 

y, II. Manual of Hebrew Grammar. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2S. 6d. 

„ III. A Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar, 

with Dialogues, Extracts from Nasir Eddin 
Shah's Diaries, Tales, etc., and Vocabulary. 
By F. Rosen. io^. 6d. 

y, IV. Arabic Manual. By F. E. Crow. 



ARABIC MANUAL 



^ -J O .JOt 



ARABIC MANUAL 



A COLLOQUIAL HANDBOOK IN THE SYRIAN DIALECT 

FOR THE USE OF VISITORS TO SYRIA AND 

PALESTINE, CONTAINING A SIMPLIFIED 

GRAMMAR, A COMPREHENSIVE ENGLISH AND 

ARABIC VOCABULARY AND DIALOGUES. 



CAREFULLY 
THE PRONUNCIATION 
BEING FULLY INDICATED. 



BY 



F. E. CROW, 

LATE H. B. M. VICE-CONSUL AT BEIRUT. 




LONDON: 

LUZAC & Co., 

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE 

46, Great Russell Street 

1901. 



PRINTED BY E. J. BRILL, LEYDEN (HOLLAND). 



PREFACE. 

It is hoped that the present work will supply a want, 
which has long been felt by those, who, for purposes 
of business or recreation, have been led to visit Syria 
and Palestine. The extensive scope of English and 
American missionary development, and the yearly in- 
crease in the influx of tourists to this country may, 
perhaps, render both useful and acceptable any means, 
which facilitate the acquisition of colloquial Arabic. This 
manual has no classical pretensions and is, by no means 
exhaustive. It is intended, merely, as a practical guide 
to the spoken language, which may serve to enable 
those, who wish to deal directly with the natives, to 
do so, without being obliged to have recourse to the 
medium of an interpreter. The limited compass of the 
book has, necessarily, restricted the selection of the vo- 
cabulary, and the words chosen will merely satisfy the 
ordinary and most practical requirements. In using it, 
allowances must be made for local differences of pro- 
nunciation. It should, also, be borne in mind that collo- 
quial Arabic is never written, and that both its pronun- 



VI PREFACE. 

ciation and terminology are loose and undefined. English 
characters are used throughout the work, which places 
it within the reach of those, who have made no study 
of Oriental languages. As regards spelling and pronun- 
ciation, a system of transliteration has been adopted, 
for purposes of uniformity, but local differences of dia- 
lect and the arbitrary disregard, in spoken Arabic, for 
the rules, which govern the formation of the classical 
language, necessarily preclude an absolutely rigid adher- 
ence to it. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my grateful 
appreciation of the kind assistance which I have re- 
ceived, in the compilation of this work, from Dr. 
WoRTABET, Messrs. ESPER and FUAD Shqucair and 
Mr. CONSTANTINE KliOURI of Beirut, and from Messrs. 
Nesif Bey and Michael Meshaka of Damascus. 

British Consulate. F. E. C. 

Damascus, October i. 1899 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Orthography and Pronunciation 3 

Etymology lo 

Paradigms of Verbs 22 

Numerals 58 

Prepositions 60 

Adverbs 63 

Conjunctions 70 

Interjections 71 

Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week 73 

Time 74 

English and Arabic Vocabulary 79 

Dialogues in English and Arabic 305 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



a. 


adjective. 


ad. 


adverb. 


c. 


comparative. 


c. p. 


collective plural. 


com. 


common to both genders 


con. 


conjunction. 


contr. 


contracted. 


d. 


dual. 


f. 


feminine. 


imp. 


imperfect. 


imper. 


imperative. 


lit. 


literally. 


m. 


masculine. 


n. 


noun. 


neg. 


negative. 


P- 


plural. 


p.p. 


passive participle. 


pass. 


passive. 


per. 


person. 


pr. 


preposition. 


pres. part. 


present participle. 


pro. 


pronoun. 


pro. suff. 


pronominal suffix. 


s. 


singular. 


sup. 


superlative. 


V. 


verb. 


V. a. 


active verb. 


V. n. 


neuter verb. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

PART I. GRAMMAR. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

I. Grammar. 
ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. 

The oriental character is not used in this little work. 
The Arabic letters are represented by their approximate 
English equivalents and the transliteration is completed 
by figuring the vowel sounds as pronounced. The system 
of orthography adopted for this purpose has been fol- 
lowed as closely as local differences in pronunciation 
will admit. It is, however, not rigid and the aim is 
rather to reproduce, as correctly and as intelligibly as 
possible, the sound of words as pronounced, than to 
give a forced rendering of the Arabic letters by the 
substitution of arbitrary equivalents. 

Alphabet. 

The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
which are figured throughout the book by the cha- 
racters represented in the following table. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Arabic letters. 


English 
equivalent. 


Figured. 


elif 


a 


a, e, i or u (modified according 
to the vowel sound). 


be 


b 


b 


te 


t 


t 


se 


s, th 


s or t 


jim 
ha 


J 
hh 


J 
h 


khe 


kh 


kh 


dal 


d 


d 


zal or thai 


z, th 


z 


re 


r 


r 


zayn 


z 


z 


sin 


s 


s 


shin 


sh 


sh 


sad 


s 


s 


dad 


dd 


d 


ta 


t 


t 


za 


z, th 


? 


'ain 


none 


' placed before a vowel (gives 
a hollow sound like the at- 
tempt to pronounce a vowel 
without a consonant). 


ghain 
fe 


f 


gh 
f 


kaf, "af 


k ("a) 


" when the k sound is omitted, 
and k when it is pronounced, 
which is rare. 


kef 


k 


k 


lam 


1 


1 


mim 


m 


m 


nun 


n 


n 


wow 


w, oo 


w, u, u or ow 


he 


h 


h 


ye 


y» i 


y or i 



GRAMMAR. 5 

The hemza is a soft breathing or point of disjunction. 
It creates a hiatus before the vowel which it introduces 
and its effect is very similar to the sound made when 
attempting to pronounce a vowel without a consonant. 
It is either a radical letter or an inflection prefixed to 
verbs and is joined to the letter elif, which has no 
sound of itself in Arabic. When it comes in the middle 
of a word it is represented by the breathing ' and has 
a sound very similar to the 'ain, e. g. 
mu'min a believer, 
ma'kulat eatables. 

In the vernacular the hemza in the middle of a word 
is often replaced by ye e. g. je'iz lawful (pronounced 
jeyiz); le'i" proper (pronounced leyi"). 

Vowel sounds. 

The Arabs have only three vowel signs which are 
unwritten. They are called fatha, kesra and damma. 
The fatha has an open sound like the 'a' in 'ashore', 
e. g. hadd a boundary. The kesra has the sound of 'V 
in 'in*, e. g. hibr ink. The damma has the sound of 'u* 
in 'puir, e. g. kutub books. 

As the oriental character is not used in this book, its 
object being merely to reproduce the sound of Arabic 
words as pronounced by means of a system of transli- 
teration, it will be sufficient to note that there are ten 
vowel sounds and three compound vowel sounds, for 
each of which a specific character has been adopted, 
as follows: 

a long as in father, far written a 

a short „ „ ashore, china „ a 



e 


french 


e 


short 


i 


long 


i 


short 


o 


long 


o 


short 


oo 


• or u long 


u 


short 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

as in egal (like a in fate) written e 

V V merit „ e 
„ „ marine „ i 

« « ill » i 

„ „ old w o 

« « or » o 

V V too „ U 
y, V pull r, U 

ai, ay is pronounced in this book as in aisle. 

ey « « V r, r, V V prey, 

ow „ „ ^ „ „ „ „ powder. 

Observations on pronunciation. 

se (figured s or t) is sometimes pronounced 's', e. g. 

suls a third, and sometimes *t', e. g. ti"il heavy. Its 

proper pronunciation is 'th' as in 'thick' but it is 

rarely heard in conversation, 
jim (figured j) is pronounced in Syria like a soft 'g' or 

like the *z' in azure, 
ha (figured h) has an open guttural sound, somewhat 

akin to *kh*. 
khe (figured kh) has a deep guttural sound, resembling 

the *ch' in the Scotch word loch, 
zal or thai (figured z) is generally pronounced *z' on 

the plain and 'th', as in 'them', on the mountain. In 

some places it is pronounced *d'. 
'ain (figured ' before a vowel) has a deep hollow sound, 

e. g. 'ind-i with me, I have, 
kaf (figured " whei? the *k' sound is omitted and k 

when it is pronounced). The *k' sound in this letter 

has completely disappeared in most parts of Syria and 



GRAMMAR. 7 

is only retained among the Druses. It is pronounced 
like the Arabic hemza with a deep hollow sound, 
e. g. "iddem-i before me; wa"aft I stood; kadir 'ala 
kill shey The Almighty. 

y followed by a vowel is pronounced as in yes. 

•• diaeresis, denotes that the vowel, over which it is 
placed, is to be pronounced separately, as in 'naive*, 
e. g. t'ai come, (imper. fem.) ; mai water. 
The acute accent is used to indicate the letter or 

syllable on which the accent falls. 

Termination. 

In Syria, after the following letters, the final te (called 
t6 marbuta or tied te) the sign of the fem. sing, and 
the general termination of all fem. words, is changed 
into ye in the colloquial language and pronounced short 
like the 'y' in merry. It is here written i : 



after be 


e.g. 


darbi 


a blow. 




t^ 


» 


nebti 


a plant. 




se 


V 


ba'asi 


a mission. 




jim 


7> 


merji 


a meadow. 




dal 


» 


wardi 


a rose. 




ial 


V 


khuzi 


a helmet. 




zayn 


n 


lowzi 


an almond. 




sin 


V 


jilsi 


a sitting. 




shin 


n 


nehshi 


a bite. 




fe 


n 


rejfi 


trembling. 




kef 


r> 


ka'aki 


a cake. 




lam 


V 


baghli 


a she-mule. 




mim 


ft 


rahmi 


mercy. 



8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

after nun e. g. hafni a handful. 
„ wow „ serwi wealth. 

„ ye „ zabiyi a gazelle. 

Note. These words are properly darbeh, nebteh, ba'aseh, 
etc. and darbet, nebtet, ba'aset, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the following letters the final te is dropped 
altogether and the fatha or open sound of the preceding 
syllable is alone pronounced. A fatha always precedes 
the sign of the fern. sing, whether te or elif. 



after ha 


e.g- 


tiffeha 


an apple. 


. khe 


n 


ferkha 


a chicken. 


„ sad 


n 


fursa 


an opportunity. 


n dad 


n 


"urda 


a loan. 


. ta 


T> 


nu"ta 


a dot. 


n ?a 


r> 


lafza 


an utterance. 


r, *ain 


» 


bu'*' 'a 


a tract of land. 


V ghain 


» 


latgha 


a list. 


. "af (l^af) 


j> 


hal"a 


a ring. 


. he 


v 


shubha 


suspicion.. 



Note. These words are properly tiffehah, ferkhah, fursah, 
etc. and tiffehat, ferkhat, fursat, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the letter re the final te is sometimes changed 
into ye, pronounced 'i' short as in ill, e. g. kbiri big 
(properly kbireh), zghiri small (properly sghireh), and 
sometimes omitted altogether, leaving only the fatha of 
the preceding syllable, e. g. jerra a jar (properly jerreh 
or jerret before a vowel). 

In all words, which have the ending of the fern, sing., 



GRAMMAR. 9 

the *t' sound of the original termination reappears, when 
the word is immediately followed by another word be- 
ginning with a vowel, e. g. jneyni the garden. 

jneynit al-khuri the priest's garden. 

Shortening of words. 

The tendency of the spoken language and especially 
of the Syrian dialect is to clip the words as much as 
possible. Hence the vowel sound, which properly belongs 
to the initial letter of a word, is only pronounced when 
the second syllable is quiescent (called in Arabic sukun) 
and the word would be unintelligible, if it were omitted. 
Thus, the kesra belonging to the letter 'k' in kiteb a 
book is suppressed and we have instead kteb; sha'ir 
barley becomes sh'ir; resasa a bullet becomes rsasa, and 
so on. This is especially noticeable in the passive past 
participles of certain forms of verbs, in which the middle 
radical letter is doubled, when the damma of the first 
syllable is invariably dropped, e. g. mkesser broken in 
pieces (not mukesser), mshedded tightened [not mushed- 
ded), msellem surrendered (not musellem), m'owwad 
compensated (fiot mu'owwad). 

Note. The pronunciation of vulgar Arabic varies greatly 
in different parts of Syria. That adopted in 
the grammar and vocabulary is used in Beirut 
and the dialogues at the end of the book are 
given in the Damascus dialect. The pronunciation 
in the coast towns and in most of the Christian 
villages of the Lebanon is very similar to that 
of Beirut. Among the Druses the sound of *k' 



10 ARABIC MANUAL. 

in the kaf is invariably preserved but, in other 
respects, their pronunciation differs little from 
that of the Damascenes. In Beirut, the plain and 
parts of the Lebanon elif is usually pronounced 
like the French *e' in 'egal' or like the 'a' in 
'fate' e. g. uled children, ken there was, msefir a 
traveller, de'imen always. Whereas, in Damascus, 
it has the sound of 'a' in 'far' e. g. ulad, kan, 
msafir, da'imen. The negative particle 'mush' 
(composed of ma hu shey) is used in many parts 
of Syria but never in Damascus, where they say 
'mau'. In Beirut the letter wow is generally pro- 
nounced like the 'ow' in 'how', e.g. hown, here; 
yowm, a day; jow", a band, etc. while, in Damas- 
cus, it has the sound of the 'o' in 'bone', e. g. 
hon, yom, jo". The 'ain in 'ind takes a kesra in 
Beirut and the Lebanon, e. g. 'ind-i I have, but 
in Damascus and other parts it is pronounced 
with a fatha, e. g. 'and-i. 

Etymology. 
The Article. 

The Arabs have only one article 'al', which is definite 
and is prefixed either to the singular or plural, e. g. 
al-ferruj the chicken; p. al-fererij. 

When followed by any one of the letters t, d, r, s, 
sh, z, n and colloquially j, the sound of the T is assi- 
milated to that of the succeeding letter, e. g. as-sit the 
lady; at-tilaghraf the telegraph; ash-shighl the work; 
az-zuruf the circumstances; aj-jim'a the week. 



GRAMMAR. 1 1 



The Noun. 



There are two genders of nouns in Arabic, masculine 
and feminine. 

Nouns are feminine either by signification or termi- 
nation ; e. g. by signification, imm taiyibi a good mother ; 
ikht latifi a pleasant sister; or by termination, e. g. 
jneyni kbiri a big garden; uda kwaiyisi a pretty room. 

There are three numbers in Arabic, singular, dual, and 
plural. The dual is formed from the singular by adding 
eyn, e. g. walad a child, dual, waladeyn ; bint a daughter, 
dual, binteyn. 

In words having a feminine termination the final vowel 
is either changed into 't* or a 't' is intercalated before 
eyn, e. g. mdini a town, dual, mdinteyn; se'a an hour, 
dual, se'ateyn. 

When a pronominal suffix follows the dual the final 
n disappears, e. g. id a hand, dual, ideyn, my two 
hands ideyi; *ain an eye, dual, 'aineyn, your two eyes 
*aineyk. 

There are two kinds of plurals, regular and irregular 
or broken. The regular plural for masculine nouns is 
formed from the singular by adding in. 

e. g. nejjar a carpenter, p. nejjarin. 
khaiyyat a tailor, p. khaiyyatin. 
khiddem-ak your servant, p. khiddemin-ak. 

The regular plural for feminine nouns ending in *e' 
(vulgar i; see introductory note on terminations) or *a' 
is formed by changing these letters into at or ^t. 



12 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e. g. bereki a blessing, p. bereket. 
kelbi a female dog, p. kelbet. 
hara a house, quarter, p. harat. 
ghasseli a washerwoman, p. ghasselet. 

The plurals not formed as above are very irregular 
and varied, so that a thorough knowledge of them can 
only be acquired by practice. Those in common use 
will be found in the Vocabulary. 

The Adjective. 

There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective, 
e.g. sahih true; kerim generous; sabur patient; hulu 
beautiful, sweet, but there is only one form of adjective 
derived from substantives. This is formed by adding i 
to the substantive, e.g. ward roses, wardi rosy; shems 
the sun, shemsi solar. 

The comparative is formed from the positive by pre- 
fixing 'a' and lengthening the last syllable of the adjective; 



e. g. sihl. 


easy, c. as-hal. 


heyyin. 


„ c. ahwan. 


kbir, 


big, c. akbar. 


tawil, 


long, c. atwal. 


kwaiyis, 


pretty, c. akwas. 



'than' is expressed by the preposition min, e. g. beyt-i 
akbar min beyt-ak my house is bigger than yours. In 
the case of participles, used as adjectives, and various 
adjectival forms, which do not readily admit the regular 
comparative, the latter is formed by adding the word 
aktar, the comparative of ktir much. 



GRAMMAR. 1 3 

e. g. meshghul busy, c. meshghul aktar. 

ikhtiyar old, c. ikhtiyar aktar. 

*atshen thirsty, c. 'atshen aktar. 

defien warm, c. defien aktar. 

Comparative measure as to the difference in quality 
of various objects is expressed by adding the prepo- 
sition bi, e. g. al-hawa akhaf min al-mai bi ktir, air is 
much lighter than water. 

The superlative is formed by adding the article to 
the comparative, e. g. ahsan better, sup. al-ahsan ; akbar 
bigger, sup. al-akbar, or by adding the article to the 
word following, e. g. ahsan an-nes, the best of men ; hui 
akbar al-kill (akbar min al-kill), he is the greatest of all. 

The adjective agrees with the noun in gender and 
number. 

The feminine of adjectives is formed by adding 'a' or 
'e' to the masculine, the e being changed in the Syrian 
dialect into ye pronounced i {see hitroductory note on 
terminations). The feminine is figured short i or a. 

e. g. kwaiyis f. kwaiyisi pretty, 
taiyib f. taiyibi good, 
mabsut f. mabsuta well, happy. 

When an adjective stands next to a substantive with 
which it agrees, it is placed after the substantive and 
not before it, e. g. jneyni kwaiyisi, a pretty garden. 

Adjectives denoting colour form their feminine as 
follows ; 



14 



ARABIC MANUAL. 


abyad 


white, 


f. baida. 


asfar 


yellow, 


f. safra. 


ahmar 


red. 


f. hamra. 


akhdar 


green, 


f. khadra. 


azra" 


blue, 


f. zer"a. 


(aswad) aswid 


black. 


f. sowda. 



The plural of adjectives like that of nouns is regular 
or irregular and is formed in the same way. Adjectives 
of relation formed from nouns and ending in 'i' form 
their plural by adding the feminine termination ye, e. g. 
fransewi french, p. fransewiyi. Rjel fransewiyi or franse- 
wiyin Frenchmen. 
Note. They say in Arabic beyt 'aali, a high house; al- 

beyt al-'aali, the high house ; al-beyt 'aali, the house 

is high. 

Colloquially the adjective is often placed in the mas- 
culine plural with nouns which are feminine or with 
broken plurals, thus violating the rule of the written 
language. 

e. g. nisw^n taiyibin good women, 
(benet) benat kwaiyisin pretty girls. 

al-kutub lezizin the books are interesting. 

Cases. 



No use is made colloquially of the case endings. The 
relation of words to one another in a sentence is de- 
termined by their respective positions or by means of 
a preposition. The following examples will sufficiently 
illustrate this: 
Genitive, Ija ahad khiddemin al-"onsul. One of the 



GRAMMAR. 1 5 

Consul's servants came (lit : there came one of the 
servants of the Consul). 

a'ala jibel ad-dunia. The highest mountain in the 

world (lit : the highest of the mountains of the world). 

'aded sukken beled an-nemsa. The number of the 

population (lit: inhabitants) of the country of Austria. 

beyt at-tejir u jneynt-uh. The merchant's house and 

garden (lit : the house of the merchant and his garden). 

se'at Yusuf aj-jdidi. Joseph's new watch (lit : the 

watch of Joseph the new one). 

bwebet al-medini. The town gates (lit: the gates 
of the town). 

beb khasheb. A wooden door (lit : a door of wood), 
'ati-ni kibbeyi mai". Give me a glass of water, safteyn 
ashjar. Two rows of trees. 

A common way of expressing the genitive is by 

the use of the word 'teb'a', belonging or appertaining to. 

e. g. al-beyt teb'a sherik-i. The house of my partner 

(lit: belonging to my partner). 

al-kiteb teb'a Butros. Peter's book (lit: the 

book belonging to Peter), 
al-mifteh teb'a as-sandu". The key of the box 

(lit: the key belonging to the box), 
haida mush tcb'ai. This is not mine (lit : this 
does not belong to me). 
Some, one of, is expressed by ba'ad followed by the 
article, e.g. ba'ad an-nes, some people; ba'ad at-tij jar, 
one of the merchants; ba'ad al-liy^li, one night. 
Dative. The dative is formed by means of the prepo- 
sition ila (li) to. When the word is preceded by the 
article al, the *a' of the article disappears before the 
preposition. 



1 6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e.g. khud hal-kirsi lil-beyt, take this chair to the house, 
hal-hisan lil-bey'a, this horse is for sale, 
khud haj-jurnel Hr-rijjel, take this newspaper to 
the man. 
Vocative. The vocative is formed by adding the inter- 
jection ya to the noun, 

e. g. ya abu-na ! O our father ! (used to priests), 
ya habib-i ! O my friend ! 

ya 'y^^"i • O my eyes! (a term of endearment). 
Ablative. The ablative is formed by means of the pre- 
positions 'an, of or about, min from, etc. 

e. g. tkellamna 'an al-beyt, we spoke about the house, 
terjam hal-kiteb min al-'arabi lil-fransewi, he 
translated this book from Arabic into French. 

The Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns are: — ana I; inta (f. inti) [in the 
vernacular inti is used for either gender] thou ; hu (hui) 
he, it ; hiyi she ; nahn (nahna) we ; intum you ; hum 
(f. hinni) they. 

Pronominal suffixes are: — i (ni) me or my; ak (f. ik) 
thee or thy; uh him, it or his, its; ha (a) her; na us 
or our; kum you or your; hum (um) them or their. 

When joined to a verb these pronominal suffixes serve 
to express the accusative case of the personal pro- 
noun, e. g. darab-ni, darab-ak (f. ik), darab-uh (f. ha) 
darab-na, darab-kum, darab-hum. He struck me, thee, 
him, her, us, you, them. 

When joined to nouns and other words they serve as 
possessive pronouns, e. g. kiteb-i, kiteb-ak (f. ik), kiteb- 
uh (f. ha), kiteb-na, kiteb-kum, kiteb-hum my, thy, 
his, her, our, your, their book. 



GRAMMAR. 1 7 

They also serve as reflexive pronouns when joined to 
the word zet self, e. g. zet-i, zet-ak (f. ik), zet-uh (f. ha, 
a), zet-na, zet-kum, zet-hum myself, thyself, himself, etc. 
They are also joined to many adverbs, prepositions and 
particles, such as weyn where; m'a with; min from; 
minshen for; beyn between; "iddem in the presence 
of; 'ind by or with, etc., e. g. weyn-ak where are you ? 
m'a-uh with him ; min-ha from her ; minshen-na for us ; 
beyn-kum between you; "iddem-hum before them; 
*ind-i with me; 'ind-ak with you; 'ind-uh with him. 
The personal pronouns are sometimes added to the pro- 
nominal suffixes, when the latter are preceded by a 
preposition or a noun for the sake of emphasis, e. g. 
il-li ana to me myself; il-luh hui to him himself; 
kiteb-i ana my own book. 
The pronominal suffixes are joined to the cardinal num- 
bers, e. g. itneyn-kum you two ; tletit-na we three ; 
wahd-i I alone. 
When a verb is followed by two personal pronouns, as 
in the sentence 'He brought it me', the indirect object 
is placed immediately after the verb and the word 
ye is prefixed to the direct object. 

e. g. b*ati-h yeh lit : I will give him it. 

'atat-hum yeh „ She gave them it. 
'atu-ni yeha ^ They gave me it (f). 

'ati-ha yehum „ Give her them, 
jeb-li yeh „ He brought me it. 

Reflexive pronouns are expressed by the words z^t, hal 
or nefs joined to the pronominal suffixes. 

e.g. "atal hal-uh He killed himself, 

rah hui bzet-uh He went by himself, 

ken ar-rijjel i^t-uh It was the man himself. 

2 



1 8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Demonstrative pronouns are: — haida (f. haidi) this; 
haidak (f. haidik) that; howdi these; haidolik those. 

When the demonstrative pronoun is joined to the 
article it contracts into hal, e.g. hal-kiteb this book; 
hal-bint this girl; hash-shajara this tree; hal-kutub 
these books. 

But they say haidak al-beyt that house; haidik al- 
bint that girl; haidolik an-nes those people. 
The relative pronoun 'who, which' has only one form in 
conversation, which is uninflected, illi, pronounced 
more commonly halli. 

e. g. ar-rijjel halli fil-uda. The man who is in 

the room, 
at-tijjar halli "iddem-kum. The merchants who 

are before you. 
al-uled halli jit inta u y^hum. The children with 

whom you came. 
Interrogative pronouns are: — min who, whom? limin 
whose, to whom? esh, shu which, what? ay (eni) which 
one, what? 

e. g. min hownik, who is there? min shuft (inti), whom 
did you see? limin hal-beyt, whose house is 
this? limin "ilt, whom did you tell? ay kiteb, 
what book? shu al mes'eH, what is the matter? 

The Negative. 

The negative is expressed by the words ma 'not', la 
'no' and mush (a contraction of ma hu shey) or mau 
'nothing' e. g. La, ana ma kint hownik. No, I was not there. 
Ana mush mabsut, I am not well. The syllable sh (a 
contraction of shey thing) is in parts of Syria frequently 



GRAMMAR. 1 9 

added to give emphasis but is never heard in Damascus, 
e. g. Ma intish mabsut. You are not at all well. Ana ma 
kintish hownik. I was not there. An-nahr, ma hush *arid. 
The river is not wide. 

The Verb 'to have'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to have* is formed by- 
means of a preposition and the pronominal suffixes, and 
the past tense is formed by adding to the present the 
3rd pers. sing, of the past tense of the verb ken *to be'. 

Present. 

'ind-i khibz I have (lit : there is with me) bread, 

'ind-ak (f. ik) lahm Thou hast „ „ „ thee) meat, 

'ind-uh (f. ha) imbid He has (she has) „ „ him) wine. 

*ind-na bird"an We have „ are „ us) oranges, 

'ind-kum fweki You have » 7, » you) fruit, 

'ind-hum tiffeh They have „ are „ them) apples. 

Past. 

ken 'ind-i injas I had (lit: there were with me) pears, 

ken 'ind-ak (f. ik) dirre" Thou hadst „ „ „ thee) peaches, 
ken 'ind-uh (f. ha) kerez He had (she had) „ „ him) cherries, 
ken 'ind-na jowz We had v i> v us) walnuts, 

ken 'ind-kum khowkh You had v rt v yo") plums. 
k6n *ind-hum 'inib They had „ „ „ them) grapes. 

The future tense is formed in the same way, by adding 
the 3«"d pers. sing, future tense of the verbs ken 'to be' 
or sir 'to become' to the prepositions li (ila) 'to' or 'ind 
'with* jpined to the pronominal suffixes. 



20 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e. g. yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) li or 'ind-i 

I shall have (lit: there will be to me), 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lak f. lik or 'ind-ak f. ik 

Thou shalt have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) luh f. la or 'ind-uh f. ha 

He (she) shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-na or 'ind-na 

We shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-kum or 'ind-kum 

You shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lum or 'ind-hum 

They shall have. 

The Verb 'to be'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to be' is formed by 
means of the personal pronoun and an adjective, verbal 
adjective or participle used as an adjective, e. g. 

ana mabsut f. mabsuta. I am well, 

inti keslen. Thou art lazy, 

hui f. htyi meshghul f. meshghula. He (she) is busy, 

nahna so'ada. We are fortunate, 

intum ta'isin. You are unlucky. 

hum f. hinni mahzunin. They are sad. 

The other tenses are conjugated as follows from the 
verbs ken 'to be' or sir 'to become' e. g. 

Future. 

akun (bkun) z'al^n I shall be angry, 

tekun f. tekuni (btkun f.btkuni) 'atshen Thou wilt be thirsty, 
yekun f. tekun (bikun f.bitkun) defien He (she) will be warm. 



GRAMMAR. 



21 



nekun (minkun) mesrurin We shall be pleased, 
tekunu (btkunu) mkhaiyerin You will be puzzled, 
yekunu (bikunu) meskinin They will be miserable. 

Past. 

kint t'aben I was tired. 

kint f. kinti neyim f. neyimi Thou wert asleep. 

ken f. kenet zghir f. zghiri He (she) was young. 

kinna tai'yin We were obedient. 

kintum (kintu) jein You were coming. 

kenu raihin They were going. 

Note. In Syria the letter *b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of the present tense except to the 
I St pers. plural when the letter *m' replaces *b'. 

Imperative. 

kun 'a"il Be quiet, sensible, 

(neg.) ma (la) tkun bulit Do not be noisy. 

The Verb 'to become*. 



Present or Fut 


ure. 




Past. 


asir (bsir) 




I become 


(I shall become) 


tesir f. tesiri (btsir f. 


btsiri) 


Thou 


becomest etc. 


yesir f. tesir (bisir f. 


bitsir) 


He (she) 


becomes „ 


nesir (minsir) 




We 


become „ 


tesiru (btsiru) 




You 


become „ 


yesiru (bisiru) 




They 


become „ 




Past. 




sirt I became. 




sirna 


We became. 


sirt (f. i) Thou becamest. 


sirtum (u) 


You became. 



sar (f. sarat) He (she) became. 



saru They became. 



22 arabic manual. 

Imperative. 

S. 2. sir Become. 

P. 2. siru „ 

(neg.) ma (la) tsir Do not become. 

The Verb. 

In dealing with so complex a subject as the Arabic 
verb, reference to its theoretical construction or to the 
elaborate rules, which govern its formation, has been 
purposely omitted. Ample information on the subject 
will be found in any treatise on Arabic grammar by 
those who contemplate a deeper study of the language. 

The majority of Arabic verbs are formed from three, 
and a few from four radical letters. The root of the 
verb is the 3rd pers. sing, of the past tense. From this 
root other forms are regularly derived by the addition 
to the stem of certain prefixes, affixes or infixes. The 
meaning of each derivative varies according to its form 
and is fully conjugated. 

The various derivative forms, as used colloquially in 
Syria, are, as far as is possible in so small a work, 
embodied in the Vocabulary and the vocal inflections 
are written as pronounced. Practice alone can render 
the learner familiar with these forms and inflections, 
and rules regarding them would only burden the me- 
mory of a beginner. As the present work has no clas- 
sical pretensions and is merely intended to meet the 
practical requirements of those who wish to learn enough 
of the spoken language to enable them to hold direct 
intercourse with the natives of the country, without 



GRAMMAR. 23 

employing the medium of an interpreter, it will be 
sufficient for ordinary conversational purposes to give a 
few paradigms of verbs, which are likely to be of ge- 
neral use and which sufficiently indicate the peculia- 
rities of the Syrian dialect. These may serve as rough 
models for the rest. 

To WRITE. 

Infinitive or Noun of action. Participle or Noun of agent. 
kit^bi the (act of) writing, ketib f. k^tibi p. ketibin a writer. 

Present or Future. 

(I write or I shall or will write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

biktub 






btiktub btiktubi 

byiktub bitiktub 

mniktub 
btiktubu 
byiktubu 

Note. In Syria the letter 'b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of this tense except to the ist pers. 
pi. when 'm* takes the place of 'b*. In dependent 
sentences or when preceded by another verb these 
prefixes are omitted. 

The dual is not used in conversation and is 
thus omitted throughout. 

In order to give this tense the exact signification of 
the present, e. g. I am writing, the participle or noun 



24 ARABIC MANUAL. 

of agent 'ammal doing, often contracted into 'amm, is 
commonly added to it without inflection. 

Present. 

(I am writing, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

II. *ammal ('amm) biktub 

2. 'ammal (*amm) btiktub 'ammal ('amm) btiktubi 
3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktub 'ammal (*amm) bitiktub 
I. 'ammal ('amm) mniktub 

P. 2. 'ammal ('amm) btiktubu 

3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktubu 

Note. The present can also be expressed by means of 
the personal pronoun joined to a present parti- 
ciple, e.g. ana raih I am going; raihin we are 
going, or to a verbal adjective, e. g. ana 'atshen 
I am thirsty. 

The exact signification of the future is commonly 
expressed by the word bedd (bidd) contracted from bi 
wudd 'it is the desire of ... , joined to the pronominal 
suffixes and placed before the present tense. The prefix 
*b' attached to the verb is more correctly dropped in 
this locution but is generally retained in the vulgar 
language. 

Future. 
(I will, am about to or wish to write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

II. bedd-i iktub 

2. bedd-ak tiktub bedd-ik tiktubi 

3. bedd-uh yiktub bedd-a tiktub 



GRAMMAR. 



25 



P. 



P. 



bedd-na niktub 
bedd-kum tiktubu 
bedd-hum yiktubu 

Past. 
(I wrote or have written, etc.). 



m. 

katabt 
katab 



com. 
katabt 



katabna 
katabtu 
katabu 



f. 

katabti 
katabet 



Imperative. 

(Write). 

m. com. f. 

S. 2. uktub (ktub) uktubi (ktibi) 

P. 2. uktubu (ktubu) 

Note. The ist pers. plural imperative is taken from the 
present or future tense, e. g. niktub hal-mektub, 
let us write this letter (the prefix 'm' is omitted). 
The 2nd person of the imperative, when used 
negatively, is taken from the same tense with the 
addition of the negative particle ma or more 
correctly la, e.g. ma (la) tiktub hal-mektub, do not 
write this letter (the prefix 'b' is omitted). 

The imperfect is formed from the present or future 
tense by adding the verb k^n with or without 'ammal. 



26 arabic manual. 

Imperfect. 
(I was writing or I used to write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

!i. kint ('ammal) biktub 

2. kint ('ammal) btiktub kinti ('ammal) btiktubi 
3. ken ('ammal) byiktub kenet ('ammal) bitiktub 
!i. kinna ('ammal) mniktub 

2. kintu ('ammal) btiktubu 

3. kenu ('ammal) byiktubu 

The pluperfect is formed from the past by adding the 
verb k^n. 



S. 



P. 





Pluperfect. 


(I 


had written, etc.). 


m. 


com. f. 


I. 


kint katabt 


2. kint katabt 


kinti katabti 


3. k^n katab 


kenet katabet 


I. 


kinna katabna 


2. 


kintu katabtu 


3. 


kenu katabu 




Conditional. 



The formation of the conditional present and past by 
means of ken used with the present or future tense or 
with the past will be seen from the following examples. 



I. If the weather is fine 
to-morrow I shall go to 
the country. 



I. Izaken at-ta"s hulu bukra 
bitl'a al-berriyi. 



GRAMMAR. 



27 



2. If I should go to France 
I will let you know. 

3. Although you are going 
to Dubbaieh you can 
write the letter before 
you start. 

4. I would go with you if 
I had time. 

5. If you would go with 
me I should be glad. 

6. He would have gone 
with us if we had told 
him. 

7. If you had been ready 
I would have taken you 
with me in the carriage. 

8. The minister would have 
given him the post if he 
had asked for it. 

9. I hoped that you would 
have come here. 

10. I do not know whether 
I shall go to the moun- 
tains to-morrow or not. 



2. Izakint bruh ila Fransa 
b'arrif-ak. 

3. M'a in-nak raih ila 
Dbbaiyi bti'Mir tiktub 
al-mektub "abl ma truh. 

4. Kint bruh m'a-ak low 
ken m'a-i wa'*t. 

5. Low kint btruh m'a-i 
kint ibkun mabsut. 

6. Ken biruh m'a-na low 
"ilneluh. 

7. Low kint hadir kint 
bekhd-ak m*a-i bil-'ara- 
biyi. 

8. Ken al-wdzir 'ata-h al- 
merkez (al-matrah) low 
ken talab-uh. 

9. T'immelt in-nak btkun 
jit lahown. 

10. Ma b'arif izakint briih 
*aj-jebel *) biikra am la. 

i) Contracted from 'ala aj-j6bel. 



The passive. 



The passive, properly speaking, with the exception 
of the past participle, e. g. maksur broken, maktub 
written, is not much used in conversation, as the Arabs 
prefer to give an active rendering to their sentences, 
e. g. the old woman whose son was killed, is rendered 



28 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



in Arabic by, al-ikhtiyara halli "atalu ibn-a (lit: the 
old woman of whom they killed her son). A passive 
signification is however given to active verbs by adding 
the syllable 'in' and this form is in frequent use, e. g. 

katab he wrote; inkatab it is written. 

keshef he uncovered; inkeshef it is uncovered. 

sha" he split; insha" it is split. 

j6rah he wounded ; injerah he is wounded. 

wajad he found; inwajad it is found. 

keser he broke; inkeser it is broken. 

There is also another form of the passive derived 
from the active verb, e.g. "at'a he cut; ta"att'a he was 
cut in pieces. This is however rarely employed in con- 
versation. 

The regular form of the present or future and past 
tenses passive, which only differ from the active by the 
substitution of damma for fatha or kesra in the first 
syllable, is as follows. 

To BE KILLED. 

Present or Future. 
(I am or shall be killed, etc.). 



s. 





m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bu"tal 




2. 


btu"tal 




btu"tali 


3- 


byu"tal 




bitu"tal 


I. 




minu"tal 




2. 




btu"talu 




3- 




byu"talu 





GRAMMAR. 



29 



S. 



P. 



m. 

'utilt 
'util 



Past. 

(I was killed, etc.). 

com. 
"utilt 



'utilna 
'utiltu 
'utilu 



f. 

'utilti 
'utilet 



The following verbs in common use are conjugated 
in a brief form. With the help of the preceding para- 
digms the reader will be able to supply the remaining 
tenses. 



S. 



TO COME. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. Ta'a (Come). 

Present. 



m. 

btiji 
byiji 



f. 
Ta'ai 



f. 



com. 

biji (I come, will come, etc.). 
btiji 
bitiji 
mniji 
btiju 
byiju 



30 



S. 



s. 



p. 



m. 
ija 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

Past. 

com. f. 

jit (I came, etc.). 
jiti 
ijit 
jina 
jitu 
iju 

TO GO. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. 



m. 

ruh (Go). 



m. 

btruh 
biruli 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
ruhi 



f. 



bruh (I go, will go, etc.). 
btruhi 



bitruh 



m. 



mnruh 
btruhu 
biruhu 

Past, 
com. 



I. 

2. 

3- 


riht (ruht) 
rah 


riht (ruht) (I went, etc.). 
rihti (ruhti) 
rahit 


I. 

2. 

3- 




rihna (ruhna) 
rihtu (ruhtu) 
rahu 



GRAMMAR. 



31 



TO STOP (Transitive). 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. wa" "if (Stop). 

Present. 



f. 
wa""ifi 



P. 



m. 



btwa""if 
biwa""if 



com. 1. 

bwa""if (I stop, will stop, etc.). 

btwa""ifi 

bitwa""if 
mnwa""if 
btwa""ifu 
biwa""ifu 



m. 



wa""aft 
wa""af 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



wa""aft (I stopped, etc.). 
wa""afti 
wa""afat 

wa""afna 

wa""aftu 

wa""afu. 



m. 



TO SIT. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. u'"d. (Sit). 



u"'uddi. 



32 



S. 



P. 



S. 



m. 



btu"'ud 
byu'*'ud 



m. 

"a'adt 
"a'ad 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

Present. 

com. f. 

bu"'ud (I sit, will sit, etc.). 
btu"'udi 
bitu"'ud 

mnu"*ud 

btu'"udu 

byu"'udu 

Past, 
com. 



f. 



a adt (I sat, etc.). 
"a'adti 
"a*adat 

"a'adna 

"a'adtu 

"a'adu 

TO STAND UP. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. "um. (Stand up). 



f. 
*umi. 



S. 



P. 



m. 

bf'um 
bi"um 



Present. 



com. 



f. 



b"um (I stand up, etc.). 
bf'umi 
bif'um 

min"um 

bt umu 

bi"umu 



s. 



p. 



s. 



p. 





GRAMMAR. 


33 


. 


Past. 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 


"umt (I stood up, etc.). 


2. "umt 




"umti 


3. "am 




"amat 


I. 


"umna 




2. 


"umtu 




3. 


"amu 




TO ASCEND, GO OR COME UP. 




Imperative. 




m. 




f. 


Sing. 2. tl'a (Go 


up). 
Present. 


tl'ai 


m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 


bitl'a (I go, 


will go up, etc.) 


2. btitl'a 




btitl'i 


3. byitl'a 




bititl'a 


I. 


mnitl'a 




2. 


btitl'au 




3- 


byitl'au 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



I. 




tl'at (I went up, etc.). 


2. 


tl'at 


tl'ati 


3- 


tfl'ia 


tfl'iat 


I. 




trana 


2. 




tl'atu 


3. 




til'iu 



34 ARABIC MANUAL. 

TO DESCEND, GO or COME DOWN. 
Imperative. 



S. 



P. 





m. 






f. 


Sing. 


2. inzel (Go 


down). 
Present. 




inzelli 




m. 


com. 




f. 


I. 




binzel (I 


go, 


will go down, etc.) 


2. 


btinzel 






btinzeli 


3- 
I. 


byinzel 


mninzel 




bitinzel 


2. 




btinzelu 






3- 




byinzelu 







P. 



Past. 
m. com. 



I. 




nzilt (I went 


down, etc.). 


2. 


nzilt 




nzilti 


3- 


nfzil 




nizlit 


I. 




nzilna 




2. 




nziltu 




3- 




nizlu 

TO EAT. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. kol. 


(Eat). 


kili. 



s. 



p. 



s. 



p. 



m. 



btekol 
byekol 



m. 

akelt 
akel 



GRAMMAR. 

Present. 

com, f. 

bekol (I eat, will eat, etc.). 
btekoli 
bitekol 

mnekol 

btekolu 

byekolu 

Past. 

com. f. 

akelt (I ate, etc.). 

akelti 

akelit 
akelna 
akeltu 
akelu 



35 



S. 



P. 2 

' 3 



m. 



TO DRINK. 
Imperative. 

Sing. 2. shrab (Drink). 

Present, 
m. com. 



f. 
shrabi 



f. 



bishrab (I drink, will drink, etc.). 
btishrab btishrabi 

byishrab bitishrab 

mnishrab 

btishrabu 

byishrabu 



36 






ARABIC MANUAL. 










. Past. 








m. 


com. 


f. 




I. 




shribt (I drank, etc.). 


S. 


2. 


shribt 




shribti 




3- 


shirib 




shiribit 




1^: 




shribna 




P. 




shribtu 






1 3. 


m. 


shiribu 

TO PUT. 
Imperative. 


f. 




Sing. 


2. hutt 


(Put.). 

Present. 


hutti 






m. 


com. 


f. 




1 '• 




bhutt (I put, 


will put, etc.) 


s.' 


: 2- 


bthutt 




bthutti 




f 3. 


bihutt 




bithutt 




I. 




minhutt 




p. 


1 ^' 

3- 




bthuttu 
bihuttu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



S. 



P. 



I. 




hattait (hatteyt) (I put, etc.). 


2. 


hattait 


hattaiti 


3- 


hatt 


hattat 


I. 




hattaina 


2. 




hattaitu 


3. 




hattu 



GRAMMAR. 37 

TO SAY, TELL. 
Imperative. 



m. 


1. 


ing. 2. "il (Tell). 


"iUi 


Present. 





P. 



s. 



p. 



m. com. f. 

bi"il (bi"ul) (I tell, will tell, etc.). 
bf'il (bf'ul) bf'ili (bf'uli) 

bi"il (bi"ul) bif'il (bif'ul) 

min"il (min"ul) 

bf'ilu (bf'ulu) 

bi"ilu (bi"ulu) 

Past. 





m. 

"ilt 
"al 


com. f. 

"ilt ("ilit) (I told, etc.) 
"ilti 
"alit 

"ilna 

"iltu 

"alu 

TO DO, MAKE. 
Imperative. 


Sing 2. 


m. 
'amul 


f. 
Camd) (Do). *amili 



38 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

!i. b'amil (I do, will do, etc.). 

2. bt'amil bt'amili 

3. bi'amil bit'amil 

!i. mn'amil 

2. bt'amilu 

3. bi'amilu 

Past, 
m. com. f. 



S. 





'amilt (I did, etc.). 


'amilt 


'amilti 


'emil 


'^mlit 




*amilna 




'amiltu 




'emlu 



TO RETURN (comeback). 

Imperative. 
m. f. 

Sing. 2. rj'a (rje*a) (Return). rj'ai 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

birj'a (I return, will return, etc.). 
btirj'a btirj'i 

byirj'a bitirj'a 



S. 2 
' 3 

P. 2 



mnirj a 
btirj'au 
byirj'au 



m. 



GRAMMAR. 39 

Past, 
com. f. 



S. 2 
' 3 

P. 2 



rj'at (rj'et) (I returned, etc.). 
rj'at rj'ati 

ri'j'a rij'et 

rj'ana 

rj 'atu 

rfj'au 



TO RETURN (give back). 

Imperative. 
m. f. 

Sing. 2. rajj'a (Give back). rajj'i 

Present. 



S.\ 2 



3 

P.J 2 

3 



S. I 2 

3 

I 
2 
3 



m. com. f. 

brajj'i (I give back, will give back, etc.). 

btrajj'i btrajj'i 

birajj*i bitrajj'i 

minrajj*i 

btrajj'iu 

birajj'iu 

Past. 

m. com. f. 

raj j 'at (I gave back, etc.). 
raj j 'at rajj'ati 

rajj'a rdjj*at 

raj j 'ana 

raj j 'atu 

rdjj'au 



40 ' ARABIC MANUAL. 









TO TAKE. 








Imperative. 




Sing. 


m. 
2. khud (khod). (Take). 


f. 
khudi 






Present. 




s. 

p. 


I. 


m. 

btekhud 
byekhud 


com. f. 
bekhud I take, will take, etc.) 
btekhudi 
bitekhud 
mnekhud 
btekhudu 
byekhudu 



S. 2 

' 3 

Hi 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

akhadt (I took, etc.). 
akhadt akhadti 

akhad akhadat 

akhadna 

akhadtu 

akhadu 

TO GIVE. 

Imperative. 

m. f. 

Sing. 2. 'ati (Give). 'ati 



GRAMMAR. 4 1 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

ii. b'ati (I give, will give, etc.). 

2. bt'ati bt'ati 

3. by'ati . bit*ati 

!i. mn*ati 

2. bt'atu 

3. by'atu 

Past, 
m. com. f. 

S. 2. 
3. 



TO TAKE AWAY, REMOVE. 
Imperative. 





'atait ('ateyt) (I gave, etc.). 


*atait 


'ataiti 


'ata 


'atat 




'ataina 




'ataitu 




'atu 



S. 2. 

.1; 



m. 


f. 


. shil (Take away). 


shili 


Present. 




m. com. 


f. 


bshil (I take away. 


will take away, etc.). 


btshil 


btshili 


bishil 


bitshil 


minshil 




btshilu 




bishilu 





42 



S. 



P. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 
Past. 



m. 

shilt 
shd 



com. f. 

shilt (I took away, etc.). 
shilti 
shelit 

shilna 

shiltu 

shelu 



TO LEAVE, LET, ALLOW. 
Imperative. 



P. 





m. 


f. 


Sing. 


2. khalli 


(Let). khalli 
Present. 




m. 


com. f. 


I ^' 




bkhalli (I let, will let, etc.) 


2. 


btkhalli 


btkhalli 


' 3. 


bikhalli 


bitkhalli 
minkhalli 


2. 




btkhallu 


' 3. 




bikhallu 



s. 



m. 

khallait 
khalla 



Past. 



com. 



khallait (khalleyt) (I let, etc.). 
khallaiti 
khallat 

khallaina 

khallaitu 

khallu 







GRAMMAR. 


43 






TO BRING. 








Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. jib (Bring). 


jibi 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 

2. 

3- 
I. 

2. 

3. 


btjib 
byijib 


bjib (I bring, will bring, etc.). 

btjibi 

bitijib 
minjib 
btjibu 
bijibu 



s. 



p. 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

ii. jibt (I brought, etc.). 

2. jibt jibti 

3. j^b jebet 

!i. jibna 

2. jibtu 

3. j^bu 

TO BEGIN. 

Imperative. 

m. f. 

Sing. 2. bellish (Begin). bellshi 



44 



S. 



P. 



^!i 



p. I 2 

' 3 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

bbellish (I begin, will begin, etc.). 
btbellish btbellshi 

bibellish bitbellish 

minbellish 

btbellishu 

bibellishu 



m. 

bellesht 
ballesh 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



bellesht (I began, etc.). 
belleshti 
balleshet 

belleshna 

belleshtu 

balleshu 



S. 



P. 



m. 



TO FINISH. 
Imperative. 

Sing. 2. khallis (Finish). 

Present. 
m. com. 



f. 
khallsi 



f. 



bkhallis (I finish, will finish, etc.). 
btkhallis btkhallsi 

bikhallis bitkhallis 

minkhallis 

btkhallisu 

bikhallisu 



m. 

khallast 
khallas 



GRAMMAR. 

Past. 

com. f. 

khallast (I finished, etc.). 
khallasti 



khallasna 
khallastu 
khallasu 



khallaset 



45 



S. 



P. 



TO CUT. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. "uss (Cut). 



m. 



bt"uss 
bi"uss 



m. 

*assait 
*assa 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
*ussi 



f. 



b"uss (I cut, will cut, etc.). 

bt"ussi 

bit"uss 
min*'uss 
bt"ussu 
bi"ussu 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



'assait (I cut, etc.). 
*'assaiti 
*. "dssat 
'assaina 
'assaitu 
*dssu 



46 ARABIC MANUAL. 







TO MEND. 








Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. sallih 


(Mend). 

Present. 


sallhi 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bsallih (I mend, will mend, etc.) 


2. 


btsallih 




btsallhi 


3- 


bisallih 




bitsallih 


I. 




minsallih 




2. 




btsallihu 




3. 




bisallihu 





S. I 2 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

sallaht (I mended, etc.). 
sallaht sallahti 

sallah sallahat 

sallahna 

sallahtu 

sallahu 

TO BREAK. 
Imperative. 



m. 



f. 



Sing. 2. ksur (Break). ksuri 



GRAMMAR. 
Present. 



47 



m. 



btiksur 
byiksur 



m. 



com. f. 

biksur (I break, will break, etc.). 

btiksuri 

bitiksur 
miniksur 
btiksuru 
byiksuru 

Past. 

com. f. 



I. 




kesert (I 


broke, etc.). 


S. 2. 


kesert 




keserti 


3- 


keser 




keserat 


I. 




keserna 




P. j 2. 




kesertu 




^ 3- 




keseru 

TO LOSE. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. khsar (L 


ose). 

Present. 


khsari 




m. 


com. 


f. 


Mi: 




bikhser (I 


lose, will lose, etc.). 


btikhser 




btikhseri 


byikhser 




bitikhser 


I '• 




minikhser 


' 


p. 2. 




btikhseru 




' 3- 




byikhseru 





48 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Past. 

m. com. f. 

khsirt (I lost, etc.). 
khsirt khsirti 

khasir khasiret 

khsirna 

P. ( 2. khsirtu 

khasiru 

TO FIND, 

Imperative. 
m. f. 

Sing. 2. ujad (Find). ujadi 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

bujad (I find, will find, etc.). 
btujad btujadi 



ii 



byujad bitujad 

mnujad 
btujadu 
byujadu 



Past. 



f. 



P.' 



m. com. 

wajadt (I found, etc.). 
wajadt wajadti 

ajad wajadet 

wajadna 

wajadtu 

wajadu 



w 



GRAMMAR. 



49 



TO CHANGE, (transitive). 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. ghaiyir (Change). 

Present. 



S. 2 

Hi 



S. 



P. 



ghaiyiri 



f. 



m. com. 

bghaiyir (I change, will change, etc.). 
btghaiyir btghaiyiri 



bighaiyir 



m. 



ghaiyert 
ghaiyir 



minghaiyir 
btghaiyiru 
bighaiyiru 

Past, 
com. 



bitghaiyir 



f. 



ghaiyert (I changed, etc.). 
ghaiyerti 
ghaiyeret 

ghaiyerna 

ghaiyertu 

ghaiyerti 



m. 



TO SEND. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. b'at (Send). 



f. 
b'ati 



50 






ARABIC MANUAL. 








Present. 




I. 


m. 


com. f. 
bib'at (I send, will send, etc.) 


S. 


2. 


btib'at 


btib'ati 




3. 


byib*at 


bitib*at 


1 


I. 




mnib'at 


P. 


2. 




btib'atu 


' 


3- 




byib'ata 



Past. 



m. 



com. 



S. 



P. 



I '• 




ba'att (I 


sent, etc.). 


2. 


ba'att 




ba'atti 


' 3. 


ba'at 




ba'atet 


I '' 




ba*atna 




1 ^* 




ba'attu 




' 3- 




ba'atu 

TO PAY. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. df'a (Pay). 


df'ai 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


( '• 




bidf'a (I 


pay, will pay, etc.) 


"• 


btidf'a 




btidf'ai 


' 3. 


byidf'a 




bitidf'a 


1 ^• 




minidf'a 




2. 




btidf'au 




3- 




byidf'au 





s. 



p. 



GRAMMAR. 

Past. 

m. com. f. 

dfa at (I paid, etc.). 
dfa'at dfa'ati 

def'a def'at 

dfa'ana 

dfa'atu 

def'au 



51 



m. 



TO BUY. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. shtri (Buy). 



P. 



S. 



P. 



m. 



btishtri 
byishtri 



m. 



shtrait 
shtera 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
shtri 



f. 



bishtri (I buy, will buy, etc.). 

btishtri 

bitishtri 
mnishtri 
btishtru 
byishtru 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



shtrait (shtreyt) (I bought, etc.). 

shtraiti 

sht^rat 
shtraina 
shtraitu 
shtcfru 



52 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



TO SELL. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. bi'a (Sell). 



f. 
bi'i 



S. 2 
' 3 



m. 

btibi'a 
bibi'a 



p 


resent, 
com. 




f. 






bbi'a (I 


sell, 


will sell, 
btibi'i 
bitbi'a 


etc 




minbi*a 










btibi'u 










bibi'u 









s. 



p. 



m. 

b^*ut 
b6*a 



m. 



Past. 



com. 



Sing. 2. Naddif. (Clean) 



be'ut (I sold, 

be'ena 
be'etu 
be'u 


etc.). 

b^'uti 

be'at 


TO CLEAN. 




Imperative. 




(Clean). 


f. 
naddfi 



s. 



p. 







GRAMMAR. 


53 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bnaddif (I 


clean, will clean, etc.). 


2. 


btnaddif 




btnaddfi 


3- 


binaddif 




bitnaddif 


I. 




mnaddif 




2. 




btnaddifu 




3- 




binaddifu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



S. 



P. 



I. 

2. 

3- 

1 ^* 
' 3- 


naddaft (I cleaned, etc.). 
naddaft naddafti 
naddaf naddafat 

naddafna 

naddaftu 

naddafu 




TO PREPARE. 


Sing. 


Imperative. 
m. f. 
2. haddir (Prepare). haddri 




Present. 


I. 

2. 

3- 


m. com. f. 

bhaddir (I prepare, will prepare, etc.) 

bthaddir bthaddri 

bihaddir bithaddir 

minhaddir 

bthaddiru 

bihaddirO 



54 



P. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

Past. 

m. com. f. 

haddert (I prepared, etc. 
haddert hadderti 

hadder hadderet 

hadderna 

haddertu 

hadderu 



S. 



S. 



P. 



TO SPEAK. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. hki (Speak). 



f. 
hki 



m. 



btehki 
byehki 



Present. 

com. f. 

behki (I speak, will speak, etc.). 
btehki 
bitehki 
mnehki 
btehku 
byehku 

Past. 



m. 



com. f. 

hakait (hakeyt) (I spoke, etc.). 
hakait hakaiti 

haki (fhka) hakit . 

hakaina 

hakaitu 

haku 



GRAMMAR, 



55 



TO HEAR. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. sm'a (Hear). 

Present. 



f. 
sm'ai 



m. 



btism'a 
byism'a 



m. 



com. f. 

bism'a (I hear, will hear, etc. 
btism'i 



bitism'a 



mnism a 
btism'au 
byism'au 

Past, 
com. 



I. 




sma'at (I 


heard, etc.). 


2. 


sma'at 




sma'ati 


3- 


sfmi'a 




simi'at 


I. 




sma'ana 




2. 




sma'tu 




3- 




sfmi'u 

TO SEE. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


>ing 


. 2. shuf ( 


See). 


shufi 



56 



S. 



P. 







ARABIC MANUAL. 








Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bshuf (I see, 


will see, etc.) 


2. 


btshuf 




btshafi 


3- 


bishuf 


minshuf 


bitshuf 


2. 




btshufu 




3- 




bishufu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



S. 



S. 



I. 




shuft (I saw. 


etc.). 


2. 


shuft 




shufti 


3- 


shef 




sh^fet 


I. 




shufna 




2. 




shuftu 




3. 




shefu 

TO KNOW. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. 'arif (K 


;^now). 

Present. 


'arifi 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




b'arif (I know, will know, etc 


2. 


bt'arif 




bt'arifi 


3. 


bi'yarif 




bit'arif 


I. 




mn'arif 




2. 




bt'arifu 




3. 




biVarifu 





s. 



p. 







GRAMMAR. 


57 






Past. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


( '• 




*arift (I knew, etc.). 


^• 


*arift 




*arifti 


'3. 


'araf 




'arafet 


( '• 




'arifna 




2. 




'ariftu 




U. 




'arifu 

TO SHOW. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. ferrji ( 


Show). 

Present. 


ferrji 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I ■• 




bferrji (I show, will show, etc.). 


h- 


btferrji 




btferrji 


' 3- 


biferrji 




bitferrji 


I '• 




minferrji 




" 




btferrju 




' 3- 




biferrju 
Past. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


1 '• 




ferrjait (ferrjeyt) (I showed, etc.). 


2. 


ferrjait 




ferrjaiti 


' 3- 


ferrja 




ferrjit 


I. 




ferrjaina 




2. 




ferrjaitu 




3. 




ferrju 





58 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



TO BE ABLE. 



Present. 



P. 



m. com. f. 

1. bi"dir (bu"dir) (be'dir) (I can, etc.). 

2. bti'*dir (btu'dir) bti"diri (btu"diri) 

3. byi'Mir (byu"dir) biti"dir (bitu"dir) 

1. mni"dir (mnu"dir) 

2. bti'diru (btu *diru) 

3. byi"diru (byu"diru) 



II 
2 
3 

Hi 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

"edirt (I could, etc.). 
'edirt "edirti 

'ider ("eder) "fdrit ("edrit) 

**edirna 

"edirtu 

"fdm 



NUMERALS. 
Cardinal numbers. 



1. wehid (ahad). 

2. itneyn. 

3. tleti. 

4. arb*a. 

5. khamsi. 

6. sitti. 

7. seb'a. 



8. tmeni. 

9. tis*a. 

10. 'ashra. 

11. hid'ash. 

12. itn'ash. 

13. tlit'ash. 

14. arb'at'ash. 



15. khamst'ash. 

16. sitt'ash. 

17. seb'at'ash. 

18. tmunt'ash. 

19. tis'at'ash. 

20. 'eshrin. 

21. wehid u 'eshrin. 



GRAMMAR. 59 

30. tletin. 800. tmenmiyi. 

40. arbe'in. 900. tis'a miyi. 

50. khamsin. icx)0. alf. 

60. sittin. 1 100. alf u miyi. 

70. sebe'in. 1250. alf u miteyn u khamsin. 

80. tmenin. 2000. alfeyn. 

90. tise'in. 10,000. *ashert elef. 

100. miyi. 20,000. 'eshrin alf. 

200. miteyn. 100,000. miyet alf. 

300. tletmiyi. 200,000. miteyn alf. 

400. arb*amiyi. 1,000,000. miliyon. 

500. khamsmiyi. 2,000,000. miliyoneyn. 

600. sittmiyi. 4,000,000. arb'a melaiyin. 
700. seb'amiyi. 

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 inclusive are 
followed by the noun in the plural. All subsequent 
numbers are followed by the singular. 

e. g. Tlet urtel sikker. Three rottels of sugar. 
Arb'a rus kheyl. Four head of horses. 
Khamst'ashir ras kheyl. Fifteen head of horses. 

^ Ordinal numbers. 

I St owwel. 4th rab'i. 7th seb'i. lOth *ashir. 

2nd t^ni. 5th khamis. 8th temin. 

3rd telit. 6th s^dis. 9th tes*i. 

After ten the cardinal numbers are used in conver- 
sation instead of the ordinals. 

When an ordinal number is used it precedes the 
noun, e. g. t6ni marra, the second time. 

half, nuss; whole, kill; quarter, rub'a; add, jm*a; mult- 
iply, drub; divide, u"sum; subtract, trSh or us^u^. 



6o ARABIC MANUAL. 



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GRAMMAR. 6 1 

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62 ARABIC MANUAL. 



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GRAMMAR. 



63 



ADVERBS. 



The following adverbs and adverbial locutions 
are in common use. 



absurd. 

accidentally; by accident. 

afterwards. 

ago (long). 

ahead. 

again; besides. 

almost. 

aloud. 

already. 

also. 

altogether. 

always. 

anew. 

apart. 

apparently. 

around ; all round. 

as. 

average (on an). 

awake. 

backwards. 

before. 

below. 

besides. 

better. 

beyond everything. 

briefly. 

certainly; without doubt. 



bila m'ana. 

bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 

b'adeyn. 

min zemen. 

"iddem. 

kamen; b'ad. 

"arib. 

'al al-'ali. 

"ablan. 

aidan; kamen. 

killun sawa. 

de'imen. 

min jdid. 

'ala wahd-uh (with pro. suff.). 

zahiran. 

'ala de'ir. 

mitl. 

'ala m'addal. 

we'i; faiyi". 

ila wara. 

"abl. 

taht. 

ma'ada; kam^n; fadlan *an. 

ahsan. 

fow" kill shey (shi). 

bil-ikhtisar. 

m'alum; ma" fura; ilia. 



64 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



chiefly. 

commonly. 

comparatively. 

completely. 

conditionally. 

confidently. 

constantly. 

contrary (on the). 

day by day. 

day (by). 

day (all). 

deliberately; slowly. 

directly. 

double-faced. 

doubtless. 

downhill. 

downstairs. 

early; in the morning. 

earnest (in). 

easily. 

endless. 

enough. 

entirely. 

especially. 

et-coetera. 

even. 

ever (for). 

exactly. 

exceedingly. 

excessively. 

face to face. 



bil-akhas; khususan. 

'umumen. 

bin-nisbi. 

bil-killiyi; tam^men. 

'ala shart. 

bil-emniyi. 

de'imen; 'ala dewam. 

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 

yowm b*ad yowm. 

fin-nahar. 

kill an-nahar. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suflf.). 

halan. 

bi wejheyn wilseneyn (with 

two faces and two tongues). 
bila shekk; bidun shubhi. 
ila taht; (i nezli. 
taht. 

bekkir; 'ala bukra ('a bukra). 
min jedd. 
bis-suhuli. 

bila niheyi; ma luh ekhir. 
bikeffi (it is sufficient). 
bit-temem; bil-kemel. 
bi now' khususi; khususan. 
ila akhiri. 
hatta. 
de'imen. 
bit-temem. 
ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 
bi ziedi. 
mwajiha. 



GRAMMAR. 6 


fact (in). 


bil-ha"i"a. 


far, from afar. 


min-be'id. 


fast. 


bi-sur'a; seri'an. 


finally. 


bil-ekhir. 


first, at first, in the first place 


:. owwel; owwelen. 


foot (on). 


meshi. 


force (by). 


bil-"uwi; jebran. 


formerly, previously. 


"ablan. 


forwards. 


ila "iddem. 


future (in). 


b*adeyn. 


general (in). 


'umumen; *itiyadiyen. 


gently (slowly). 


'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff. 


. (kindly). 


bi lutf. 


God forbid. 


Allah la yismah. 


„ (thank). 


al-hamd ul-illah. 


„ (would to), I hope. 


inshallah. 


goodbye. 


m'as-salemi ; khatir-kum.. 


halves (in), (by). 


bin-nuss. 


hardly. 


bi s'ubi; bil-kedd. 


hence. 


min hown. 


here. 


hown, howni. 


here and there. 


hown u hown. 


hither. 


ila hown. 


hitherto. 


li hadd al-wa"t. 


how. 


kif (keyf). 


however. 


m'a ielik. 


how many. 


kam. 


how much. 


"add esh. 


immediately, at once. 


"aw6m; fil-hal. 


impunity (with). 


bila "isas. 


incognito. 


mutnekkir. 


indeed. 


bil-ha"i"a. 



66 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



indirectly. 

inside. 

inside out. 

instance (for). 

intentionally. 

inwards. 

just so. 

justly. 

land (on). 

last (at). 

late. 

lately, latterly. 

lengthwise. 

less. 

literally. 

little by little. 

matter (no), never mind. 

meanwhile. 

merely. 

moreover. 

namely. 

naturally. 

nearly. 

necessarily. 

never, not at all, on no 

account, 
nevertheless, 
not quite, 
now. 



bil-wasta. 

juwwa; dekhil. 

'al al-"elb. 

meselen (m^telen). 

bil-"asd. 

ila juwwa. 

bit-temem. 

bil-'adl; bil-ha"". 

'al al-berr. 

akhiran. 

la"is. 

mu'akhiren. 

bi-tul. 

bin-na"is. 

harfiyan. 

shwayi shwayi. 

ma biseyl. 

fi hal-fursa; SX esna. 

bes; fa"at. 

aidan. 

y'ani. 

tabi'i. 

'*arib; min "arib; ta"riban. 

daruri; daruriyen. 

abaden. 

m*a zelik. 

lissa; b'ad ma. 

halla" (contr. from haza al- 
wa"t, at this time) and issa 
(contr. from haza as-se'a, at 
this hour). 





GRAMMAR. 6/ 


now and then. 


ahiyenen. 


now or never. 


wa ilia fa la. 


now-a-days. 


n hal-iyem. 


officially. 


resmiyen. 


often. 


ghaliben. 


only. 


bes; fa^at. 


openly, publicly. 


jehran (jiharan). 


ordinarily. 


*adeten. 


otherwise. 


wa ilia. 


outside. 


berra; ila berra; min berra. 


outwards. 


ila berra. 


partly — partly. 


ba'ad-uh haik-ba*ad-uh haik. 


particular (in). 


bil-khusus. 


per cent. 


fil-miyi. 


perhaps, possibly. 


yumkin; belki (berki). 


personally. 


bi zet-uh (with pro suflf.). 


plainly. 


sarihan. 


plenty (in). 


bi kitra. 


positively. 


bi t^'ekid. 


present (at). 


halla"; fiil-hal. 


presently. 


b'ad shwayi. 


privately. 


sirran. 


probably. 


al-arjah. 


purpose (on). 


"asdan. 


quickly. 


"aw^m; bil-'ajeli. 


quietly. 


'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff.). 


quite. 


tam^men; bil-killiyi. 


random (at). 


bila "asd; bila fikr. 


rarely. 


n^diren. 


readily. 


*al ar-ras wal-*ain (on head 




and eye). 


really. 


f<^»elen. 



68 ARABIC MANUAL. 


reason (in). 


sawab. 


regularly. 


haseb al-*'an6n. 


repeatedly. 


tekraran. 


rule (as a). 


'adeten. 


safely. 


m'as-salemi; bil-amen. 


same (all the). 


sawa; mitl ba'ad-uh. 


scarcely. 


bil-kedd. 


seldom. 


nediren. 


separately. 


wahd-uh wahd-uh. 


seriously. 


bi jedd. 


short (in). 


bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil. 


shortly, presently. 


b'ad "alii; b'ad shwayi. 


sideways. 


bil-'ard. 


simply, solely. 


bes; fa"at. 


singly. 


killwehid wahd-uh. 


slowly. 


'ala mahl-uh (with pro sufif.). 


so, thus. 


haik (heyk). 


so and so. 


fulan (f.) fulani (of persons); 




keza wa keza (of things). 


softly. 


bi hudu. 


somehow. 


kif ma k^n. 


sometimes. 


ahiyenen. 


somewhere. 


a mek^n. 


still, yet. 


kamen; b'ad. 


straight, in a straight line. 


rasan; 'ala khatt musta"im. 


suddenly. 


baghteten: fajaten. 


thank-you. 


kettir khair-ak; sellim daiyat- 




ak (lit. may God preserve 




your hands) ; eywah (eywal- 




lah). 


then. 


sum; b'adeyn. 


thence. 


min hownik. 





GRAMMAR. 69 


there. 


hownik, howniki. 


therefore. 


li z^lik. 


thither. 


ila hownik. 


time (up to this). 


lissa (contr. from li haza as- 




se'a, to this hour). 


„ (at the same). 


fil-wa 't z^t-uh; fi nefs al-wa*'t. 


time (in). 


fl wa"t-uh. 


together. 


sawa; ma'an. 


too little. 


"alii ktir. 


too much. 


bi ziedi. 


totally. 


bij-jumH. 


truly. 


ha" "an. 


trust (on). 


'al al-ameni. 


turn (in). 


bid-dowr; bin-nowbi. 


unanimously. 


bil-ittifa". 


unawares. 


'ala ghafli. 


unexampled. 


bila mitel. 


unintentionally. 


bila "asd. 


unwillingly. 


ghasban *an-nuh. 


up hill. 


ila fow"; n tara. 


upstairs. 


fow". 


useless. 


*abes ; bila fd'idi ; ma biyinf a 


vain (in). 


'abes; batilan. 


very. 


ktir. 


well. 


taiyib. 


what? 


esh; shu. 


whatever? 


esh ma. 


when? 


aimtin (aimta), eymta. 


whenever? 


ay wa"t. 


whence? 


mineyn (mneyn). 


where ? 


weyn. 


wherever. 


weyn ma. 



^o 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



whether or no. 


iza ow la. 


whither ? 


liweyn (leyn). 


why? 


lesh (contr. from li ay shey, 




to what thing). 


word (in a). 


al-hasil; bi kilmi wehdi. 


yes. 


n'am (said to equals and su- 




periors). N'am also means 




"what?" or "I beg your par- 




don?" when the repetition of 




any thing said is desired. 


yes certainly, surely. 


eh (said to inferiors) ; ey n'am 




(ay n*am); eywah (aywah) 




contr. from ay wallah, yes 




by God. 


yet; not yet. 


b*ad; lissa ma. 





Conjunctions. 


after. 


b*ad ma; b*ad ann. 


although. 


m'a inn (with pro. suff.). 


and. 


wa, u. 


as, because. 


hais ann. (with pro. suff.). 




kif ma. 


as if. 


ka; ka ann (with pro. suff.), 


as long as. 


madem. 


as soon as. 


bes; Hmma; hal ma. 


before. 


"abl ma. 


but. 


lekin; wa amma. 


either — or. 


imma-imma. 


except. 


ilia. 


if. 


iza; low (with past tense). 



izaken, inken (with pres.). 





GRAMMAR. 7 1 


in so far as. 




"add ma. 


instead of. 




bedel ma. 


neither-nor. 




la wa la. 


or. 




ow; am. 


perhaps. 




rubbama. 


provided that. 




'ala shart ann (with pro. suff.). 


since. 




b'ad ma; hmma. 


so that, in order that. 


hatta, ta. 


than. 




min. 


that. 




inn or ann (with pro. suff.). 


unless. 




low la; iza ma; izaken ma. 


until. 




hatta ma. 


when. 




'indama; halama; limma; 
wa"t illi. 


whereas. 




hais. 


while. 




beynama. 


without. 




bidun ma. 




Interjections. 


Ah! alas! 




a; akh. 


By God ! 




wallah. 


God preserve you! 




Allah yahfaz-ak 
Allah yusellim-ak. 


God give you a safe 


1 jour- 


Allah yuwassl-ak bi-salemi. 


ney ! 






In God's name! 




Bismillah. 


For God's sake! 




minshen Allah. 


Long life to you! 




towwil *umr-ak. 


I beg your leave. 




khatir-kum; 6wd'ana-kum (we 

have placed you in God's 

hands, said on leaving anyone). 



72 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



By your leave! 
Look out! make way! 
Take care! 

Come on ! go on ! let us go ! 

Capital ! 

I congratulate you. 



Farewell ! goodbye ! 
Fire! Fire! 
Help! help! 
Look! look! 
Mercy ! 

Please! I beg of you! 

O neighbours! 

O my friend ! 

O boy! waiter! 

O my soul! 

O my heart! 

O my eyes! 

O light of my eyes! 

O my father! 

O my master! O Sir! 

O sir ! (servant to his master) 

O treasure of my heart! 

Shame! shame! 

Disgraceful ! 

Well done! bravo! 



destur. 

ua ua. 

dahr-ak (your back). 

dir bel-ak (turn your attention). 

yallah (lit. O God!). 

mashallah. 

heniyen (said to any one after 
drinking water). 

de'imi (said to a host after 
drinking his coffee "may 
you always have guests"). 

m*as-sal6mi. 

hari" hari". 

ya ahl al-muruwi ; aman aman. 

wai wai. 

aman aman. 

dakhl Allah. 

'amul m*aruf; dakhl-ak. 

ya ahl jiri. 

ya habib-i. 

ya walad. 

ya ruh-i. 

ya kibd-i. 

ya 'yun-i. 

ya nur 'ain-i. 

ya abu-na (said to priests). 

ya khowaja. 

ya sid-i (lit. O lord!). 

ya muhjet "elb-i. 

'aib. 

mu'ib. 

aferim. 



GRAMMAR. 



n 



Welcome ! 


ahla u sahla. 




bismilli; 'ala ras-i. 


Would that 


Inshallah (if God wills). 


What a pity 


dey'an-uh (lit. we have lost 




it); ya khsara. 


The seasons. 


al-fusul. 

• 


ar-rabi'a. 


Spring. 


as-saif (seyf). 


Summer. 


al-kharif. 


Autumn. 


ash-shita. 


Winter. 


The months. 


ash-shuhur. 


kenun at-teni. 


January. 


shubat. 


February. 


adar. 


March. 


nisan. 


April. 


iyar (nuwar). 


May. 


hazeran. 


June. 


tammuz. 


July. 


eb. 


August. 


ailuL 


September. 


teshrin al-owwel. 


October. 


teshrin at-teni. 


November. 


kenun al-owwel. 


December. 


Days of the week. 


iyem aj-jim'a. 


al-bad. 


Sunday. 


al-itneyn. 


Monday, 


at-tleti. 


Tuesday. 



74 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



al-arb'a. 


Wednesday. 




al-khamis. 


Thursday. 




aj-jim'a. 


Friday. 




as-sebt. 


Saturday. 




Time. 


al-wa"t. 




This year. 


has-sini. 




Last year. 


') sint al-madi. 




Next year. 


sint aj-jei. 




r» V 


sint al-"admi. 




Two years ago. 


min sinteyn. 




Three years ago. 


min thet snin. 




Every year. 


kill sini. 




All the year. 


kill as-sini. 




I) In Damascus 'am al-owwel. 






Next month. 


shehr aj-jei. 




Last month. 


shehr al-madi. 




Monthly. 


kill shehr. 




This week. 


haj-jim'a. 




Next week. 


jim'at aj-j^i'. 




Last week. 


jim'at al-madi. 




Every week. 


kill jim'a. 




A few weeks ago. 


min kam jim'a. 




This day next week. 


b*ad jim'a. 




In a fortnight. 


ba'd khamst 'ashir 


yowm. 


For a long time. 


middi tawili. 




To-day. 


al-yowm. 




To-morrow. 


bukra. 




Yesterday. 


imbereh. 





GRAMMAR. 



75 



This morning. 

This evening. 

All day. 

Every day. 

Two days ago. 

Three days ago. 

Early. 

All night. 

Late at night. 

Mid-night. 

Sun-rise. 

Sun-set. 

The day after 
The day before 



al-yowm'a bukra. 
al-yowm min 'ashiyi, 
kill an-nahar. 
kill yowm. 
min yowmeyn. 
min tlet iyem. 
bekkir. 
kill al-leyl. 
ekhir al-leyl. 
nuss leyl. 
tlu'a ash-shems. 
ghiyeb ash-shems. 
tomorrow. b'ad bukra. 
yesterday. owwelt imbereh. 



The hour, as-se'a. 



What time is it? 

t is 12 o'clock. 

t is I o'clock. 

t is 2 o'clock. 

t is a quarter past two. 

t is half past two. 

t is a quarter to three. 

t is ten minutes to four. 

t is five minutes past four. 

t is 6 o'clock exactly. 
The clock is fast. 
The clock is slow. 
The clock has stopped. 



"add esh s^'a. 
s^'a tn'ash. 
s6'a w^hdi. 
se'a tinteyn. 
se'a tinteyn u rub'a. 
se'a tinteyn u nuss. 
se'a tleti ila rub'a. 
s^'a arb'a ila 'ashra. 
s^'a arb'a u khamsi. 
se'a sitti tamem. 
as-s^'a bittsabbi". 
as-s^'a bitta 'akhkhir. 
as-se'a wa"afat. 



PART 11. 

A COMPREHENSIVE 

ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY ALPHA 
BETICALLY ARRANGED. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY. 



A. 

abandon^ v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk, p.p. matruk. 

abashedy to be, v. n. bikhjel, khijilt (min), p.p. makhjul. 

abbreviate^ v. a. bukhtisir, khtasert, khtisir, p.p. mukhtaser. 

abdicate, v. btnazel, tnazelt, tnazel ('an). 

ability, n. shatara; mahara. 

able, a. mu**tidir; "adir (*'edir); to be able, v. n. bi"dir 

(bu'dir), "edirt. 
abliitiofi, n. wudu; to perform ablutions, v. n. bitwaddu, 

twaddait, twadda. 
abolish, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; abolished, batil; 

niulgha. 
abounds (it), mowjud; wajd bi kitra. 

Note. Verbs are given in the i" person singular present and past 
tenses and the a""* person singular imperative. When other parts are 
given they are indicated. 

When a verb is followed by a preposition the latter is given in 
brackets after it. 

Only passive participles in use are given. 

Plurals of nouns and adjectives not indicated are regular. 

When the pronunciation of words greatly varies an alternative is 
given in brackets. 



8o ARABIC MANUAL. 

abouti ad. "arib; ta"riban; pr. bkhusus; *ala. 

above, pr. fow" (fo"); above all, fow" al-kill. 

abscond, v. n. bihrub, harabt, hrub(min); bfirr, ferrait, firr. 

absence, n. ghiy^b. 

absent, to be, v. n. bghib, ghibt or kint ghaiyib, ghib 

('an); absent-minded, fikr-uh ghaiyib. 
absolute, a. mutla". 
absurd, a. mustahil; ad. bila m'ana. 
abtmdafice, n. kitra; abundantly, ad. bi kitra. 
abuse, v. a. bbahdil, bahdilt, bahdil ; bishtum, shetemt, 

shtum. 
abuse, n. msebbi; b^hdeli. 
accelerate, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil. 
accept, V. a. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel, p.p. ma"bul. 
accident, n. hadisi p. hawadis; 'arid p. 'awarid; by accident, 

ad. bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 
accompany, v. ai brefi", refa"t, reft". 
accomplice, n. mushtirik fi zenb. 
accomplish, v.a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil,p.p.mkemmel; 

btemmim, temmemt, temmim, p.p. mtemmem. 
according, to, ad. haseb; bi mowjab; according to cir- 
cumstances, haseb az-zuruf. 
account, n. hiseb p. hisebet; (story) riweyi p. ruwaiy^t. 
accjimulate, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
accuracy, n. sahha; zabt (dabt). 
accurate, a. sahih ; mazbut ; dughri. 
accusation, w. tehmi p. tehmet c. p. tehm; shekvva p. 

shekwet. 
accuse, (of), V. a. bit-hum, tahemt, t-hum (^). 
accuser, n. mushtlki; sheki. 
accustom (oneself to), v. n. bit'owwad, t'owwadt ('ala), 

p.p. mu'ated. 



VOCABULARY. 8 1 

V. a. b'owwid, *owwadt, 'owwid ('ala), p.p. m'owwad. 
ace, n. ass. 
achey V. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj'a or k^n yuj*a; my 

head aches y ras-i biyuj'a-ni. n. waj'a p. ovvje'a. 
acidy a. hamud f. hamda. 
acortiy n. balluta p. ballut. 
acquaintance, n. m'arifi p. ma'arif. 

acquircy v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
acquisition, n. tahsil. 
acquity v. a. bberri, berrait, berri, p.p. mberra; to be 

acquitted, bitberra, tberrait. 
acquittal, n. tebria. 
Acre, Akka. 

across, ad. min jeha ila jeha. 
act {actioti), n. 'amel p. a'mel ; to bring an action againsty 

V. bitlub-uh, talabt-uh lil-mahkemi ; v. a. bhakim, hakamt, 

hakim. 
active, a neshit (nishit). 
actualy a ba"i"i. 

adapt (to)y V. a. bwefi", wafa"t ('ala), p.p. mw^fi". 
addy V. a. bzid, zidt, zid ; added, ze'id ; add tip, v. a. 

bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
additiofty n. j^m'a. 

addressy n. 'unwen ('ilwan) p. 'unwenet. 
adjectivey n. n'at. 
admirabUy a. 'aal. 
admiraly n. amiral p. amiraliyi. 
admire (to praise )y v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah ; / admire 

(am pleased with) anythingy bi'ajib-ni, 'ajab-ni 

admissible y a. jeyiz. 

admity V. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibd {V\ or bi), p.p. ma"bul; 

bsellim, sellemt, sellim (fi), p.p. msellem. 

6 



82 ARABIC MANUAL. 

admonishy v. bnebbih, nebbeht, nebbih ('ala). 

admonitioriy n. nasiha; tenbih. 

adopt (of measures), v. a. bittikhiz, ttakhazt, ttikhiz ; {of 

a child), V. a. bitbenna, tbennait, tbenna. 
adoration, n. 'ibedi. 
adore, v. a. be'abed, 'abidt, 'abed. 
adoryi, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin, p.p. mzeyyen. 
adulterate, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh, p.p. 

maghshush. 
adultery, n. zina. 
advance (money), v. a. bsellif, silleft, sellif ; (proceed) v. n. 

bit"addam, ta"addemt, ta"addam ; advance guard, ta- 

li'at aj-jeysh; advanced in years, ta'in fis-sinn. 
advantage, n. fe'idi p. fwe'id. 
advantageous, a. nefi; mufid. 
adversary, n. khism p. akhsam. 
adversity, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 
advertise, v. a. b*alin, 'alant, 'alin. 
advertisement, n. e'alen p. e'alenet. 
advice, n. nasiha. 
advise, v. a. binsah, nasaht, nsah. 

affair, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; "adiyi p. "adaiya. 
affected, a. mutsann'a. 
affection, n. mahabbi; hunu. 
affiance, (to), v. a. bkhattib, khattabt, khattib (ila) ; af- 

Jianced, a. khatib. 
affidavit, n. hilfen; yemin; to make an affidavit, v. n. 

bihluf, halaft, hluf. 
affirm, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li) p.p. m'ekked. 
affix, (to), V. a. blazzi", lazza'*t, lazzi" ('ala). 
affiict, V. a. (3rd per.) bikeddir, kedder; it affiicts me, 

bikeddfr-ni. 



VOCABULARY. 83 

affluence, n. ghina. 

affro7it, n. iheni ; v. a. bhin, hint, hin. 

afloat, a. feyish; 'aiyim. 

afraid, (of), v. n. bkhaf, khift (donH be afraid) la tkhaf 

(min) ; bifz'a, fze'at (min) ; a. fez'an ; khaiyif. 
Africa, Afrikia; african, afriki. 
after, pr. b'ad ; con. b'ad ma, b'ad ann. 
afternoon, ad. b'ad ad-dohr. 
afterwards, ad. b'adeyn. 
again, ad. kamen ; b'ad ; aidan ; again and again, kamen 

u kam^n. 
against, pr. 'ala; dudd; agaifist my will, dudd khatr-i. 
age, n. 'umr; (century) jil p. ajiyel; 'asr. 
agency, n. wekeli p. wekelet. 
agejit, n. wekil p. wukela. 
agile, a. herik. 

agility, n. sir'a; khiffi; hareki. 
agony, n. neze'a. 
agree, (to), v. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel (fi or bi); birda, irdit, 

irda (fi or bi). 
agreeable, a. mlih p. mlah; ma"bul. 
agreement, n. teswi; ittif^" (ittifa"). 
agriculture, n. fleha (felaha). 
agtie, n. dowriyi ; berdiyi. 
ahead, ad. "iddem. 
aid, n. mse'adi. 
ail, V. n. biskhun, sakhant. 
aim (object), n. "asd ; ghaiyi; gharad ; (in shooting) nishi6n ; 

aim (at) v. n. bitneshin, tn^shent, tneshen ('ala). 
air, n. hawa; (of music) lahn; (appearance) manzar; v. a. 

bhowwi, howwait, howwi. 
alarm, n. khowf; fez'a; r'abi. 



84 ARABIC MANUAL. 

alcohol, n. sbirto; alkohul. 

Aleppo, Haleb. 

alerty a. mutiya"iz^. 

Alexandretta, Skenderuna. 

Alexandria^ Iskenderiya. 

alien J n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 

alight, (from), v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel (min); alight at, 

V. n. binzel fi. 
alight, a. sha'len. 

alike, a. mutsewi; ad. mitl ba'ad-uh (with pro. suff.) 
alive, a. taiyib. 
all, n. and a. kill (kuU). 
allegiance, n. ta'a. 

alleviate, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif. 
alliance, n. ma'ahedi; mhalif. 
allow, V. bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
allowance, n. ma'ash; ratib. 
alloy, n. khalit; mezij. 
allure, v. a. bistemil, stemelt, stemil. 
allurement, n. istim^li. 
ally, n. halif p. hulefa. 
ahfianack, n. riznemi p. riznemet. 
Ahnighty (the), "adir 'ala kill shi. 
almojid, n. lowzi p. lowz; almond tree, lowzi. 
almost, ad. "arib. 
alms, n. sada"a. 
aloe, n. sabr (subber). 
alo7ie, a. wahd-uh (with pro. suff.); / let him alone, bi- 

truk-uh wahd-uh; ad. 'ala wahd-uh. 
along, pr. 'ala tul (at-tul). 
alongside of, pr. bi-jenib; jenb. 
aloud, ad. 'al al-'ali. 



VOCABULARY. 85 

alphabet, n. difbe. 

already, ad. "ablan. 

also, ad. kamen; aidan. 

altar, n. medbah p. mdebih. 

alter, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir. 

V. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. mutghaiyir. 
altercation, n. mkhasemi. 
although, con. m'a inn. 
altitude, n. irtife'a; 'ulu. 

altogether, ad. kill-un sawa; jumli; 'ala ba'ad-uh. 
almn, n. shebbi. 
always, ad. de'imen. 

amass, v. a. bkowwim, kowwamt, kowwim. 
ambassador, n. sefir p. sufera. 
amber, n. amber. 
ambition, n. tam*a. 
ambitious, a. tamma'a. 
amble, v. n. (3rd per.) birahwin, rah wan. 
ambler, n. rahwen. 
ambuscade, n. kemin. 
America, Amerika; american, amerikeni. 
amiable, a. latif p. lutafa. 
ammimitioji, n. jebakhani; zakhra. 
amnesty, n. 'afu. 
amottg, pr. beyn. 
amoutit, n. meblagh p. mbeligh. 
ample, a. k^fi; w^s'i. 

amputate, v. a. b"uss, "assait, "uss p.p. ma"sus, 
amulet, n. hirz p. huruz. 
amuse, v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli ; v. a. (3rd per.) it amuses 

me, biyubsut-ni, basat-ni; to be amused, binbusit, in- 

basa^t. 



86 ARABIC MANUAL. 

amusement, n. tesliyi; lahu. 

ancestor t n. jidd p. ajded. 

anchor, n. yatir; mirsi; v. n. birsi, rsit, irsi; at anchor, resi. 

ancient, a. *ati" p. 'utu"; "adim p. "udm. 

and, con. waj u. 

anecdote, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi p. hikeyet. 

anemo7ie, n. sha*'shi" (shi"e"). 

anew, ad. min jdid. 

angel, n. melak p. melai'eki. 

anger, n. ghadab; za'al; ghaiz. 

angle, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "irni p. "arani. 

angry, to be, (with), v. n. biz'al, zi'ilt (min); binghaz, 

inghazt (min). / am angry, ana z'alen, kint z'alen; to 

make ayigry, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul. 
animal, n. haiwen p. haiwen^t; dabbi p. dawab. 
animosity, n. 'ad^wi. 
ankle, n. kehil p. kewehil. 
annex (to), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usfl), (bi), p.p. mowsul ; 

bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
announce, v. a bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an, of the 

thing), 
annoy, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul ; it amioys me, biyiz'el-ni, 

za'al-ni. 
annul, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; annulled, a. batil 

(battal). 
anoint, v. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
another, a. ghair-uh (with pro. suff.). 
answer, n. jeweb p. jewebet; v. a. bjewib, jewabt, j^wib. 
ant, n. nemli p. nemel. 
Antioch, Antakiyi. 
anvil, n. sidden (sinden). 
anxiety, n. inshighal bel; "ala". 



VOCABULARY. 87 

ayixionSy a. meshghul al-fikr; "al"an; (desirous) a. mush- 

tah (li). 
any^ a. ahad; anybody y hada; anything, shi (shey). 
apart, ad. 'ala jenib; 'ala wahd-uh. 
aperient, n. mus-hil (mis-hil). 
apologise (to), v. n. be'itizir, etazert, e'itizir (ila). 
apology, n. 'uzrj 'itizar. 
apoplexy, n. sakti. 
apostle, n. resul p. risl. 
apothecary, n. farmashyeni ; saideli; apothecary's shop, 

farmashia; saideliyi. 
apparent, a. zahir; apparently, ad. zahiran. 
appeal (ask for help) v. a. bistenjid, stenjedt, stenjid; 

(judicial) v. n. biste'nif, ste'neft, ste'nif. 
appear, v. n. bizhar, zahert, izhar. 
appearance, n. zuhur (zahir); laha. 
appetite, n. "abliyi. 

applaud, v.a. bza""if, za""aft, za""if (li). 
applause, n. tez"if. 
apple, n. tiftcha p. tefifeh. 
apply (use) v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil ; v. a. (pnt on) 

bhutt, hattait, hutt ('ala); (ask) v.a. bi"sud, "asadt, 

"usud. 
appoint, V. a. b'aiyin, 'aiyent, 'aiyin p.p. m'aiyen ; to be 

appointed, bitvvazzaf, twazzaft. 
appointment, n. wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'muriyi; merkez 

p. merakiz. 
apprentice, n. san'i p. sunna'a. 
approach, v. b'*errib, "errabt, "errib (li). 
approval, n. istahsen. 
approve, v. a. bistahsin, stahsent, stahsin. 
apricot, n. mishmshi p. mishmish ; apricot-tree, mishmshi. 



88 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Aprily n. nisan. 

apron, n. wazra; (child'' s) mariul p. marawil. 

aqtudticty n. "anayit mai p. "anawat. 

Arabia, beled al-'arab; Arab, n. 'Arabi p. 'Urben; arabic, 

a. 'arabi; classical arabic, 'arabi fasih; vulgar arabic, 

'arabi derij. 
arbitrary, a. mustebidd. 
arbour, n. s"eli p. s"eyil; "ibbet khasheb. 
arcJi, n. "antara p. "anatir. 
archbishop, n. raiyis asa"fi. 

archer, n. "uwwas p. "owwasa ; rami sihm p. rumet sihm. 
architect, n. mhendis. 
architecture, n. hendisi; resm; na"sh. 
archives, n. p. sijillet ; ovvra". 
ardour, n. hamesi. 
area, n. mseht al-ard. 
argue (about) v. bjedil, jedelt, jedil (fi). 
argument [proof), n. burhan p. berahin; (dispute) jdel. 
arithmetic, n. 'ilm al-hiseb. 
ark, n. (Noah's ark) filk Nuh. 
arjH, n. id d. ideyn; fore-arm, dr'a p. udr'u; zind p. 

znud; (weapon) sleh (slehi) p. esliha; arms alet harb. 
armour, n. dir'a. a'\ 

armpit, n. bat p. batat. 
army, n. jeysh p. jiyush; m'asker. 
arou7td, ad. howl; min de'ir; all round, 'ala de'ir. 
arouse, v. a. bfeyyi", feyya"t, feyyi" ; bnebbih, nebbeht, 

nebbih. 
arrange, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt, 

sewi p.p. msewa. 
arrangement, n. teswi; tedbir p. tedebir. 
arrears, n. p. ba"aiya. 



VOCABULARY. 89 

arrest^ v. a. bikmish, kmesht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

msuk. 
arrival^ n. wusul. 
arrive f v. n. busal, wusult. 
arrogance, n. tekebbur; kibriya. 
arrogant y a. mutkebbir; muta'ajrif. 
arrow, n. sihm p. sihem. 
arse?iiCy n. zernikh; semm al-far. 
artf n. fenn p. finun; {craft) san'a p. sanaiy'a. 
artery, n. shirien p. sheraiyin. 
artichoke, n. ardishowki. 
articulate, v. n. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz. 
artificial, a. istina'i. 
artillery, n. topkhana; medfai*a; artilleryman topji p. 

topjiyi. 
as, ad. mitl; ka; con. mitlma; hais ann (with pro. suff.) ; 

as long as, madem; as soon as, bes; limma; halma; 

as if, ka; ka inn (with pro. suff.). 
ascend, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala). 
ascent, n. taFa. 
ascertaifi, v. bistakhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an) ; v. a. 

bha""i", ha""a"t, ha""i". 
ash (tree), n. lis^n al-'asfur. 
ashamed, to be (of) v. n. bistihi, stahait (min) ; ashamed, 

a. makhjul. 
ashes, n. p. rim^d. 
ashore, ad. al-berr; 'al al-berr. 
ash-tray, n. sahn sikara; manfada p. mnafid. 
Asia, Asia; asiatic, a. asiawi. 
aside, ad. 'ala jenib. 
ask (a question), v. a. bis'el, sa'elt, (s'el. 
asleep, a. n^yim; ra"id. 



90 ARABIC MANUAL. 

asparagus, n. haliyun. 

assassin, n. "etil p. "utela. 

assassinate, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul p.p. ma"tul. 

assassination, n. "atl. 

assault, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala) ; n. hujum; mhajemi. 

assemble, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a; v. n. (3rd per. p.) 

biyijtim'u, ijtem'au. 
assetnbly, n. jeme'i; ijtima'a. 
assent, v. birda, irdit, irda (fi or bi). 
assessor, n. mtemmin; mkhammin. 
assets, n. p. mowjudet. 
assist, V. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id. 
assistance, n. mse'adi. 
associate, n. sherik p. shureka. 
assurance, n. te'ekid; {boldness) jesara. 
assure, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li). 
astern, ad. wara; astern of the ship, wara al-merkeb. 
astonish, v. a. (3rd per.) bidhish, dahesh p.p. medhush ; 

it astonishes me, bi'ajjib-ni, 'ajjab-ni; to be ast07iished, 

V. n. bit'ajjab, t*ajjebt. p.p. mut'ajjib. 
astonishment, n. dehshi; t'ajjub. 
asylum (for the insane) n. meristen. 
at, pr. fi; 'ind; bi; ad. at all, abaden; mnowb. (mnob). 
atheist, n. kefir. 
Athens, Atina. 
attach, (to) v. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut (bi); [hang up) 

v.a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" (bi).* 
attack, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala); n. hujum. 
attempt, v. n. bijtihid, ijtahadt, ijtihid; bjerrib, jerrabt, 

jerrib; n. ijtihad; tijrubi p. tejerib. 
attend (be present at) v. n. behdar, hadert, hdar (fi); 

[pay attention to) v. bintfbih, intebeht, intibih (ila). 



VOCABULARY. 9 1 

attentioriy n. intibeh ; pay attention! intfbih li ; dir b61-ak 'ala. 

attentive^ a muntibih. 

attest, V. bsadi", sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. msadda". 

attitude, n. haiya; hala (hali). 

attorney, n. wekil da'awi; avokat. 

attract, v. a. bijzub, jezebt, jzub. 

auction, n. mezed ; to sell by — , bbi'a, be'ut bil-mezed ; 

to buy by — , bishtri, shtrait bil-mezed. 
August, n. eb. 

aunt, n. (paterrial) 'ammi; (maternal) khali. 
auspicious, a. sa'id. 
Australia, Ustralia. 

Austria, Nemsa; austrian, a. nemsewi. 
author, n. mu'ellif; ketib. 
authority, n. sulta. 

authorize, v. a. bfowwid, fowwadt, fowwid. 
autograph, n. imda. 
autumn, n. al-kharif. 
avarice, n. bikhl. 
avaricious, a. bakhil p. bukhal. 
a'denge, v. bekhud, akhadt at-tar ; / avenged you, akhadt 

bi tar-ak. 
average, a. m'addal; on an average, 'ala m*addal. 
avert, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a. 
avoid, V. bib'ud, ba'adt, bu'ud ('an) ; bibt'id, ibt'adt, bt'id 

(*an or min); bitjennib, tjennebt, tjennib ('an or min). 
await, V. a. bistanzir, stanzert, stanzir ; bintlzir, intazert, 

intizir. 
awake, v. n. bf i", fi"t, fi" ; bu'a, wa'it, wu'a ; a. w^'i ; faiyi". 
awkward, a. ghashim; [difficult) s'ab. 
axe, n. ferra'a; fes p. fus; balta. 
axle, n. m'awel. 



92 ARABIC MANUAL. 



B. 



baby^ n. tifl p. atfal; walad zghir. 

bachelor y n. 'azeb p. 'uzben c. p. 'azzebi. 

backy n. dahr; "afa; behind my backy wara dahr-i. 

backgavimon, n. da"" towli. 

backward (tardy ), a. himil; buti. 

backwards y ad. ila wara; go back, rj'a la wara; back- 
wards and forwards, la wara u la "iddem. 

bacony n. lahm khanzir. 

bady a. *aatil, c. 'aatil aktar; redi c. arda; to go baS 
(of frtiit) V. n. (3rd per.) biyihtiri, ihtara; [of meat) 
V. n. (3rd per.) biyirwih, arwah. 

badgey n. nishen p. nieshin; 'alemi. 

bagy n. kis p. kyes; shanta. 

baggage y n. 'afsh ; howeyij ; hmuli. 

baily n. kefeli. 

baity n. tu'um. 

baisey n. jukh serj. 

bake, V. a. bikhbuz, khabazt, khbuz p.p. makhbuz. 

baker, n. khabbez; ferran. 

balancey n. (of weight) mizen ; (of account) rasid ; v. a. 
buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. mowzun; to make balancey 
b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 

balcony y n. tarasina; balkon ; rowshen; kishk. 

baldy a. ajlah p. juluh; asl'a p. sulu'. 

baUy n. beli p. beldt; tard p. trudi. 

bally n. tabi p. tabet; (dance) ballo. 

ballasty n. sabura. 

balloon, n. balun; mintad. 

ballot, n. "ur'a ; v. n. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a ('ala). 



VOCABULARY, 93 

balustrade^ n. drabzin (drabzun). 

bambooy n. khaizeran. 

bananay n. mowzi p. mowz; banana tree, mowzi. 

band, n. rabta p. rabtat; (of music) jow"; nowbi; elastic 

band, rabtat mighait. 
bandage, n. rabta p. rabtat. 
banish, v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. mserkel; binfi, 

nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 
bank, n. bank; [river — ) haffi p. haffet c.p. hafefi; Ot- 

t07nan bank, bank al-'osmeni. 
banker, n. serraf p. saiyerif. 
bankiyig, n. srafi. 
bankrupt, n. miflis; maksur. 
bankruptcy, n. ifles. 

banquet, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im; walimi p. wale'im. 
baptise, v. a. b'ammid, 'ammedt, 'ammid p.p. m'ammad. 
baptism, n. m'amudiyi. 
bar, n. "adib p. "udben; shilf p. shlufi. 
barbarous, a. mutwahish; berberi. 
barber, n. halla". 

bare, a. [naked] 'ariyen; zlait; [of land) jerda; "ar'a. 
bargain, n. bazar ; msewami ; to make a bargain, v. a. 

bfasil, fasalt, fasil; bbezzir bezzert, bezzir. 
barge, n. maon p. mwain; jurm p. jrumi. 
bark, n. [of a tree) "ishri ('*ishr); [of a dog) 'awi; howsh. 

V. n. (3rd per.) biyinbah, nabah; bihush, hesh. 
barley, n. sh'ir. 
barn, n. anbar p. anabir. 
barometer, n. mizen al-hawa; barom^tre. 
barracks, n. "ishli*'. 
barred, a. mshebbek bil-hadid. 
barrel, n. barmil p. baramil; (^/ ^ ^«) Ijadidit al-bariidi. 



94 ARABIC MANUAL. 

barren, a. (of land) Vim; [of women) 'a"ir. 

barricade^ n. sidd p. sdud; {niilit,) mitras p. materis. 

base, a. dun (deni) ; bottom) ases p. aseset ; (of moun- 
tains) sifl; k'ab. 

bashful, a. khajul. 

basin, n. tusht p. tshut ; lekken p. Ik^n. 

basket, n. selli p. slel ; clothes — , sebet p. sbet. 

bastard, n. bandu". 

bat, n. wutwat p. watawit. 

bath, n. hammem p. hamemim; bath-woman, belleni; 
bath-man, hammemji; mkebbis; bath towel, manshfi. 

bathe, v. n. bt-hammam, t-hammemt, t-hammem. 

battalion, n. tabur p. twabir. 

battle, n. wa"*a p. wa'"at; m'areki p. ma'arik. 

bay, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

bayonet, n. singhi p. singhet; harbi p. harbet. 

bazar, n. su'* p. aswa". 

be, V. / was, kint ; he was, k^n ; be, kun ; there will be 
bisir; there was, sar i^ide grammar, verb 'to be'). 

beach, n. shatt. 

beacon, n. "abuli ('*abili) p. "abebil ("ab^'il). 

bead, n. kharazi p. kharaz; habbi p. hbub. 

beak, n. min"ad. 

bea^n, n. jisr p. jesura. 

bean, n. (french) lubiyi ; (haricot) fasulia. 

bear (to produce, of the earth) v. a. (3rd per. f.) bitghill, 
ghallit ; (endure) v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil ; [carry) 
V. a. b6hmil, hamelt, hmul ; n. dibb p. dibeb. 

beard, n. da"n p. du"un; lihiyi p. liha. 

beardless, a. ajrudi. 

bearer, n. hamil; ne"il. 

beast, (wild) n. wahsh p. wuhush; [beasts in gen.) behe'im. 



VOCABULARY. 95 

beat, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {overcome) bighlub, 
ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to be beaten, bindirib, 
indarabt. 

beautifuly a. zarif p. zuraf; jemil c. ejmel; bedi'a. 

beauty, n. jemel. 

because, con. bi hais; hais ann (with pro. suff.); li kun. 

become, v. n. bsir, sirt, sir; to suit v. (3rd per.) biyilba'*, 
libi" (li). 

bed, n. [bedding) fershi p. fershet; bed-clothes, n. ghata; 
lahaf; bed-room, n. udat an-nom ; bed-stead, n. takht 
p. tukhut. 

bedouin, n. bedewi p. bedu. 

bee, n. nahli p. nahl; bee-hive, n. "afir an-nahl. 

beef, n. lahm ba"ar; boiled beef, lahm maslu"; roast 

beef, lahm mishwi. 
beer, n. bira. 
beeswax, n. sham 'a asfar. 
beetle, n. khinfsi p. khenefis. 
beetroot, n. shmendur (shwender). 
before, ad. pr. "abl; [of space) amem; "iddem ; before 

and after, "abl u b'ad ; con. "abl ma. 
beg, V. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja; to beg of, v. biltimis, 

iltemest, iltimis (min.). 
beggar, n. shahhad. 

begin, v. a. bbellish, bellesht, bellish; bibtfdi, btedeyt, btfdi. 
beginner, n. mibtfdi. 
beginning, n. bdeyi. 
behalf, on (of), pr. minshen. 

behave, v. n. bisluk, salakt, sluk ; bitsarraf, tsarraft, tsarraf. 
behaviour, n. tesarruf; sluk; siri; his behaviour, sirt-uh. 
behind, pr. khalf; wara; bi **afa. 
Belgium, Beljika; belgian, a. beljiki. 



96 ARABIC MANUAL. 

belief, n. 'iti"ad. 

believe, v. a. bsaddi", sadda"t, saddi"; to believe in, v. 

bu'min, ament, emin (fi or bi). 
believer, n. mu'min. 
bell, n. jaras p. jras. 
bellows, n. menfakh. 
belly, n. batn. 
belong to (to) v. n. (3rd per.) bikhuss, ken bikhuss; it 

belongs to me, bikhuss-ni; teb'a-i. 
below, pr. taht. 
belt, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
bench, n. bank p. bnuki; ma" 'ad khasheb. 
bend, v. a. bilwi, laweyt, Iwi; v. n. to bend the head, 

bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
benefit, n. menfa'a p. menafi'a. 
bent (crooked) a. *awaj f. 'owja p. 'uj. 
berth (on board ship) n. srir p. aserir (sraiyir). 
berry, n. kibsh p. kebush. 
beside, pr. hadd; "arib; jenb. 
besides, ad. ma'ada ; kamen ; fadlan 'an 
besiege, v. a. bhasir, hasert, hasir. 
best, a. sup. al-ahsan; ahsan min al-kill. 
bet [on), V. n. brahin, rahent, rahin ('ala) ; n. rahn p. 

ruhuni. 
Bethlehem, Beytlahm. 
betray, v. a. bkhun, khint, khun. 
betroth (to), v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub (ila) ; bkhattib, 

khattabt, khattib (ila); betrothed, a. khatib. 
betrothal, n. khitbi. 
better, a. ad. ahsan; afdal. 
betting, n. mraheni. 
between, pr. beyn. 



VOCABULARY. 



97 



beyond, pr. b'ad ; [of space) "at'i ; beyond fueasurej fow 

"al-hadd; fow "al-"iyes. 
Bible, n. (old Testament) at-towra; (ntw Testament) al-injil. 
big, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar; 'azim. 
bile, n. safra. 
bill, n. "a'imit hiseb; bill of exchange, kimbieli p. kim- 

bielet; bill of lading, bolsit shahn p. bwalis. 
bind, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut pp. marbut; [to roll) 

V. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff, pp. melfuf ; (of books) v. a. bjellid, 

jelledt, jellid pp. mjellad. 
bird, n. tayr p. tuyur; bird-lime, dib". 
birth, n. uledi; the birth of the child, uledit al-walad; 

birth-day, 'eid mowlid; milad. 
bishop, n. mitran p. matarni. 
bishopric, n. abrashiyi. 
bit, n. (piece) nitfi ; sha"fi ; (of a bridle) fekk ; bit by bit, 

shwayi shwayi; (piecemeal) nitfi nitfi. 
bite, V. a. b'add, 'addait, 'add. 
bitter, a. murr. 

black, a. aswad (aswid) f. sowda p. sud. 
blacking, n. boya. 
blacksmith, n. hadded. 

blade, n. shafra p. shafrat; nasli p. naslat. 
bladder, n. meteni; mebweli; (iiiflated) n. marara. 
blame, v. a. blum, limt, lum (tised to inferiors); v. a. ba'atib, 

'atabt, *atib (used to equals and inferiors); n. lowm; 'it^b. 
blameless, ad. bila lowm. 
blank, a. abyad; in blank, *ala baiyad. 
blanket, n. hram p. hramet. 
blaze, n. sh*ali ; lahib. 
bleach, v. a. bu"sur, "asart, u"sur pp. ma"sur; bbaiyid, 

baiyadt, baiyid pp. mbaiyad. 

7 



98 ARABIC MANUAL. 

bleedy v. n. (3rd per.) bisil, sel min-nuh damm ; v. a. bufsud, 

fasadt, fsud. 
bless, V. a. bberik, berakt, berik. 
blessing, n. bereki p. bereket. 
blind, a. *ama; v. a. be'ami, 'ameyt, 'ami; to go blifid, 

V. n. b'ama, 'amit. 
blindness, n. 'ama. 
blister, n. hara"a. 
block, n. sidd p. sdud ; block of wood, "it'at khasheb ; 

V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd pp. mesdud. 
blockade, n. hisar bahri. 
blockhead, n. abhel; mebhul ; belid. 
blood, n. damm; full-blooded, a. dammawi. 
bloody, a. mlattakh bi damm ; bloodshed, n. sef k ad-dimma. 
bloom, n. tarawi. 

blossom, n. zahra p. zahr (zuhur). 
blot, n. latkha. 

blotting-paper, n. wara*'neshshesh (neshshaf). 
bloiv, n. darbi; latmi; v. n. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh 

pp. menfukh. 
blue, a. azra" f. zer"a p. zir"; dark blue, azra" ghami'*; 

light blue, azra" fetih. 
blunder, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 
blunt, a. kell; mau (mush) madi. 
blush, V. n. bikhjel, khijilt, khijel. 
boar, n. khanzir berri p. khnezir berriyi. 
board, n. lowh p. Iweh; sideboard, khizenit sufra. 
boast, n. fashr; fakhr; v. n. biftikhir, iftakhert, iftikhir; 

bshuf, shuft hal-i, shuf hal-ak. 
boaster, n. feshshar. 

boat, n. feluka p. fleyik; "arib p. "awerib. 
boatman, n. bahri. 



VOCABULARY. • 99 

bodkiHf n. mdekk, p. mdekket. 

bodyy n. jism p. ajsem; (corpse) jifi p. ji'ef. 

boily V. a. and n. {of liquids) bighli, ghaleyt, ghli pp. 
mighli; (of solids) v. a. bislu", sala"t, slu" pp. maslu"; 
V. n. (3rd per.) biyinsili", insala". 

boiler, n. dist p. dsut. 

boiling, a. ghali. '7qUl__ 

boldy a. jesur. 

bolster, n. mkhaddi ; wusedi. 

bolt, n. sa"ata (sa"uta) p. sa"utat; da"r p. d"ura. 

bomb, n. killi p. klel. 

bond, n. sened p. senedet; sakk p. skuk. 

bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam ('adm). 

bonfire, n. "abili ("abuli) p. "abebil; tenwir. 

bonnet, n. birneyta p. buranit. 

book, n. kiteb p. kutub ; book-binder, mjellid; book-case, 
kutubiyi; khizenit kutub; book-keeper, mhassibji; book- 
keeping, mesk ad-defetir ; book-seller, bey'i kutub ; 
bookshelf, reflf p. rfuf. 

boot, n. sirmeyi p. sarami ; bootlace, shrita p. shrayit ; 
bootmaker, kinderji; topboot, jezmi p. jezmet. 

booty, n. ghanimi. 

border, n. haffi p. haflfet; hadd p. hudud; hashiyi. 

bore, V. a. bibkhush, bakhasht, bkhush pp. mebkhush ; 
(of metals) bi"dah, "adaht, "ideh; (to weary) bit'ub, 
ta*ebt, tu*ub pp. met'ub ; it bores me, biyit'ib-ni, ta'ab-ni. 

born, to be, v. n. bikhla", khili"t; bulad, walidt. 

borrow, v. a. bista'ir, sta*art, sta'ir. 

bosom, n. hudn (hidn) p. ahdan. 

Bosphorus, Boghaz. 

both, a. kill wehid (wahid); itneyn f. tinteyn. 

bother, n. t*ab; si"li. 



100 ARABIC MANUAL. 

bottle, n. "annini p. "ineni. 

bottoniy n. asfal; "e'a ("a'a). 

bough, n. ghusn p. aghsan; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 

boimdary, n. hadd p. hudud; takhm p. tkhum. 

bouquet, n. ba"et (be"at) zuhur. 

bow, n. "ows p. a"was; (of a necktie), 'u"di ('i"di). 

bow (reverence), n. haniiyt ras; v. n. binhini, inhanait, 

inhini. 
bowels, n. am'a; ferigh ; sijuk. 

bowl, n. tasi p. taset ; kesi p. keset ; pipe boivl, ghaliyun. 
box, n. sandu" p. snedi" ; (small) 'elbi p. 'eleb; (box on 

the ear) kefif. 
boy, n. sabi p. subiyan; walad p. uled (owlad). 
boyhood, n. siba. 

bracelet, n. iswar p. asewir; sleti p. sletat. 
braces, n. "ishat. 

brackets, n. p. hileleyn; iri brackets, beyn hileleyn. 
brackish, a. melih; brackish water, mai melha. 
bradawl, n. berrimi. 
braid, n. jedel; habk. 

brain, n. dmagh; nkh'a; sheeps* braiyis, nkh'a kharuf. 
bramble, n. 'owsaj ; shok. 
bran, n. nkhali. 

branch, n. ghusn p. aghsan ; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 
brand, n. wasm ; nishen ; damgha ; v. a bhutt, hattait, 

hutt wasm. 
brass, n. nahas asfar. 
brawl, n. khna'*a; toshi. 
brave, a. shuje'a (seje'a). 
bravery, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa). 
bray, v. n. (3^^ per.) bishenhi", shenha". 
breads n. khibz ; loaf of bread, rghif khibz. 



VOCABULARY. 10 1 

breadth y n. 'ard. 

break y v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur pp. maksur; to break 

in pieceSy v. a. bkessir, kessert, kessir; to be broken^ 

(3rd per.) biyinkisir, inkeser ; to break a promise^ bkhill, 

khalleyt, khill bil-w'ad. 
breakfast^ n. terwi"a; ftur; v. n. biftar, fatart, ftar. 
breasty n. sidr; breastplate (of a horse) sidriyi. 
breathy n. nefes. 

breathe, v. n. bitneffes. tnefifest, tneffes. 
breech-loader, n. barudi khal'a. 
breedy n. jins p. ajnes; asl. 
breezcy n. nesim. 
bribe, n. bartil p. baratil ; reshwi ; v. a. bbertil, bertelt, 

bertil; v. bshuf, shuft, shuf khatir-uh. 
bricky n. "armidi p. "armid. 
bride, n. 'arus p. 'araiyis. 
bridegroom, n. 'aris p. 'irs^n. 
bridesmaid, n. shbini p. shbinet. 
bridge, n. jisr p. jesura. 
bridle, n. Ijem p. Ijemet c. p. lijim; v. a. biljum, lajamt, 

Ijum (Ijom). 
brief, a. mukhtaser; briefly, bil-ikhtisar. 
brigade, n. liwa p. elvviyi. 
brigandy n. "att'a at-tari" p. "atta'in. 
bright (brilliant)y a. lem'i. 
brifriy n. haffi; brimful, melen li shiffi. 
bring, v. a. bjib, jibt, jib. 
brink, n. haffi. 
brittle, a. *'ebil al-kesr. 
broad, a. 'arid; wes'i. 

broker, n. simsar p. smasra; dellal (dell^l). 
brood, n. sus p. sisan. 



102 ARABIC MANUAL. 

brook, n. se"i. (sa"i) p. swe"i (sawa"i). 

broom, n. mikinsi p. mkenis; m"ashshi; belleni. 

broth, n. mar"a. 

brother, n. khey (khay); akh p. ikhwi ; (of the same 

father and mother) sha"i"; brother-in-law, suhr. 
brown, a. asmar p. sumr. 

bruize, v. a. brudd, raddait, rudd p.p. mardud ; n. radda. 
brush, n. firsheyi p. firsheyet; tooth-brush, firsheyit snen; 

V. a. bfershi, fershait (fersheyt), fershi. 
brushwood, n. bellen. 
bucket, n. dalu p. fdilwi ; satl p. stuli. 
buckle, n. bzim p. bzimet; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil 

p.p. mbekkel. 
bud^ n. zirr p. zrar. 
buffalo, n. jemus p. jwemis. 
bug, n. ba"a p. ba". 
bugle, n. nefir. 
biiild, V. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, 'ammir, p.p. m'ammer; 

bibni, benait (beneyt), bni p.p. mibni. 
btiilder, n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi; benna p. benneyin. 
building, n. 'amara p. 'amarat ; bina p. binaiyet. 
bulb, n. basli p. basl. 

Bulgaria, Bilgharia; bulgarian, a. bilghari. 
bull, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). l^ « v ' ' 
bullet, n. resasa p. resas. 
bulrush, n. ghazzara p. ghazzar. 
bump, n. waram; (knock) sadmi; v. a. bisdum sadamt, 

sdum. 
bunch, n. (of grapes) 'an"ud p. 'ane"id ; (flowers) dummi. 
bundle, n. hizmi p. hizem ; rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
bung, n. fellini p. fellin. 
buoy, n. shmandura p. shmandurat; 'awwemi. 



VOCABULARY. IO3 

burden, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli). 

burial, n. defn. 

burn, V. a. bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru"; v. n. 

(3rd per.) biyehru", hara"; biyihtiri", ihtara"; the fire 

burnSf an-nar bitish'ul, she'elit. 
burst, V. n. (3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr); 

biyinfera, infel'a. 
bury [of persons), v. a. bidfun, defent, dfun, p.p. med- 

fun ; [of animals) btumm, tammait, tumm p.p. matmum. 
bush, n. 'illey"a p. 'illey". 

business, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel (ashghal). 
busy, a. meshghul. 
but, con. l^kin; wa anima. 
butcher, n. lahham; "assab. 
butt, V. a. and n. (3rd per.) biyintah, natah. 
butt-end, n. "anda" ("inda"). 
SC butter, n. zibdi; clarified butter, semm. ^^-^/^^^ QM/r^ 
butterfly, n. frashi p. frashet. 
button, n. zirr p. zrar; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil p.p. 

mbekkel. 
button-hole, n. bikli p. bikel; 'irwi p. irwet. 
buttress, n. d'ami p. da'aiyim. 
buy, V. a. bishtri, shtrait (shtreyt), shtri p.p. mushtera; 

buying, n. shraiyit. 
buyer, n. mushteri; sheri. 
buzz, V. n. (3rd per.) biwazwiz, wazwaz. 
buzzing, n. wazwazi. 
by,,^x. 'ind; jenb; hadd ; [instrumental) bi ; bi wastat. 



104 ARABIC MANUAL. 



c. 



cabbage, n. melfufi p. melfuf; yakhanai p. yakhana. 

cabin, n. (ship's) kamara; uda zghiri. 

cabinet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin ; cabinet council, wazara. 

cage, n. "afas p. "afas. 

Cairo, Kahira. 

cake, n. ka'aki p. ka'ak; "urs p. "uras. 

calamity, n. msibi p. msaiyib; belwi p. belvvet. 

calculate, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

calculation, n. hiseb p. hisebet. 

calendar, n. riznemi d. riznemet. 

calf, n. 'ijl p. 'ujul; (of the leg) batat al-ijr. 

caligrapJiy, n. khatt. 

call, V. bindah, nadaht, ndah (li) v. b'aiyit, 'aiyett, *aiyit 

(ila or li); (to name) v. a. bsemmi, semmait, semmi 

p.p. msemma; (to call out) v. n. bsarrikh, sarrakht, 

sarrikh; (to visit) v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; (a visit) n. zi- 

yara p. ziyarat. 
calm, n. hudu; (of the sea) ghalini; a. rekiz; hedi; v. a. 

bheddi, heddait (heddeyt), heddi; bsekkin, sekkent, 

sekkin. 
calumniate, v. bushi, washait, ushi (ala). 
calumniator, n. nemmem. 
calumjiy, n. nemimi. 
camel, n. jemel p. jmel; b'aiyir p. 3h€\v; she-camel, ne"a; 

camel-driver, jemmel. 
camp, n. khiyem; (milit\) m'asker. 
camphor, n. kafur. 

can, n. tenaki p. tenket; v. n. (vide: to be able). 
canal, n. "anayi p. i"niyi. 



VOCABULARY. IO5 

cancel, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; cancelled, a. batil. 

cancer, n. saratan p. sratin. 

candid, a. selim al-"elb ; selim an niyi ; mukhlis. 

candle, n. shama'a p. shama'at. 

candlestick, n. sham'aden. 

cane, n. khaizeran ; sugar-cane, "asab sikker; "asabmass; 

{walking stick) 'asa p. 'usi. 
cafinibal, n. ekil lahm al-beshr. 
cannon, n. medf'a p. mdef'i. 
carmot, v. n. ma bi"dir, ma "edirt; / cannot do it, ma 

bi"dir 'amil-uh ; it cannot be, ma bisir. 
cap, n. ta"iyi p. tawa"i; 'ar"iyi; p. 'ara"i ; "ib'i p. "ibe'a. 
capable, a. mu"tidir; "adir ("edir). 
capacious, a. wes'i; fasih. 

cape, n. [headland] ras; [cloak) burnus p. baranis. 
caper, (plant) n. "abbar. 
capital, n. [of a coufttry) 'aasmi p. 'awasim; "asabi p. 

**asabet; [of money) rismel (rismal). 
capitulate, v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim taht shart. 
capsicum, n. flaifli. 
captive, n. esir p. lisera. 
captivity, n. isr; sebi. 
capture, v. a. bi'sur, asert, isur p.p. ma'sur; bisbi, sebeyt, 

isbi p.p. misbi. 
caravan, n. *'afili p. "awafil. 
carcass, n. jitti p. jittet; [human) jifi p. ji'ef. 
card, n. wara"a p. wara". 
cardboard, n. kartun. 
cards (playing), n. p. wara" I'eb (I'ub) ; pack of cards, 

shiddi. 
care [anxiety), n. hemm; [attention) n. ^*atina; take care! 

dir b^l-ak. 



I06 ARABIC MANUAL. 

careful, to be [about) v. n. be'atini, 'etenet, e'atini(fi). 

careless, a. mush mbeli. 

caress, n. mlatafi; v. a. bdellil, dillelt, dellil; bghannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij. 
caretaker, n. natur al-beyt. 
cargo, n. shahn; was". 
carnation, n. "arunfli p. "arunful. 
carpenter, n. nejjar. 
carpet, n. [large) bsat p. bust; [small) sejjedi p. sejjedet 

c. p. sijjad. 
carriage, n. 'arabiyi p. 'arabiyet; karrusa p. karruset; 

(freight) n. nowulun; (porterage) n. 'ateli. 
carrion, n. jifi. 
carrot, n. jezera p. jezr. 

carry, v. a. behmil, hamelt, hmul p.p. mahmul. 
cart, n. [large) karro p. karrat; [smalt] tumberu p. tma- 

bir (tunber p. tnabir). 
cartridge, n. f6sheki p. feshek; khartushi p. khartush. 
Qarve [of stone) v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, n"ush p.p. men- 
"ush ; [of wood) V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfiir. 
carving, n. na"sh; hafr. 
cascade, n. shellel p. shellelet. 

case, n. sandu" p. snedi"; [small) *elbi p. 'eleb; [legal) 
d'awa p. da'awi; statement of case, *ard al-mes'eli; 
in no case, abaden. 
cash, n. na"diyi; in cash, ad. na"den; v. a. bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad p.p. ma"bud; cash-book, n. defter p. 
defetir; cash-box, n. sandu"hadid. 
cashier, n. sandu"ji; amin as-sandu". 
cask, n. barmil p. baramil. 
castle, n. "al'a p. "il'a 
castor oil, n. zeyt kharw'a. 



VOCABULARY. 10/ 

castrate^ v. n. bukhsi, khsait, khsi pp. mikhsi. 

casual y a. 'aradi. 

cat, n. bseyn p. bseynet; "att p. "atat. 

catalogue, n. jedwel p. jdewil. 

catastrophe, n. nekbi p. nekbet. 

catch, V. a. brkmish, kmesht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

msuk p.p. memsuk; bukhtuf, khataft, khtuf. 
cauldron, n. [large) khar'in p. khle"in; dist p. dsut. 
cauliflower, n. "arnabita p. "arnbit; zahra p. zahret. 
cause, n. sebeb p. asbeb ; 'illi p. 'illel ; v. a. bsebbib, 

sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb ('an). 
caustic, n. mikwi. 

cauterise, v. a. bikwi, kweyt, kwi p.p. mikwi. 
caution, n. hazr; ihtiras. 
cautious, a. haris. 
cavalry, n. p. khaiyeli; fursan. 
cave, n. maghara p. mghaiyir. 

cease, v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlas, khalas; biyintfhi, inteha. 
cedar, n. erzi p. erz. 
ceiling, n. [of masonry) sa"f p. s"uf; [boarded) tawan 

p. tawanet. 
celebrate, v. a. bihtifil, ihtafelt, ihtifil. 
celebrated, a. mesh-hur. 
celerity, n. sur*a; 'ajeli. 
celery, n. krefs. 
cellar, n. "abu p. {"biyi. 
cement, n. tin; mlat; simento; v. a. btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiyen ; bmallit, mallatt, mallit p.p. 

mmallet. 
cemetery, n. ma"bara p. m"^bir; turbi p. turab. 
censure, n. lowm; v. a. blum, limt, lum p.p. melum. 
centipede, n. imm arb*a u arb6*in. 



I08 ARABIC MANUAL. 

centre, n. wast; merkez. 

century, n. jil p. ajiyel; "arn p. "urun. 

ceremony, n. [function) ihtifel ; {behaviour) teklif. 

certain, a. akid ; [some] ba'ad-um [with pro: suff.). 

certainly, ad. m'alum; ha" "an; ma"fura. 

certificate, n. shehedi. 

certify, v. bish-had, shahidt (fi). 

chaff, n. (chopped straw) tibn. 

chain, n. jenzir p. jnezir; silsli p. slesil; v. a. bjenzir^ 

jenzert, jenzir p.p. mjenzer; b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 

p.p. m"eyyed. 
chair, n. kirsi p. kerasi; rocking chair, kirsi hezzez. 
chalk, n. tbashir. 
chameleoji, n. herbeyi. 
chance, n. sudfi, p. sidaf; fursa p. furas. 
chandelier, n. traiya p. traiyet. 
change, taghiyir ; [of money) n. fart ; v. a. bghaiyir, ghai- 

yert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. 

mutghaiyer; [to change mo7iey) v. a. bisruf, saraft, 

sruf. 
channel, n. mejra p. mejeri. 
chapel, n. kenisi zghiri; kabella. 
chapter, n. fasl p. fusul; {iri the Bible) is-hah p. is- 

hahat. 
character, n. tab'a p. atb'a; of good character, rnhdiZZdih-, 

his character is bad, tab'a-uh redi; a bad character, 

sha"i p. ish"iya. 
charcoal, n. fahm. 

charge [accusatio7i), n. tehmi; [custody) n. istilam. 
charity, n. rahmi; haseni; [alms) sada"a. 
charm [amulet), n. hirz p. huruz. 
chart, n. kharta. 



VOCABULARY. IO9 

chasm, n. huwi p. huwet; shi" " p. shu"u". 

chastise, v. a. b'eddib, 'eddebt, 'eddib p.p. m'eddeb ; b"asis, 

"asast, "asis p.p. m"asas. 
chastisement, n. "isas. 
cheap, a. rkhis c. arkhas p. rkhas. 

cheat, V. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. maghshush. 
check, n. men*i; v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. mem- 

n'u; bsudd, saddait, sudd p.p. masdud. 
check-mate, n. met (mat). 

cheek, n. khadd, khudud ; cheek bone, wejni p. wejnet. 
cheer, v. a. bfarrih, farraht, farrih ; bibsut, basatt, bsut. 
cheerful, a. farhan. 
cheese, n. jibn; a cheese, "elib jibn. 
chemist, n. farmashyeni; saideli; ^^^;«^V/'.y j-A^/, farmashia; 

saideliyi. 
cherry, n. kerezi p. kerez ; cherry tree, kerezi. 
chess, n. sataranj (shatranj) ; to play chess, bil'ab, I'ibt, 

Tab sataranj; chess-man, hajr p. hijar; king, shah; 

nefs; queen, firz; castle, rikh; bishop, fil; knight, faras ; 

pawn, bayda** p. biyedi". 
chess-board, n. ri"'at as-sataranj. 
chest, n. sidr p. sduri; {box) sandu" p. snedi". 
chestnut, n. kestaneyi p.kestana; chestnut tree kestaneyi. 
chew, V. a. bimdagh, madaght, mdagh p.p. mamdugh. 
chicken, n. djeji p. djejet c. p. djej ; firkha p. firakh; 

chicken-pox, jidrit al-mai. 
chief t n. raiyis p. ruasa. 
chiefly, ad. khususan; bil-akhas. 
child, n. walad p. uled (owlad). 
childhood, n. waldeni. 
chill, n. berd. 
chilly, a. berid f. berdi ; {of persons) msa" 'a ; berdcn. 



no. ARABIC MANUAL. 

chimney J n. dekhun p. dwekhin ; medkheni ; [of a lamp) 

"izezi p. "izezet. 
chitij n. da"n p. du"un. 

China, as-sin ; Chinese, a. sini; [porcelain) n. khazaf ; sini. 
chintz, n. shit; yemeni. 
chisel, n. zmil p. azamil. 
choice, n. ikhtiyar. 
choke, V. a. [of creatures) bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. 

makhnu"; (of things) v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. 

mesdud. 
cholera, n. hawa asfar. 
choose, V. a. bna" "i, na" "ait, na""i p.p. mna""a; bukhtar, 

ikhtart, ikhtar p.p. mukhtar. 
chopper, n. satur p. swatir. 
chord, n. watar p. owtar. 
Christ, Yesu'a; al-mesih; 'Isa. 

Christian, n. nusrani p. nasara; mesihi p. mesihiyin, 
church, n. kenisi p. kn^yis. 
cigarette, n. sikara p. swekir; a^^r^//^ /f^/^^r, biz sikara; 

cigarette case, 'elbit sikara. 
cinders, n. rimed. 
cinnamon, n. "irfi. 
cipher, n. shifra; ra"m p. ar"am. 
circle, n. de'iri p. dwe'ir. 
circulate, v. n. (3rd per.) bidur, dar. 
circufnstance, n. zarf p. zuruf. 
cistern, n. sahrij p. saharij ; [well) bir p. biyara. 
citizen, n. ibn beled p. uled beled. 
citron, n. kubbedi p. kubbed. 
city, n. medini p. mudn. 
civil, a. meleki; civil service khidmi milkiyi; [polite) a. 

mhazzab; mrubba. 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 1 

civility J n. tehzib; lutf. 

claim, n. talab p. talbet c. p. matalib; [legal claim) n. 

d'awa p. da'awi ; v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub p.p. matlub ; 

[to pretend) v. bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i (fi)j to claim 

[legally) v. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul d'awa. 
claimant, n. talib p. tullab; mudde'i. 
clamour, n. dajji (doji); saiha. 
clap [applaud), v. bza" "if, za" "aft, za""if (li), 
class, n. sinf p. asnaf. 
claw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar), dafir. 
clay, n. tin; [earth) tirab. ^ C^A^i^) 
clean, a. ndif c. andaf p. ndaf; v. a. bnaddif, naddaft, 

naddif p.p. miiaddaf. 
cleanliness, n. nadafi. 
clear, a. wadih; zahir; {transparent) a. sheffa-f ; [of ligtads) 

safi ; raiyi"; v. a. browwi", rowwa"t, rowwi" p.p. 

mrowwa"; clear sighted, nazr-uh taiyib. 
clerk, n. ketib p. kitteb. 
clever, a. shatir, c. ashtar p. shuttar. 
climb, V. n. bit'amsha", t'amsha"t, t'amsha" ('ala) ; bit'ar- 

bash, t'arbesht, t'arbash ('ala). 
climate, n. menekh. 
clock, n. se'a di"a"a; clock-maker, se'ati ; clock-tower, 

birj as-s^'a; face of a clock, mina; hands of a clock, 

'a"rab p. 'a"arib. 
close, a. "arib p. "urab; (to fasten) v. a. bsekkir, sekkert, 

sekkir p.p. msakker; {to shut) v. a. bughlu", ghala"t, 

ghlu" p.p. maghlu". 
closet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cloth, n. jukh; saddle-cloth, libb^di; [for wiping) n. 

mc^msaha ; futa. 
clothe [to put clothes . on), v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis ; 



112 ARABIC MANUAL. 

(lo provide with clothes) v. a. biksi, ksait, ksi p.p. 
miksi; clothed, a. lebis. 
clothes, n. p. tyeb; n. keswi ; bedli. 
cloud, n. ghaimi p. ghiyum. 
clove [spice), n. kibsh "arunful. 
club, n. nebbut p. nebebit; {place of meeting) debesi 

p. debeset; {of cards) sbeti. 
coachman, n. 'arabaji. 
coal, n. fahm hajr. 
coarse, a. khishin. 
coat, n. sitra p. sitrat (sitri p. sitari); saku p. saket; 

overcoat, kebbut p. kbebit; jibbi p. jibeb. 
cobbler, n. sekkef. 
cobweb, n. 'ankebut; sidi 'ankebut. 
cock, n. dik p. diyuk; (of a gun) dik. 
cockroach, n. sarsur p. srasir. 

coffee, n. "ahwi; (in the berry) benn {h'lnn); ground coffee, 
benn mat-hun; coffee boiler, ghiWey'i; duli (doli); coffee- 
mill, mat-hanit benn; coffee roaster, ma-hmsisa.; to roast 
coffee, V. a. bhammis, hammast, hammis p.p. mhammas. 
coffin, n. tebut p. twebit. 
coin, n. 'umli ; v. a. bsikk, sekkeyt, sikk *umli ; bdu" ", 

da" "ait, du""'umli. 
cold, n. berd ; a. berid f. berdi ; (of persons) a. berden ; 
(in the head) n. resh ; {in the chest) nizl ; to catch cold, 
V. n. bibrud, baradt, brud ; / have a cold ifi the head, 
ana mreshshah. 
colic, n. maghs. 

collar, n. "abbi p. "abbet; (of harness) kiddeni. 
colleague, n. refi p. arfa". 

collect, V. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a p.p. mejmu'a. 
college, n. medresi p. mederis. 



VOCABULARY. II3 

colonel, n. mir alay. 

colour y n. lown p. elwen. 

colt, n. mnhr p. mhur (mahari). 

column, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 

comb, n. musht p. mshat; v. a. bmashshit, mashshatt, 

mashshit p.p. mmashshat. 
come, V. n. biji, jit, t'a; coi?te up, bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); 

come down, binzel, nzilt, inzel; cojne back, birj'a, rj'at 

(rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 
comet, n. abu denab. 
comfort, n. {ease) raha. 
co?nf or table, a. mlib ; bi raha ; mirteh. 
comical, a. mudhik. 

coming, pres. part, jei; coming and going, raih u jei. 
command, n. amr p. awemir; v. a. bi'mur, amert, emir 

(umur). 
co7nmander, n. amir; "eyid; kumandan. 
commend, v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
commendation, n. medh (medih). 
commerce, n. tijara; metjr. 
commission, n. 'umuli {allowance to an agent), 
common, a. derij c. adraj ; {universal) 'umumi, 'am ; 

(plentiful) wajd (mowjud) bi kitra; ghazir; commonly, 

ad. *umumen. 
communicate, v. a. bbelligh, bellaght, belligh p.p. mbellagh. 
communication, n. tebligh p. teblighat. 
companion, n. refi*' p. arfa"; zmil p. zumela. 
company, n. shirki p. sheraket; {milit:) buluk p. buluk^t. 
comparatively, ad. bin-nisbi. 

compare {with), v. a. bi"ebil, "abelt, "^bil (m'a). 
comparison, n. m"ebeli; in comparison with, bil-m*'^beli ; 

bin-nisbi ila. 

8 



114 ARABIC MANUAL. 

compass, n. bikar. 

compassion, n. shefa"a; ra'fi. 

compel (to), V. a. bijbur, jebert, jbur p.p. mejbur ('ala). 

compensate, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'ow- 

wad ('ala of the person) ; to be compensated, bit'owwad, 

t'owwadt. 
compensation, n. t'awid. 
competence, n. salahiyi. 
competent, a. "adir ("edir). 

complain (of), v. bitshekka, tshekkait, tshekka (min). 
complaiyit, n. teshekki (shekwa) p. teshekkiyet. 
complete, a. kemil ; v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil p.p. 

mkemmel. 
cojnpletely, ad. bil-killiyi; tamemen. 
complexion, n. lown al-wijh. 
complicate, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arbas. 
complication, n. irtibek. 

compliment, n. teklif p. teklifet; v. a. bhenni, hennait, henni. 
composed (of), a. murekkeb (min). 

comprehend, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
compromise, n. ittife" (ittifa") ; msewa ; v. a. bsewi, sa- 

weyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 
compulsion, n. ijbar. 
conceal, v. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba; 

bikhfi, khafait, khfi p.p. mikhfi. 
concede (give), v. a. bimnah, manaht, mnah; (allow) v. 

bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
concern, v. a. (3rd per.) bihimm, hamm; it does 7iot coft- 

cern me, ma bikhuss-ni; ma bihimm-ni; ma biy'ani-ni; 

it did not concern 7ne, ma ken bikhuss-ni. 
concerning, pr. bkhusus; 'ala; min khusus. 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 5 

concessioriy n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet. 

conciliate, v. a. bselim, selemt, selim. 

conciliation, n. msalaha ; silha. 

coficise, a. mukhtaser. 

conclude, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; binhi, nahait, 

nhi. 
conclusioti, n. khatmi; netiji p. nete'ij. 
condemn, v. bihkum, hakamt, hkum p.p. mahkum ('ala 

of the person, ila of the thing), 
condition, n. (state) hali; [stipulation) shart p. shurut. 
conditionally, ad. 'ala shart. 
condole (with), v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi ; bselli, selleyt, 

selli. 
condolence, n. t'aziyi. 
conduct, n. sluk; siri; her conduct, sirt-ha; to lead (to), 

V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
cofifectioner, n. hilwenji p. hilwenjiyi. 
confectionery, n. halawiyet. 

confederacy, n. jumhuriyi ; muhalifi p. muhalifet. 
confer (with), v. n. bitbahat, tbahatt, tbahat (m'a); 

bitzekir, tzekirt, tzekir (m'a) ; (to give) b'ati, 'atait, 'ati. 
confess, v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, e'itirif (bi); b"urr, "arrait, 

"urr (bi). 
confession, n. i"rar; 'itiraf. 

confide (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem (li). 
confidence, n. ti"a; emniyi. 
confidently , ad. bil-emniyi. 

confine, v. a. bihbus, habast, hbus (hbis) p.p. mahbus. 
confirm, v. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet. 
confiscate, v. a. bi^juz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
confuse, v. a. bkharbit, kharbatt, kharbit ; (morally) v. a. 

b*arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis. 



Il6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

confusion, n. kharbata; [moral) teshwish. 

congratulate, v. bhenni, hennait, henni; bberik, berakt, 

berik (li). 
congratulation, n. tebrik; tehniyi. 
conjecture, n. takhmin; v. n. bkhammin, khamment, 

khammin. 
conjurer, n. mz'abir. 

connect [with), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usfl) p.p. mowsul (bi). 
connection, n. ittisal; 'ala**a; [relation) "arabi p. "araiyib. 
conjioisseur , n. khabir. 

conquer, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
conscience, n. damir. 
conscious, a. we'i (wa'i). 
coftscription, n. "ur'a. 
conscript, n. 'asker "ur'a. 
consecutively, ad. bit-teb'aiyi. 

consent, n. rida; v. [to) birda, irdit, irda (fi or li). 
consequence, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 
consider, v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi or li). 
consider atio7i, n. [thought) ta'ammul; [respect) 'itibar. 
consign {to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem (li). 
consigrwient [of goods), n. irsaliyi. 
cojisisting (of), a. murekkeb (min) ; m'ellef (min.) 
consolation, n. t'aziyi. 

console, v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi; bselli, selleyt, selli. 
conspicuous, a. zahir; wadih. 
conspiracy, n. mu'amera; hareki; kemin. 
constancy, n. sebet. 
co7istant, a. sebit; [continual) de'im. 
Constantinople, Istambul; al-isteni. 
constantly, ad. de*imen; 'ala dewam. 
consternation, n. khowf; r'abi. 



VOCABULARY. II7 

constipation y n. "abd ; kitem. 

construct^ v. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, *ammir p.p. m'ammer. 

consul^ n. "onsul p. "anasil; Consul General, "onsul 

jeneral; Vice-Consul, "onsul zghir (wekil "onsul); cori- 

sulate, l^unslato ("unslato). 
consult, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 
consumption, n. (disease) sil; (food) ma"tu'iyi. 
contact, n. ittisal. 
contagion, n. 'adwi. 
contagious, a. m'edi. 
contain, v. a. (3rd per.) bise'a, se*a. 
cojitaminate, v. a. be'adi, 'adait. 
contemptible, a. dun (deni) ; ha"ir. 
cotitent, n. rida; "ana'a. 
contented, a. radi; "en'i. 
contest, n. mnazera. 
continual, a. de'im; mustmurr. 
continually , ad. d^'imen. 
continue, v. a. bdewim, dewamt, dewim; v. n. (3i<i per.) 

bidum, dam (dem); bitul, tal; bitowwil, towwal. 
contraband, n. tehrib. 
contract, n. kontrato ; mu"aweli ; to contract with, b'amii 

kontrato m'a. 
contradict, v. a. b"^wim, "^wamt, "^wim; b'arid, 'aradt, 

'arid. 
contrary (to), ad. mkhalif ; pr. dudd ; on the contrary, 

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 
contrive, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
contrivance, n. tedbir p. tedebir; teswi; instinbat; (in- 
vention) ikhtira'a. 
convalescence, n. shifa; na"i. 
convenient, a. mw6fi"; mn^sib. 



Il8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

convent, n. deyr p. diyura. 

convention, n. ma'ahedi. 

conversation, n. haki p. hakiyat. 

convert, n. muhtidi; v. a. [of religion) bihdi, hadait, 

hdi. p.p. mihdi; [of money) bhowwil, howwelt, howwil 

p.p. mhowwel. 
convey, v. a. bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul (n"il) p.p. men"ul. 
coyivict, n. miznib p. miznibin. 
convict [to), V. a. bkhatti, khattait, khatti ; v. bihkum, hakamt, 

hkum p.p. mahkum {^2X2^0/ the person, 1X2^ of the punishment), 
conviction, n. hukm; [belief) i"n'a. 

cook, n. ashji p. ashjiyi; v. a. bitbukh, tabakht, tbukh. 
cool, a. berid; v. a. bberrid, berradt, berrid. p.p. mber- 

rad; v. n. (3rd per.) biyibrud, bered. 
coop, n. "afas p. "afas. 
copper, n. nahas. 
coppersmith, n. nahhas. 
copying, n. nsakhi. 
copy, n. niskha p. n{sakh; v. a. binsakh, nasakht, nsakh 

p.p. mansukh. 
coquette, n. ghannuji; to coquet, v. a. and n. bgliannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij. 
coral, n. mirjen. 
cord, n. maras. 
core, n. "elb ("alb). 
cork, n. fellini p. fellinet c. p. fellin. 
corkscrew, n. berrimi p. berrimet. 
coryi, n. "amh ; [oji the foot) mismar. 
corner, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "urni p. "arani. 
corporal, n. on bashi; a. jesedi. 
corpse, n. jifi p. ji'ef; jitti p. jitet. 
corpulent, a. smin p. sman; nasih c. ansah. 



VOCABULARY. I I9 

correcty a. sahih; mazbut; v. a. bsahhih, sahhaht, sahhih 

p.p. msahhah; bsallih, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah. 
correspond withy [by letter) v. a. brasil, raselt, rasil ; [to 

agree with) v. n. (3rd per.) bitabi", taba" (li). 
correspondence y n. mrasili. 
correspojident, n. mketib; mrasil. 
corridor, n. ma'addiyi; memsha p. memeshi. 
corrupt, a. [of persons) murtikib. 
corruption, n. (bribery) fesed. 

cost, n. s'er; kilfi; "imi; v. n. (3rd per.) bikellif, kellef. 
cotton, n. "utun. 
couch, n. diwen; ma" 'ad. 
cough, n. s'ali; v. n. bis'ul, sa'alt, s'ul. 
council, n. mejlis; adniiyiistrative council, mejlis al-idara; 

coimcil of state, shovvra 'ad-dowli. 
counsel, n. nasiha; meshura; (to advise) v. a. binsah, 

nasaht, insah; v. bshur, shirt, shxxv {^2i\di); to take counsel 

with, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 
count, V. a. be'idd, 'addeyt, 'idd p.p. m'adud. 
counterfeit, v. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
country, n. beled p. bilden ; (as opposed to town) berriyi ; 

countryman, ibn (p. uled) watn. 
couplet, n. beyt p. abiyet. 
courage, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa); jera*a. 
courageous, a. shuje*a (seje'a). 
courier, n. se'i (sa'i). 
course, n. (of a river) mejra; (way) tari"; race-coursey 

miden; {in driving) mishwar; of course, ad. min kill 

bidd; ma'Tura; m'alum. 
court, n. (of a sovereign) blat; (of a house) dar p. dur. 
court of justice, mahkemi p. mhakim; d^*iri p. dw^'ir ; 

civil court, d^'irit al-hu"u"; criminal court, d^'irit aj- 



I20 ARABIC MANUAL. 

jeza; commercial court, mejlis at-tijara; court of i^t in- 
stance, de'irit al-bedeyi; court of appeal, de'irit al- 
isti'naf; court of cassation, de'irit at-temiz. 

courteous, a. adib. 

courtesy, n. adab; lutf. 

courtier, n. nedim p. nudema. 

cousin, n. {by paternal uncle) ibn (f. bint) 'amm; {by 
pat, aunt), ibn (f. bint) 'ammi; {by maternal uncle) 
ibn (f. bint) khal; {by mat. aunt) ibn (f. bint) khali. 

co^'er, n. ghata p. ughtiyi; black silk cover worn by 
women, habara ; {coloured) melaiyi ; v. a. bghatti, 
ghattait, ghatti p.p. mghatta. 

covet, V. a. bishtihi, shtahait. 

coveteous, a. tamma'a. 

covey, n. reff p. rfuf. 

cow, n. ba"ara p. ba**ar. 

coward, n. jeb^n p. jubena. 

cowardice, n. jebeni. 

coxcomb, n. ghewi (ghawi). 

crab, n. salta'un (sulta'an) p. slata'in. 

crack, V. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. maksur; v. a. 
(3rd per.) bishi"", sha"" p.p. mesh'*u"; bifsukh, fasakh; 
p.p. mafsukh; n. shi" " p. shu"u"; fiskh p. fsukh. 

cradle, n. sur p. aserir (sraiyir). 

craft, n. {trade) san'a p. sanai'ya ; hirfi ; (fraud) hili. 

crane, n. kirki p. kraki. 

crawl, V. n. bdebdib, debdebt, debdib. 

crazy, a. mef'u'a. 

cream, n. "ishta. 

crease, n. j'adi p. j'ad^t; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid. 

create {cause), v. a. bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb 
('an); God creates, Allah biyikhli", khala" p.p. makhlu". 



VOCABULARY. 121 

creation, n. {of the world) khal" al-'alam. 

creator (the), al-khali". 

creatures, n. p. makhlu"at. 

credentials, n. mektub towsiyi; shehedi p. shehedet. 

credit, n. {consideration) 'itibar ; {of money) emniyi ; kre- 

dito; debit and credit, luh wa 'aleyh; to give credit 

to {money), v. a. bdeyyin, deyyent, deyyin; [to believe) 

bsaddi", sadda"t, saddi". 
creditor, n. deyyen, p. deyyeni (medainiyi). 
crescent, n. hilel. 

cress, n. irshed; {watercress) "urra (hurra). 
crest, n. [of a bird) "unbra. 
Crete, krit; Cretans, ahli krit. 
crier, n. (public) dellel (dellal); mnedi. 
crime, n. zenb p. znub; jneyi p. jneyet. 
criminal, a. jeni; n. mijrim. 
crimson, a. "frmizi. 

cripple, n. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez; mukarsah p. mukarsihin. 
crocodile, n. timseh p. temesih. 
crocus, n. z'aferan. 

crook, n. {shepherds) *asa; [of a stick) mihjeni; 'akfi. 
crooked, a. 'awaj f. *owja p. 'uj. 
crop, n. mowsam p. mwasim. 
cross, n. salib p. sulben ; [put of temper) a. z'alen ; v. a. 

bi"t'a (bu"t*a) '*at*at, u"t'a; cross road, n. msallabi. 
crow, n. ghrab p. ghurb^n. 
crowd, n. jemhur kbir. 
crowded, a. mel^n; mezhum. 
crown, n. tej p. tij^n. 
crosier, n. *ukkaz. 

crucify, v. a. bislub, salabt, slub, p.p. maslub. 
cruel, a. "asi. 



122 RABIC MANUAL. 

cruelty, n. "asewi. 

criimbj n. kesra p. kesr. 

crupper, n. hiyasa. 

crusaders {the), n. p. as-salibiyi. 

crusades {the), n. p. hurub as-salibiyi. 

crush, V. a. bis-ha", saha"t, is-ha" p.p. mas-hu" ; bizhum, 

zahamt, zhum. 
cry, V. n. {to weep) bibki, bakit, bki ; v. a. {to call) bnedi, 

nadait, nedi; v. bindah, nadaht, ndah (li); n. sowt 

(sot) ; srakh. 
crystal, n. billowr (bellur). 
cucumber, n. khiyara p. khiyar. 
cue, n. {billiard) 'asa biliardo; {hint) ishara. 
cuff, n. {blow) latmi ; kefif; {shirt) kimm (kumm) p. kemem. 
cuirass, n. dir*a p. dru'a. 
culprit, n. mfznib; mi'jrim. 
cultivate, v. a. biflah, felaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
cultivation, n. fleha (felaha). 

cunning, a. dehi ; muhtel ; a cunnifig rogue , n. hielji. 
cup, n. finjen p. fnejin. 
cupboard, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cupola, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
curdled, a. rab. 

curds {curdled milk), n. rowbi. 

cure, n. shi'fa; v. a. bishfi, shefeyt, shfi; cured, a. shifi. 
curl, n. j'adi p. j'adet; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid; 

bliff, leffeyt, lifif; curly, a. j'adi. 
currants, n. p. "ashlamish. 
currency, n. 'umli derji. 

current, (of a streafn) n. mejra; (of money) a. derji. 
curry (a horse), v. a. bhiss, hassait, hiss. 
curry-co7nb, n. mhassi. 



VOCABULARY. I23 

cursej n. I'ani p. I'anet; v. a. bil'an, la'ant, I'an p.p. 
merun. 

curtain, n. birdeyi p. birdeyet; stara p. steyir; curtain- 
rod , n. 'asa. 

cushion, n. mkhaddi; (large) mesned p. mesenid. 

custom, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. awe'id. 

customer, n. zbun p. zbunet. 

custom-house, n. gumruk ; customs, n. p. rusumet. 

cut, V. a. b"uss, "assait, '*uss p.p. ma"sus ; bu"ta (bi"t*a) 
"at'at, u"t'a p.p. ma"tu'a. 

ctitting, n. teksir. 

cutlass, n. seyf p. siyuf; yatakan p. yatakanet. 

cymbal, n. sunj p. snuj. 

cypress, n. serwi p. serwet c. p. seru. 

Cyprus, "Ubrus; Cypriote, a. "ubrusi. 



dagger, n. khanjer p. khnejir. 

daily, a. yowmi (yomi); by the day (of work) yomiyi. 

daisy, n. a"hwan. 

dam, n. sidd p. sdud. 

damage, n. darar; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; 

bsa**it, sa"att, sa"it p.p. msa*'at; damaged, a. sa"at 

(of goods). 
Damascus, sham (shem); Dimeshk ash-sham. 
damp, n. rtubi; a. rutib c. artab v. a. brattib, rattabt, 

rattib. 
dance, n. ra"s; v. n. bir"u.s, ra"a.st, ru"us. 
dancer, n. ra"as. 
danger, n. khatr. 



124 ARABIC MANUAL. 

dangerous J a. mukhtir, khutir. 

Danube, Danub. 

Dardanelles, Dardanil. 

dare, v. n. bisterji, sterjeyt, sterji; btjaser, tjasert, tjaser; 

btjarr'a, tjarr'at, tjarr'a. 
darky a. 'atm f. 'atmi; m'atem f. m'atmi; to grow dark, 

V. n. (3rd per.) bit'atim, 'atamit ad-diniyi (the world), 
darkness, n. 'atmi; zulmi. 
darling, a. 'aziz; habib. 
darn, v. a. birti, ratait, irti p.p. merti. 
dash, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah; birmi, rmait, rmi. 
date, n. (time) terikh; (fruit) heldih (fresh); taimr (dried), 
daughter, n. bint p. benat (benet) , daughter-in-law, kinni. 
dawdle, v. n. bmasiy'a, masiy'at, masiy'a ; blowt'i, lowt'at, 

lowt'i. 
day, n. yowm (yom) p. iyem (iyam) ; fete-day, 'eid p. 

*aiy^d; fast-day, yowm sowm (yom som); day and 

night, ad. nahar u leyl; day by day, ad. yowm b'ad 

yowm; by day, fin-nahar; all day, kill an-nahar; day 

of judgment, n. yowm al-"iyemi (for days of the week 

vide gramfuar). 
dead, a. me'it p. amwat (mota). 
deadly, a. muhlik; "attd. 
deaf, a. atrash f. tarsha. 
deafen, v. a. btarrash, tarrasht, tarrish. 
deal, (wood) n. snowbar; a great deal, ad. ktiri ktir; 

bi-ziedi; v. n. (to deal in) btejir, tejert, tejir (bi); 

V. a. (of cards) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir; bfarri", 

farra"t, farri". 
dealer, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
dear, a. 'aziz; (expensive) ghali c. aghla. 
death, n. mowt (mot). 



VOCABULARY. 1 25 

debt, n. deyn p. diyun; iji debt {a debtor) a. and n. 

mediyun. 
decanter y n. kraf. 

deceased, a. (of moslems) merhum ; (christians) mutwaffi. 
deceit, n. ghishsh. 
deceive, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. magh- 

shush. 
deceiver, n. ghashshesh. 
December, n. kenun al-owwel. 
decency, n. leya"a. 
decent, a. leyi". 
decide, v. be'itimid, 'etemedt, e'itimid fala); bsammim, 

sammemt, sammim fikr ('ala). 
decision, n. hukm ; "arar. 
declaration, n. ta"rir; tasrih. 
declare, v. a. b'*arrir, "arrert, "arrir. 
declivity, n. nezli. 

decorate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen. 
decoration, n. zini. 
decrease, v. a. b'ellil, "allelt, "ellil; bna"*'is, na""ast, 

na"'*is; V. n. (3rd per.) bi"ill, ''€i\y(in value) [i^^ per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; (of disease) bikhuff, khaff; n. na"s. 
decree, n. amr p. awemir. 
decrepit, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
deduct, V. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh; bnezzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil. 
deduction, n. tenzil; is"at. 
deed, n. *amel p. a'mel; (title deed) hijji p. hujej; (deed 

of sale), hijjit bey'a. 
deep, a. *ami" (ghami**) c. aghma** p. ghma". 
deer, n. ghazd p. ghizlen. 
defamation, n. t*an ; iftfra. 



126 ARABIC MANUAL. 

defamcy v. bit'an, ta'ant, ta'an (fi). 

defeat, v. a. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to 

be defeated, binghilib, inghalibt; binhizim, inhazamt 

p.p. minhizim. 
defect, n. na"s; 'aib p. 'uyub. 
defective, a. na"is p. nu"a.s. 
defend, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi; (in a legal sense or 

to stand up for) v. bhami, hameyt, hami ('an). 
defendant, n. mudde' 'aleyh. 
defer, v. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher; 

b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel. 
deference, n. ihtiram. 
defile, n. madi"; v. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis; defiled, a. 

nejis. 
definite, a. belt; "ati*. 
degree, n. dereji. 
delay, n. 'a"a; v. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe" p.p. 

m*owwa"; V. n. bit'owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa". 
deliberate, a. himil ; mihil ; {to reflect) v. biftiker, iftakert, 

iftikir (fi or li); deliberately, ad. 'ala mahl-ak (with 

pro. suff,). 
delicacy, n. nahafi; (weakness) du'af. 
delicate, a. nahif p. nuhafa; (weak) da'if p. da'af. 
delight, n. bast; farah; surur; v. a. (3rd per.) biyubsut, 

basat; biferrih, farrah; delighted, a. mesrur. 
delightful, a. mferrih (mufirih). 
delirious (to be), v. n. bihzi, hazait; bikhlut, khalatt 

fil-kelem. 
deliver (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem 

(li); (liberate) v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu". 
deliverance, n. khalas. 
deluge, n. tufan (towafan). 



VOCABULARY. 1 27 

demand^ n. talab p. talbet c. p. matalib; bitlub, talabt, 

tlub p.p. matlub. 
demolish, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
demon, n. shaytan (sheytan) p. shaiyatin ; iblis. 
detiy n. maghara p. maghaiyir. 
denial, n. inkar. 

Denmark, Denimark; Dane, a. danemarki. 
dense, a. smik p. smak. 
dentist, n. hakim snen p. hukema snen. 
deny, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur p.p. munker. 
depart, v. n. bsefir, sefert, sefir. 
departure, n. sefer. 
depend (on), v. n. (3rd per.) biyitwa" "af, twa" "af 

Cala). 
depopulate, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt ; depopulated, a. kharab. 
deposit, n. ameni; wadi'a; v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a p.p. 

mowdu'a. 
depth, n. ghum*'. 
descend, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel. 
descent, n. nezli. 
describe (to), v. a. bishrah, sharaht, shrah (li); described^ 

a. mazkur. 
description, n. wasf. 
desert, n. shol ; v. n. (milit:) bihrub, harabt, hrub; v. a. 

bdeshshir, dashshert, deshshir. 
deserter, n. herib. 
desertion, n. harab. 

deserve, v. a. bistaha"**, staha""eyt; bist^hil, stehelt. 
deserving, a. must^hil. 
design, n. ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"asid; (sketch) resm p. 

rusum. 
desire, n. rughbi; v. a. birghab, rghibt, rghab. 



128 ARABIC MANUAL. 

desirable, a. marghub. 

desk, n. mektebi; beshtakta. 

destroy, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub; bihdum, hadamt, 

hdum p.p. mahdum. 
destruction, n. kharab; hadam. 
detach, v. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
details, n. p. tafsilat. 

detain, v. a. b'owwa'*, *owwa"t, *owwe" p.p. m'owwa". 
detest, V. a. bikrah, krfht p.p. makruh. 
devil, n. iblis; shaytan. 
devise, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
devotee, n. zehid. 
devotiotit n. 'ibedi. 
dew, n. nidi. 

dexterous, a. shatir, p. shuttar; mehir. 
dialogue, n. hadis; mukalemi. 

diamond, n. iimazi p. ilmaz (ilmas); (cards) dineri. 
diarrhaay n. is-hal; jeriyan. 
diary, n. yowmiyi; jurnel. 
dice, n. zahr. 

dictionary, n. "amus p. "awamis. 
die, v. n. bmut, mutt, mut. 
differ (from), v. n. bikhtflif, ikhteleft ('an or m'a) ; v. n. 

(3rd per.) biyifri", fara" ('an). 
difference, n. far" p. fru" (fru^at). 
different, a. mukhtilif. 
difficult, a. s'ab c. as'ab. 
difficulty, n. s'obi (s'ubi). 
dig, V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 
digest, V. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
dignified, a. jelil; wa"ur. 
dignity, n. wa"ar. 



VOCABULARY. 1 29 

dilatory y a. buti; himil. 

diligence, ijtihad; ihtimam. 

dilute, V. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaflfef. 

dijn, a. muzlim. 

dimension, n. "iyes. 

diminish, v. a. bna""is, na""ast, na""is; v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; diminished, a. na"is. 
dine, v. n. (at mid-day) bitghadda, tghaddeyt, tghadda; 

biftar, fatart, ftar; (iri the evefting) bit'ashsha, t'ash- 

hait, t'ashsha. 
dining-room, n. udat sufra; beyt at-towli. 
dinner, n. (mid-day) ftur; ghada; (evening) ^asha,; (dinner - 

table), sufra; tovvlit al-ghada. 
dip, V. a. bghammis, ghammast, ghammis ; bghutt, ghatteyt, 

ghutt. 
direct, a. dughri; v. a. (to) bdull, delleyt (dellait), dull 

(*ala); direct me to the road, duU-ni 'al at-tari". 
direction, n. tari"; derb; jeha p. jehet; (;«^«^^^;;/^«/) idara 

p. idarat. 
directly, ad. halan; halla". 
director, n. mudir. 
dirt, n. wasakh. 
dirty, a. wisikh; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh, p.p. 

mwassakh. 
disagree, (with) v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft, ikhtflif (m'a). 
disappear, v. n. bghib, ghibt (kint ghaiyib), ghib; dis- 
appeared, pres. part, ghaiyib (tised as an adj.). 
disappearance, n. ikhtffa. 
disappoint, V. a. bkhaiyib, khaiyebt; bi"t'a (bu"t'a), "at'at 

amel-i (with pro stiff.) ; disappoiiited, pres. part, khaiyib 

(used as an adj.). 
disappointment, n. khaibi. 

9 



I30 ARABIC MANUAL. 

disaster y n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

discernment y n. futni. 

dischargey [send away) v. a. bish-hat, shahatt, shahat, 

p.p. mash-hut; b"all'i, "all'at, "all'i. 
discipline y n. nazam. 
disclose y v. a. bizhir, azhert, zaher; bbeyyin, beyyent, 

beyyin. 
discoHtenty n. adem rida. 
discontented y a. ghair radi. 

discount y n. tenzil. •• 

discourteous y a. bila adab; "alii adab. 
discovery v. a. bujad, wajadt, ujad; v. biktishif, iktesheft, 

iktishif ('ala) p.p. mukteshef. 
discuss, V. bitzekir, tzekert, tzekir (fi). 
disease y n. marad. 
diseased, a. marid p. murada. 
disengaged, a. fadi. 
disgracey n. mu'ib. 
disguisey v. bsettir, settert, settir ('ala) v. n. bitsettir, 

tsettert, tsettir p.p. mutsettir. 
disgust y n. kfrih. 
dishy n. jat p. jatet. 

dislocate, v. a. bifkush, fakasht p.p. mefkush. 
disloyaly a. khaiyin. 
disloyalty, n. khiyeni. 

dismal, a. mughimm ; {of persons) keddir. 
dismiss, v. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. (see discharge), 
dismissal, n, 'azl. 

dismounty (from) v. n. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil ('an). 
disobedience, n, 'isiyanj mkhalifi. 
disobedient y a. 'asi; mkhalif. 
disobey, v. a. bkhalif, khaleft, khalif. 



• VOCABULARY. 13! 

disorder, n. 'adem tertib. 

dispatch, v. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at; n. tahrir p. tahrirat; 

mektub p. meketib. 
dispensary, n. farmashia. 
disperse, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra"; to be 

dispersed, v. n. bitferri", tferra"t. 
displease, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir p.p. mkeddirj 

it displeases me, bikedder-ni ; to be displeased, v. n. 

bitkeddir, tkeddert. 
displeasure, n. keder. 
disposition, [temper) n. tab'a. 
dispute, n. jidal; toshi (towshi); v. a. [to quarrel with), 

bkhasim, khasamt, khasim; bkhani", khana"t, khani". 
disrespect, n. 'adem ihtiram. 
dissolve, v. a. bdowwib, dowwabt, dowwib; v. n. (3rd per.) 

bidub, dab. 
distance, n. mesefi. ^ 

distant, a. be'id p. ba'ad. /f^^ 
distinct, a. wadih; zahir; beyyin. 
distinguished, a. mumtaz. 
distress, n. di". 
distribute (among), v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. 

mferra" ('ala); bwazz'i, wazz'ait, wazz'i ('ala). 
distribution, n. tefri". 
district, n. mu"at'a. 
disturb, (fftorally) v. a. bshowwish, showwesht afkar-uh 

p.p. mshowwesh; [of things) v. bkharbit, kharbatt, 

kharbit (fi). 
disturbance, n. kharbata. 

ditch, n. khenda" p. khanadi*' (khn^di"); hafra p. Jiafr. 
ditto, ad. sherh-uh ; mitl-uh [with pro. suff.), 
divan, n. diw^n; ma"*ad. 



132 ARABIC MANUAL. ' 

dive, V. n. bightus, ghatast, ghtus. 

diver, n. ghattas p. ghattasi. 

diversion, n. tesliyi. 

divert, [to amuse') v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli ; to be diverted, 

V. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tselli ; [to change the direction of) 

V. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil. 
divide, v. a. bi"sum, "asamt, u"sum p.p. ma"sum; to be 

divided, bin"isim, in"asamt. 
divideftd, n. faiyiz. 
divine, a. dini; ilahi. 
divorce, n. tala" ; v. a. btalli", talla"t, talli" p.p .mtalla"; 

to be divorced, bittalli'*, ttalla*'t. 
dizzy, a. deyikh. 

do, V. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amil); it will do, hiyis-wd,. 
doctor, n. hakim p. hukema; tabib p. atibba. 
docu7nent, n. sakk p. skuk. 
dog, n. kelb p. kleb; female dog, kelbi. 
doll, n. 'aiyibi p. 'aiyeb; I'ubi (I'ebi) p. lu*ab. 
dome, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
domestic, {not wild) a. juwwi. 
domicile, n. beled ; watn ; beyt ; mesken. 
donation, n. 'atiyi p. 'ataiya. 
donkey, n. himar p. hamir; she donkey, himara. 
door, n. bab (beb) p. abwab (bweb) ; trap-door, beb sirr ; 

door-keeper, n. bawweb. 
dot, n. nu'*ta p. nu"at. 
double, a. mda'af; v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if p.p. mda'af; 

double-faced, bi wejheyn wilseneyn (lit, with two faces 

and ttuo tongues), 
doubt, n. shekk p. shukukj shubha; v. bshikk, shekkait, 

shikk (fi). 
doubtless, ad. bidun shubhi; bila shekk. 



VOCABULARY. 1 33 

dough, n. 'ajin. 

dovey n. hamemi p. hamemet c. p. hamem; ring-dove, 

hamem mtowwa" ; turtle-dove, hamemi stetiyi. 
dower, n. sda"; mahr; jihaz. 

down, ad. ila taht ; down-hill, f i nezli ; down-stairs, taht. 
doze, V. n. bin 'as, n'ist, n'as. 
draft, n. muswaddi. 
dragoman, n. terjuman. 
drag, n. {for carriages^ shaht; v. a. bis-hab, sahabt, 

is-hab p.p. mes-hub; (to draw) v. a. bjurr, jarrait, 

jurr p.p. mejrur. 
drain, n. balu'a. 

draper, n. khurdeji; bey'a jukh; jawwakh. 
draught, n. mejra hawa. 

draw, V. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msowwer. 
drawer, n. jarur p. jwarir; drawers, n. kalson. 
drawing, n. resm ; sura. 
dreadful, a. mukhif; ha'il (heyil). 
dream, n. menam p. menamat; hulm p. ahlam. 
dress, n. tyeb ; keswi ; v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis ; v. n. 

bilbus, Ibist, ilbus p.p. melbus; dressed, a. lebis. 
drill, n. t'alim. 
drink, [drinking) n. shirb ; v. a. bishrab, shribt, shrab; 

(to get drunk), v. n. biskar, sikert. 
drive to, (in a carriage) v. n. biruh, riht, ruh, m'al- 

*arabiyi ; birkeb, rkibt, irkeb bil-karrosa. 
drive, n. mishwar; driver, n. 'arabaji. 
drop, n. nu"ta p. nu"at; v. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; v. n. 

bu"'a, wa"**at, u"'a. 
dropsy, n. istis"a. 
drought, n. "aht. 
drown, v. n. bighra", ghara"t (ghari"t), ughra"; v. a. 



134 ARABIC MANUAL. 

bgharri", gharra"t, gharri"; drowned, pres. part. ghar"an 
{used as an adj.). 

drug, n. ijza; dawa. 

druggist, n. saideli; farmashyeni. 

drum, n. tabl p. tbul; [small) dirbekki. 

drunk, {intoxicated) a. sekran; drunkard, n. sikri. 

Druze, Derzi p. Druz. 

dry, a. neshif c. anshaf; yebis; v. a. bnashshif, nashs- 
heft, nashshif; byebbis, yebbest, yebbis; v. n. (3rd per.) 
biyinshef, nishif; biyibes, yebis ; bijiff, jeff; {of clothes 
before the fire) v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi — 'al an-nar. 

dual, n. mtenna (msenna). 

duck, n. batta p. batt; {wild duck) batt berri. 

due {to), a. mustahi" (li). 

dull, a. belid; berid; (dim) lown-uh kfddir. 

dumb, a. akhras; deaf and dumb, atrash u akhras. 

dun (horse), a. ahmar f. hamra. 

dung, n. zibl; (of horses) fishki. 

duplicate, n. niskha at-teni; in duplicate, niskhateyn. 

durable, a. d^'im. 

during, pr. middi. 

dtist, n. ghabra; dust-cloak, burnus p. baranis; dust-pan, 
mejrud p. mejerid ; duster, n. memsaha. 

duty, n. wejbet; custom duty, resm giimruk. 

dwarf, n. "azemi; "asir al-'*ami. 

dwelling, n. {habitation) beyt p. biyut ; mesken p. msekin. 

dye, n. sbagh; v. a. bisbagh, sabaght, sbagh p.p. masbugh. 

dyer, n. sabbagh. 

dynasty, n. seleli. 

dysentery, n. zintariyi. 



VOCABULARY. I35 



E. 

each, a. kill (kull) ; each one, kill wehid (wahid) ; each 

other, ba'ad-um. 
eager, a. raghib. 
eagerness, n. rughbi. 
eagle, n. nisr p. nusur. 
ear, n. izn (idn) p. izneyn (adaneyn); ear-ring, har'a 

p. hala". 
early, a. bekkir ; ad. 'ala biikra ('a bukra) ; to be early, v. n. 

bbekkir, bekkert, bekkir; early in the ^norning, 'a bukra. 
earii, v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah; bikseb, ksibt, kseb. 
earnest, a. mujtfhid; jad; n. r'abun; in earnest, min jedd, 
earth, n. ard. 
earthenware, n. fakhkhar. 

earthquake, n. zelzeli p. zelezil; {a shock) hezzi. 
earwig, n. abu m'*ass. 
ease, n. suhuli ; (comfort) raha. 
easily, ad. bis-suhuli. 
east, n. mishri"; eastern, a. shar"i. 
easter, n. al-fasah. 
easy, a. heyyin; sihl. 
eat, V. a. bekol, akelt, kol. 
eatables, n. p. ma'kulat (m^'kul^t). 
eating, n. akl. 
ebb [tide), n. jezr. 
ebony, n. abnus. 
eccentric, a. gharib p. ghurb. 
echo, n. si da. 
eclipse, n. (^/ ///^ jw;/) ksuf ash-shems; (of the moon) 

khsuf al-"amr. 



136 ARABIC MANUAL. 

economical, a. mwaffir. 

economy, n. tufir (towfir). 

edge, n. haffi p. haffet c. p. hafefi. 

edict, n. firman p. firmanat c. p. firamin. 

educate, v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba ; b'allim, 
'allamt, 'allim. 

education, n. terbiyi. 

eel, n. hanklis. 

efface, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 

effect, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

effects, n. p. howeyij ; 'afsh ; awe'i. 

effort, n. himmi; ijtihad. 

egg, n. baida (beyda) p. baidat c. p. baid (beyd); boiled 
eggs, baid maslu"; poached — , baid m"ashr; fried — , 
baid mi"li; soft-boiled — , baid brisht; hard-boiled — , 
baid mistwi; yolk of — , sfar baid; white of — , zlal 
baid; eggshell, "ishr; egg-cup, zarf p. zrufi; to break 
eggs (for cooking), v. a. bif'us, fa"ast, lu"us al-baid; 
egg-plant, n. bettinjan. 

Egypt, Misr; Egyptian, a. misri. 

either — or, con. imma — imma. 

eject, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i. 

elastic, n. matat; mighait (mugheyt); a. (^'^^?/^) mubhem. 

elbow, n. ku'a p. akw'a. 

elder, a. akbar fil-'umr. 

elect, V. a. bintikhib, intakhabt, intikhib p.p. muntakhab. 

election, n. intikhab. 

elegance, n. zarafi. 

elegafit, a. zarif p. zuraf. 

element, n. mebda p. mabedi. 

elephant, n. fil p. afiyal. 

elevation, n. mahall 'aali; telli p. tellet c. p. tlel (tlal). 



VOCABULARY. 1 37 

elm-tree, n. bu"isa. 

eloquence i n. fasaha. 

eloquent, a. fasih p. fusaha. 

else, ad. ghair; something else, shey (shi) ghair-uh. 

embark, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel fil-merkeb ; v. a. bnezzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil (li). 
ejnbarrass, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek. 
embarrassment, n. lebeki. 
embassy, n. sefara. 

embrace, v. a. b'ani", 'ana"t, 'ani" p.p. mu'ani". 
embroider, v. a. btarriz, tarrazt, tarriz p.p. mtarraz. 
embroidery, n. tutriz. 
emerald, n. zmurrud. 
emerge, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a. 
emergency, n. hadisi fow" al-'adi. 
emetic, n. mnatti". 
emigrant, n. mhejir (mhajir). 
emigrate, v. n. bhejir, hajert, hejir; v. binzah, nazaht, 

nzeh (min). 
emigration, n. mhajera. 
eminent, a. mesh-hur; shehir. 
emperor, n. imberatur. 
empire, n. imberatoriyi; saltani. 
employ, v. a. bistakhdim, stakhdamt, stakhdim p.p. 

mustakhdam. 
employer, n. mustakhdim. 
employment, n. shighl (shughl) ; khidmi. 
empress, n. meleki p. meleket; imberatura. 
efnpty, a. fadi ; ferigh ; v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi ; bfer- 

righ, ferraght, ferrigh. ^oS-,^^..^ 
enamel, n. mina. 
encamp, (on or in) v. n. bhill, hallait, hill ('ala or fi). 



138 ARABIC MANUAL. 

enclose, v. a. [with a wall) bhowwit, howwatt, howwit 
p.p. mhowwat; v. bhutt, hattait halt howl — ; {one 
thing inside another) bhutt — wast — ; enclosed (of 
papers) wast-uh; leffen tdLY-uh. {with pro. suff.)\ (of land) 
a. msowwan. 

enclosure, n. taswini. 

encourage, v. a. bjerr'a, jerr'at, jerr'a; bnashshit, nash- 
shatt, nashshit. 

end, n. ekhir; niheyi; (of things) taraf; ras; v. a. bkhallis, 
khallast, khallis; v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlus, khalas. 

endless, ad. bila niheyi; ma luh ekhir. 

endorse, v. a. bzahhir, zahhart, zahhir. 

endorsement, n. jiro. 

endure, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtfmil ; v. bisbur, sabert, 
sbur ('ala) ; / will not put up with him, ma bitowwil 
bel-i 'aleyh. 

enemy, n. dushmen ; *adu p. a'ada. 

energetic, a. neshit (nfshit). 

energy, n. neshat; himmi. 

engage (to bespeak), v. burbut, rabatt, urbut ('ala); en- 
gaged, (busy) meshghul; (betrothed) makhtub. 

engagement, n. shighl (shughl) ; (betrothal) khitbi. 

engiyie, n. makina; engine-driver, mikinist. 

engineer, n. mhendis. 

England, Inkilterra; E?iglish, a. inklizi. 

engrave, v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, in"ush p.p. men"ush. 

engraver, n. na" "ash ; haffar. 

engraving, n. na"sh. 

enjoy (oneself), v. n. binbusit, inbasatt. 

enlarge, v. a. bkebbir, kebbert, kebbir p.p. mkebber. 

enmity, n. 'adewi. 

eftormous, a. kbir ktir. 



VOCABULARY. 1 39 

enough [to be), v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi, ken kefi; ad. bes. 

enrich, v. a. bighni, ghanait. 

entangle, v. a. b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arbas; en- 
tangled, a. msherbek. 

enter, v. n. bfut, fitt, fut (li); bidkhul, dakhalt, dkhul 
(li) ; covie in [lit, honour us), imper. tfaddal. 

enterprise, n. meshru'a. 

entertain, v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum. 

entire, a. kemil; sahih. 

entirely, ad. bit-temem; bil-kemel. 

entrails, n. p. masarin. 

entrance, n. madkhal. 

entreat, v. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja. 

envelop, v. a. bliff, lefifeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 

envelope, n. mughallif; zarf p. zuruf. 

envirotis, n. p. atraf; n. howl. 

envious, a. hasud. 

envy, n. hasad; v. a. bihsud, hasadt, lihsud. 

epidemic, n. weba. 

epitaph, n. kitebit 'al al-"abr. 

equal, a. msewi; [to be equal to) v. a. (3rd per.) biyid'a, 
tiri ; biyiswa, sawa. 

equalise, v. a. bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 

equality, n. ms^wa. 

equator, n. khatt al-istiwa. 

equip, V. a. bjehhiz, jehhazt, jehhiz p.p. mjehhaz. 

eradicate, v. a. bista'sil, ista'selt, ista'sil p.p. musta'sel. 

erase, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 

erect, v. a. bibni, benait, bni p.p. mibni; b'ammir, 
*ammert, 'ammir p.p. m'ammer. 

err, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlitt (ghlutt), ghla^. 

errand, n. mishwar; ghara4? 



140 ARABIC MANUAL. 

erroVy n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 

erudition^ n. 'ilm. 

escape, [from) v. bikhlus, khalast, khlus (min) ; bitkhallis, 

tkhallast, tkhallis (min); biflet, felett, flut. 
escortf n. ghafr; hifz; under escort, taht al-ghafr; v. a. 

bighfur, ghafert, ughfur. 
especially, ad. khususan ; bi now' khususi. 
essence, n. ruh. 

establish, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
estate, n. p. amlak ; n. riz" p. arza". 
esteem, v. a. be'itibir, 'etebert, e'itibir p.p. mu*eteber. 
estimate, n. tetmin; v. a. btemmin, temment, temmin 

p.p. mtemmen. 
et ccetera, ad. ila akhiri. 
eternal, a. abedi. 
eternity, n. abediyi. 
euttiich, n. tawashi. 
Euphrates, Frat. 

Europe, Urubba; European, a. franji. 
evacuate, v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; v. n. binsihib, in- 

saljabt (min). 
evacuation, n. ikhla; terk. 
eveyi, a. sehili; msewa; (of numbers) n. jowz; odd and 

even, jowz u ferd; ad. hatta. 
evening, n. 'ashiyi; in the evening, min 'ashiyi; al-masa; 

to spend the evening , v. a. bis-her, sehirt, s-har. 
event, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 
ever (for), ad. de'imen. 
every, a. kill (kull) ; everybody, n. kill an-nes ; everywhere, 

ad. weyn meken. 
evidence, n. beyyeni. 
evident, a. wadih; zahir; basit. 



VOCABULARY. I4I 

evil, n. sherr; a. redi p. redaiya; sherrir. 

ewe, n. n'aji p. na'aj ; ghanimi. 

exact, a. mazbut; temem. 

exactly, ad. bit-temem. 

exaggerate, v. a. bbeligh, balaght, beligh. 

exaggeration, n. mbalighi. 

examijiation, n. imtihan ; fahs; cross-examination, \'s>Ww\.2i!\ 

exaviine, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas p.p. mafhus; cross- 
examitie, v. a. bistanti", stanta"t, stanti". 

example, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel; mastra p. msatir 
(msetir); for example, m^telen (meselen). 

excavate, v. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 

excavation, n. hafra p. hafr. 

exceed, v. bzid, zidt, zid ('ala). 

exceedingly, ad. ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 

excel (in), v. a. bisba", saba"t, sba" (fi). 

excellence, n. fadl. 

Excellency (Your), sa'adt-ak; His — , sa'adt-uh. 

except, con. ilia; ma'ada; v. a. bistesni, stesnait, stesni 
p.p. mustesna. 

exception, n. istisna. 

exceptional, a. mustesna; nedir. 

excess, n. ziedi (zod) ; to excess, bi-kitra. 

excessive, a. ze'id; excessively, ad. bi-ziedi. 

exchange (of money), n. kambio; in exchange for, pr. 
bedel; v. a. (for) b'awid, 'awadt, 'awid (bi). 

excite, v. a. bheyyij, heyyejt, heyyij p.p. mheyyej ; ex- 
cited, a. hdyyij. 

excitement, n. heyyijan. 

exclude, v. a. bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; bitrud, 'taradt, 
trud p.p. matrud. 

excrement, n. khara. 



142 ARABIC MANUAL. 

excusable, a. m'azur. 

excuse, n. 'uzr; 'itizar; v. a. be'azur, *azert, *azur; excuse 

me, 'azur-ni; to excuse oneself [to], v. n. be'itizir, 'etaiert, 

e'itizir (ila). 
execute, {to kill) v. a. be'idum, 'adamt, 'udum p.p. m'a- 

dum; [to perforin) v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil 

p.p. mkemmel. 
executiofi, n. 'idam. 
executioner, n. jelled. 

executor (to a will), n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi. 
exempt [from), v. a. be'ifi, *afait ('afeyt), 'ufi (min) p.p. 

me'afi. 
exemption, n. ma'afiyi. 

exercise, n. temrin; [of a horse) mashshi; v. a. [of sol- 
diers) bmarrin, marrent, marrin ; [of a horse) btall'i, 

tairat, tall'i — ila berra. 
exertion, n. jehd. 
exhausted [to be), v. n. bkill, kelleyt; / was exhausted 

with fatigue, kelleyt min at-t'ab; bihlak, hlikt. 
exile, n. serkili; nefi; v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. 

mserkel; binfi, nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 
exist, V. n. (3rd per.) bikun, ken; biyujad, inwajad. 
existence, n. wujud. 
exorbitant, a. fehish; ghali ktir. 

expand, v. n. [y^ per.) biyimted, imted p.p. memdud. 
expansion, n. imtided. 
expect, V. a. bintur, natart, ntur; bintizir, intazert, in- 

tizir p.p. muntazer. 
expectation, n. intizar. 
expedie>it, a. nefi; mwefi". 
expedite, v. a. b'ajjil, *ajjelt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
expedition [milit:), n. hamli; tejridi. 



VOCABULARY. I43 

expel, V. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. 

expenseSy n. p. masruf. 

expensivey a. ghali; it is — , bikellif ktir. 

experience, n. khibra. 

experienced, a. khabir ; m'owwad. 

experiment, n. imtihan; tijrubi. 

expert, n. keshef p. keshefi ; expertise, n. keshef. 

expire (of a term), v. n. (3rd per.) biyikhlus khalas; 

biyintihi, intaha. 
explain, v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin; bwaddih, wad- 

daht, waddih; bfassir. fassert, fassir. 
explanation, n. tefsir. 
explode, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr) ; 

biyinfel'a, infel'a. 
explore, v. a. biktishif, iktesheft, iktishif ; bista'Vi, ista"rait, 

ista*Vi. 
explorer, n. muktishif. 
explosion, n. infijar. 

explosives, n. p. mewad "abilt al-ihtira". 
export, V. a. bsaddir, saddert, saddir p.p. msadder. 
exports, n. p. sadirat. 

expose, V. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf p.p. makshuf. 
expression, n. haiyit al-wijh; [phrase) 'ibara. 
expulsion, n. tard; ikhraj. 
exquisite, a. nefis. 
extend, v. a. btowwil, towwelt, towwil; bmidd meddait, 

midd p.p. memdud. 
extension, n. imtided ; tutwil. 
extensive, a. wes'i. 
exterior, n. berra. 

extinguish, v. a. bitfi, tafait, tfi p.p. mutfi. 
extort (from), v. a. biblus, balast, blus. 



144 ARABIC MANUAL. 

extortion, n. bals. 

extruy a. 'alewi; berrani. 

extract, v. a. [of teeth) bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; 

[of essence) bistakhn'j, stakhrajt, stakhrij p.p. mstakhrij. 
extraordinary, ad. fow" al-'adi. 
extravagance, n. israf; sarf. 
extravagant, a. musrif; sarrif. 
extreme, a. shedid p. shidad. 
extre77iely, ad. lil-ghaiyi. 
extremity^ n. taraf p. atraf. 
eye, n. 'ain p. 'uyun; eye-brow, hajib p. hwejib; eye-lash, 

sh'ar 'aini; eye-lid, jifn p. ijfen ; pupil of the eye, bubu 

al-'ain; eye-glasses, 'awenat; eye-tooth, neb p. anyeb; 

eye-witness, shehid p. shuhud ; eye-sight, nazr. 



fable, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi. 
fabric, n. hiyeki; nesij. 

fabricate, v. a. b*amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amfl) p.p. m'amul. 
face, n. wijh p. wujuh; face to face, wijh bi wijh. 
facilitate, v. a. bsehhil, sahhelt, sahhil p.p. msahhel. 
facility, n. suhuli. 
facing, pr. "idd^m. 
fact, n. ha"i"a ; in fact, bil-ha*'i"a. 
faction^ n. hizb p. ahzeb. 
factory, kirkhani p. kirakhin. 
faddy, a. mwaswas. 

fade, V. n. (3rd per.) bibukh, bekh; faded, a. beyikh. 
faint, V. n. bighma, ghmit; bitfah, tfeht; he fainted, 
ghatt *al "elb-uh [lit, his heart was covered). 



VOCABULARY. I45 

fair, a. kwaiyis; zarif p. •L\xx2X\{justy2.^A\ {of complexion) 

lown abyad. 
fairy y n. jinniyi. 
faith J n. imen. 
faithful y a. amin. 
faithless, a. kezib; khaiyin. 
fall, V. n. bu'*'a, wa"'at, \x''d.\ fallen, pres. part. we"'i 

(used as an adj.)-, to fall out of favour , v. n. bis"ut, sa"at. 
fallow land, n. bur. 
false, a. kizb; [of persons) kezib. 

falsify, V. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
fame, n. sit. 

family, n. 'aiyeli p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
famine, n. ju'a; maje'a. 
famous, a. mesh-hur. 
fan, n. marwaha p. marawih. 
fanatic, a. muta'assib. 
fanaticisfn, n. ta'assub. 
fanciful, a. mutwahhim. 
fancy, n. wahm p. owham. 
/C^uC /^r, a. be*id p. ba'ad c. ab'ad; from afar, min be'id. 
farewell, n. wude'a. 
farm, n. *owdi; hanut p. hawanit; v. a. biflah, felaht, 

flah p.p. mafluh. 
farmer, n. fellah. 
farrier, n. bi^ar p. baiatra. 
fashion, n. moda; zey. 
fast, n. sowm (som); siam; a. seri'a c. asr'a; [of colour) 

tebit (s^bit); ad. seri'an; bi-sur'a; v. n. bsum, sumt, 

sum; to be fast (of a watch), 3rd per. f. bittsabbi'*; 

bitta**addam. 
fasten (to), v. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut- (bi) p.p. marbut. 

10 



146 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fat, a. nasih c. ansah; [of animals) smin p. sman; n. 

shahm; beef fat, shahm ba"ar; mutton fat, shahm 

dani ; n. dihni (duhn). 
fatal, a. muhlik. 
fate, n. nasib ; "adr. 
fated, a. ma"adder. 

father, n. ab p. abawat; bey p. h^yW: \ father in law, 'amm. 
fatigue, n. t'ab; v. a. (3rd per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
fatigued, a. t'aben. 

fatten, (of animals) v. a. b'allif, 'alleft, *allif p.p. m'alluf. 
fault, n. zenb p. znub; ghalta p. ghalat; ta"sir; it is 

your fault, zenb 'aleyk; al-ha"" 'aleyk. 
favour, n. m'aruf. 

favourable, a. mwefi"; ma"bul; hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
favourite, n. 'aziz; mahbub. 

fear, n. khowf; fez*a; v. bkhaf, khift, khaf (min). 
feast, n. 'azimi. 
feastday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 
feather, n. rishi p. rish c. p. riesh. 
feature, n. tekwin p. tekawin. 
February, shubat. 
fee, n. ujra (ijra). 
feeble, a. da'if p. da'af. 
feed, V. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am. 
feel, V. bhiss, hassait, hiss ('ala) p.p. mahsus. 
feeling, n. hasasi. 
felt, n. libb^di. 

female, n. inta (intai) p. anata (anati). 
fe^ninine, a. mu'annas. 
fence, n. siyej p. siyejet; to fence in, v. a. bseyyij, 

seyyejt, seyyij p.p. mseyyej. 
ferment, v. n. (3i^d per.) biyikhtimir, ikhtamar. 



VOCABULARY. I47 

fermentation y n. ikhtimar; fermenting^ a. mukhtimir. 

ferny n. dishar; khinshara. 

fertile, a. mughsib. 

fester, v. n. (3^^ per.) bi'ammil, 'ammal; biyidghil, da- 

ghal p.p. midghil. 
festival, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 

fetch, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; fetch me a chair, jib li kirsi. 
fetid, a. mintin; mijwi. 
fetter, n. [for prisoners) jenzir p. jnezir ; [for horses) iron^ 

"eyd p. "iyud; rope, shabha. 
feud, n. khisam; dushmen. 
fever, n. himmi; intermittent — , himmi mutfettera ; w^/«- 

rial — , himmi malariyi ; to have fever, v. n. binhamm, 

inhammait; / a7n feverish, ana sikhanan (sakhnan). 
few, a. '*alil. 

fib, n. kizbi p. kizbet; barbuki. 
fickle, a. muta"allib. 
fidelity, n. am^ni. 
fidgety, a. mutharrik ; taiyish. 

fi£ld, n. ha"al p. hu"ulj bistan p. besatin (bsetin). 
fierce, a. shiris; V*ur. 
fig, n. tini p. tin; fig tree, tini. 

fight, n. "ital ; m'areki ; to fight with, v. a. b"atil, "atalt, "atil. 
figure, n. ra"m p. ar'*am; [stature) "ami. 
filbert, n. bundu" (bindu"). 

file^ n. mebrad ; v. a. bibrud, baradt, brud p.p. mabrud. 
fill, V. a. bmelli, melleyt, melli; btelli, telleyt, telli; [a 

pipe) b'abbi, *abbeyt, 'abbi p.p. m'abba. 
filled, a. mel^n. 
film, n. ghash^wi. 
filter, n. misfaiya (misf^yi); v. a. bsaffi, saffait (saffeyt), 

saffi p.p. msaflfa. 



148 ARABIC MANUAL. 

jilthi n. wasakh ; "azr. 

final y a. ekhir (akhir). 

finally, ad. bil-ekhir. 

finance, n. meliyi. 

financial, a. meli. 

fiyid, V. a. bla" "i, la" "ait, la" "i ; bujad, wajadt, ujad 

p.p. mowjud; to be found, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilta"a, 

ilta"a; find out, v. a. bistefhim, stafhamt, stefhim. 
fine, n. jeza na"di; gharami; v. a. bgharrim, gharramt, 

gharrim p.p. mgharram; a. refi'a; da"i"; (beautiful) 

zarif; jemil. 
finger, n. isb'i p. asab'i ; forefinger, shehdi ; little finger, 

khunsur. 
fifiish, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; bikhlus, khalast, 

khlus. 
fir, n. shirbin. 
fire^ n. nar ; (conflagration) hari"a ; to set on fire, v. a. 

bsha*il, sha'alt, sha*il; to catch fire, v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyihtiri", ihtara"; biyishtf'il, ishta'al; biyiltihib, 

iltahab. 
firearms, n. p. slah nariyi. 
fireplace, n. m6"adi ; mawa"id. 
firewood, n. hatab. 
fireworks, n. p. shghal nariyi. 

firtn, a. metin; sebit (tebit); "owi; n. (business) mahall. 
first, a. owwel f. ula ; at first sight, min owwel nazra ; 

at first, owwelen. 
fish, n. samak p. samaket; v. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
fisherman, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
fishing, n. said as-samak ; — rod, "asbit as-said ; — net, 

sh^beki ; — hook, sinnara. 
fist, n. "abda. 



VOCABULARY. I49 

fity a. mnesib; v. n. (3rd per.) binesib, nasib; biyiji, 

ija ('ala). 
fiXy V. a. bmekkin, mekkent, mekkin ; fixed, a. mekken. 
flag, n. bindera; flag-staff, 'amud al-bindera. 
flame, n. shu'ali p. shu'al. 
flarmel, n. flannilla. 
flat, a. mbaltah. 

flatten, v. a. bmahhid, mahhadt, mahhid p.p. mumahhed. 
flatter, v. a. bmelli", mella"t, melli". 
flattery, n. temli". 
flavour, n. t'ami. 
flax, n. "innib. 
flea, n. barghut p. baraghit. 
flee, V. n. bihrub, harabt, hrub. 
fleet, n. *amara. 
flesh, n. lahm. 
flexible, a. leyyin. 
flight, n. harab; ferar. 
flint, n. sowwani. 
float, (on) V. n. bfush, fisht, i"ush ('ala); be'um, 'aimt, 

*uum (fi or 'ala). 
flock, n. "atiy'a p. **uta'an ; (of birds) reff p. rfuf. 
flood, n. hamuli ; seyl ; tufan. 
floor, n. ard al-beyt; marble floor, n. rhkam. 
flour, n. tahin. 

flow, V. n. (3rd per.) biyijri, jara. 
flower, n. zahr p. azhar c. p. zuhur ; flower-pot, sha"fi 

zuhur; hod p. hwad. 
fluid, n. s^'il. 

fly, n. dibbc^ni p. dibb^n; v. n. (y^ per.) bitir, tar. 
foal, n. felu p. ^fliyi. 
foam, n. raghwi. 



150 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fodder, n. 'alaf; 'all". 

fog, n. ghtaita. 

fold, n. tay ; sheep-fold, siri ; v. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), 

twi p.p. mutwi. 
foliage, n. owra" as-sajr. 
follow, V. a. bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 
follower, n. teb'i p. atbe'a. 
folly, n. hama"a. 
font, n. jurn al-m*amudiyi. 
food, n. akl. 

fool, n. ahma" p. him"m (himu"). 
foolish, a. ghashim; belid. 
foot, n. ijr (rijl) p. ijreyn; foot-path, derb rijl; foot-rule, 

mitr; "iy^s ; footstep, khatwi ; faskha ; /<?^/-j/t7<?/, skemla ; 

barefoot, a. hafi ; on foot, a. meshi ; at foot's pace, ad. 

eshkin. 
for, pr. minsh^n. 

forbid, V. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
force, n. "uwi; v. a. (to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala) p.p. 

mejbur; bilzum, Izamt, Izum ('ala); by force, ad. bil- 

"uwi; jebran. 
ford, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'a ; mkhada ; v. a. bi"t'a, "at 'at, 

u"t'a. 
forearm, n. dr'a p. udr'u; se'id (sa'id). 
fore- going, a. sebi"; (fore-mentioned) mazkur. 
forehead, n. jbin; jibhi. 
foreign, a. gharib p. ghurb; Foreign Affairs, al-kharijiyi 

(vide minister); Foreign Office, nezarit al-kharijiyi. 
foreigner, n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 
forenoon, n. "abl ad-dohr. 
foresight, n. basiri. 
forest, n. hirsh p. ahrash. 



VOCABULARY. 151 

forfeit y n. gharami. 

forge, n. kur; bitru", tara"t, tru" p.p. matru"; (of wri- 
ting) V. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 

forgery, n. tezwir. 

forget, V. a. binsa, nesit, insa. 

forgive, v. a. bsemih, semaht, semih p.p. masmuh. I for- 
give you, bsemh-ak. 

fork, n. firteki; showki; pitchfork, midraiyi. 

form, n. shikl p. shikel. 

formality, n. teklif p. teklifat. 

former, a. sebi" ; formerly, ad "ablan ; the former, a. 
al-owwel. 

fort, n. "al'a p. "il'at. 

fortify, V. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan. 

fortnight, n. jim'ateyn. 

fortunate, a. sa'id p. so'ada; sahib bakht; he is — , 
hazz-uh taiyib; s'ad-uh "owi. 

fortune, n. hazz ; nasib. 

forwards, ad. ila "iddem. 

fossils, n. p. mutahajjerat. 

foul, a. wfsikh. 

foundation, n. ases p. aseset. 

founder, n. mu*essis. 

fountain, n. *ain p. 'uyun; (jet) nofara; wayside — , 
sebil. 

fowl, n. djeji p. djejet c. p. djej ; fowl-house, beyt ad- 
dj^j; "unn ("inn). 

fox, n. t'alab p. ta'alib. 

fraction, n. kesr. 

fragile, a. seri* al-'atab. 

fragment, n. '*it*a; sha"fi. 

fragrance, n. riha. 



152 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fragranty a. 'utri. 

frame, n. birwaz p. berewiz. 

France, Fransa; Freiich, a. fransewi p. fransewiyi. 

fraud, n. ikhtilas. 

fraudulent, a. mukhtelis. 

freckle, n. kelef. 

free, a. hurr; v. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir. 

freedom, n. hurriyi. 

freemason, n. fermasun. 

freeze, v. n. (3rd per.) bijellid, jellad p.p. mjellid. 

freight, n. nowulun. 

frequent, a. ktir; frequently, ad. marrat ktiri. 

fresh, a. tari; taza. 

Friday, nahar (yom) aj-jim'a. 

friend, n. habib p. ahbeb (hib^b); sahib p. as-hab; 

sadi" p. asdi"a. 
friendship, n. sada"a; mahabbi. 
fright, n. khowf; fez'a. 
frighten, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif p.p. mkhowwef ; to be frightened, v. n. 

bifz'a, fiz'it; frightened, a. fez*an. 
fringe, n. hashiyi. 

frock, n. tannura p. tenenir; fisten p. fsetin. 
frog, n. dafd'a p. dfed'i. 
from, pr. min; 'an. 

fro7it, n. wijh; wajih;/r^«/ of the house, wajhit al-beyt. 
frontier, n. hadd p. hudud. 
frost, n. melleh. 
froth, n. raghwi. 
frown, n. 'abas; v. n. be'ibus, 'abast; bhutt, hattait al- 

'u"di; frowning, a. 'abas. 
frugal, a. mwaffir; mesik. 



VOCABULARY. 



153 



fruit, n. fweki (faki). 

fruitful, a. mughsib. 

fry, V. a. bi"li,- "alait ("aleyt), i"li p.p. mi"li. 

frying-pan, n. mi"leyi p. ma'^ali. 

fulfil, V. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil p.p. mkemmel. 

full, a. melen. 

fun, n. tesliyi ; mezh. 

funeral, n. jenezi. 

funnel, n. "um'a p. "umu'a. 

funny, a. mudhik; muskhin. 

fur, n. feru. 

furl, V. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), twi p.p. mutwi. 

furlough, n. rukhsa. 

furnace, n. firn p. firan. 

furnish, v. a. bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. mafrush. 

furnitiire, n. atet al-beyt; firsh. 

fuss, n. dajji (doji). 

future, n. musta"bil ; in f utter e, b'adeyn ; bil-musta'*bil. 



gain, n. ribh; meksib; v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah. 

gaiter, n. tma*' p. tma"at. 

gall, n. safra. 

gallery, n. ruwa". 

gallnut, n. jowzit 'afs p, jowz 'afs. 

gallop, n. khaiyel ; v. a. and n. bkhaiyil, khaiyelt, khai- 

yil; V. n. btarid, taradt, tarid. 
gallows, n. meshna'*a. 
gamble, v. n. bil'ab, I'ibt, Tab bil-"imar. 



154 ARABIC MANUAL. 

gambling, n. I'eb al-"imar. 

gaine, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. al'ab ; {sport) said ; taridi ; to make 

ga^ne of, v. bidhak, dahikt, dahak ('ala). 
gang, n. zumra p. zumr. 
gaol, n. habs; sijn. 
gaoler, n. sejjen. 

garden, n. jneyni p. jneynetj bistan p. bsetin (besetin). 
gardener, n. jneyneti. 
garlic, n. turn. 

garment, n. towb p. tuwab; [clothes) ty6b. 
garyiet, n. hajr siran. 
garrison, n. p. hurras. 
garter, n. rabta. 
gas, n. ghaz; gas-pipe, aster al-ghaz; gasometer, mitar 

al-ghaz; gas-light, dow min ghaz. 
gash, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha). 
gate, n. bwebi p. bwebet (bawwabi p. bawwabat). 
gate-keeper, n. baww^b. 
gather, v. a. bhowwish, howwesht, howwish ; gather up, 

V. a. blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum; [to pluck) 

bla"it, la"att, la"it p.p. mla'at. 
gauze, n. keraishi (kereyshi). 
gay, a. mzeyyen; [cheerful) farhan. 
gazelle, n. ghazel p. ghizlen. 
gelatiyie, n. jelatina. 
geld, V. a. bikhsi, khasait, khsi; [of horses) btowshin, 

towshent, towshin. 
gelding, n. khassi; tawashi. 

gem, n. jowhera p. jewehir; (johera p. jawahir). 
gender, n. jins p. ajnes. 
general, a. 'umumi ; 'am ; n. mushir ; general of division, 

feri"; 7naj or -general, mir liwa. 



VOCABULARY. 1 55 

generally y ad. *umumen ; 'itiyadiyen. 

generation^ n. jil p. ajiyel. 

generosity, n. kerem. 

generous, a. kerim p. kiirama; khaiyir. 

genius, n. zeka (zika). 

gentle, a. latif p. lutafa ; leyyin; {quiet) hedi. 

gentleman, n. khowaja p. khowajat. 

gently, ad. bi lutf; [slowly) 'ala mahl-uh [zu it h pro. stiff .). 

genuine, a. sahih. 

geography, n. jighrafiyi. 

geometry, n. 'ilm al-hindisi. 

geranium, n. khubbezi franjiyi. 

Germany, Almania; German, a. almani. 

gesture, n. ishara. 

get, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; (acquire) btall'i, tall'at, tall'i; 

bikseb, ksibt, kseb; get up, v. n. b"um, "umt, "um; 

get oifer, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala) ; get rid of, v. n. 

bitkhallis, tkhallast, tkhallis (min); get into the way 

of, V. n. bit'ovvwad, t'owwadt, t'owwad ('ala). 
ghost, n. khiyel; Holy Ghost, ruh al-"udus. 
giant, n. jebber (jebbar). 
Gibraltar, jebeltari". 
giddiness, n. dowkha (dokha). 
giddy, a. deyikh; he is giddy, ras-uh taiyish. 
gift, n. hediyi. 
gifted, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

gild, V. a. bdahhib, dahhabt, dahhib p.p. mdahhab. 
gilt, a. mdahhab; mutli bid-dahab. 
gimlet, n. berrimi. 
ginger, n. jenzebil. 
gipsy, n. nuri p. nawar. 
girdle, n. zinnar p. znenir. 



156 ARABIC MANUAL. 

girlj n. bint p. benat (ben^t). 

girth, n. hizem p. hizemet; tighten, loosen the girths, 

shidd, hill al-hizemet. 
give, V. a. b'ati, 'atait, 'ati ; give it me, 'ati-ni yeh (yah). 
gizzard, n. "ansa. 

glad, a. mesrur; to be glad, v. n. binbiisit, inbasatt. 
gladness, n. surur. 
glance, n. nazra, lahza. 
glass, n. "izaz ("izez) ; (for drinking) kibbeyi ; kasi ; (field) 

nadur; nadara. 
glitter, V. n. (3rd per.) biyilm*a, lam'a. 
globe, n. kura; {of a lamp) kloba p. klobat. 
gloomy, a. muzlim; {of persojis) mkedder. 
glory, n. mejd. 
gloss, n. lima'an, 

glove, n. keff p. kfuf ; a pair of gloves, jowzi kfuf. 
glow-worm, n. serej al-leyl. 
glue, n. ghiri ; glue-pot, bri"al-ghiri. 
gnat, n. sikket p. swetki. 
gnaw, V. a. (3rd per.) biyun"ur, na'*ar. 
go, V. n. bruh, riht, ruh ; going, pres. part, raih ; it is 

going to happen, bedd-uh yesir; it is not going to 

happen, ma bisir ; there is going to be, raih yesir ; 

raih yekun; go up, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); go 

down, binzel, nzilt, inzel ; go out, bidhar, dahart, dhar. 

goad, n. mesas; v. a. bidrub, darabt bil-mesas. 

goat, n. 'anzi p. 'anzat; m'aziyi p. ma'azi; goat-herd, 

ma'az; ra'i. 
God, allah ; God preserve you, allah yahfz-ak ; God forbid, 

allah la yismah (la ya"addir) ; for God's sake, minshen 

allah; God willing, inshallah; thank God, al-hamd 

ul-illah. 



VOCABULARY. I 57 

gold, n. dahab. 

goldsmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 
gongy n. na"us. 
tfts^^xt^od, a. mlih p. mlah; taiyib c. atyab; jeyyid c. ahsan. 
good-bye, ad. m'as-salemi ; khatir-kum. 
gooodness, n. judi. 
goods, n. p. badaiy'i; bda'a. 
goose, n, wazzi p. wazz. 
gospel, n. injil. 
gossip, n. 'alk. 
gourd, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 
gout, n. da'i al mfesil. 
govern, v. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum ; (administer) v. a. 

bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
goverment, n. hukumi; /^r^/ government, hukumi ma- 

halliyi. 
governor, n. hakim; mutsarrif; governor general, wali 

(weli). 
grace, n. zurf. 
gradually, ad. bitedrij. 
grain, n. habbi p. hbub. 
grammar, n. nahu. 
granary, n. hasil; beyiki p. beweyik. 
grand-daughter, n. hafidi; bint bint p. ul^d bint. 
grand-father, n. jidd p. jdud. 
grand-mother, n. sitt p. sittat (sittet); imm imm. 
grandson, n. hafid; ibn ibn p. uled ibn. 
grant, v. a. bijib, jibt, jib. 
granted, a. msellem. 
grapes, n. p. *inib ('inab); green grapes, n. husrim ; ^tt«^// 

of — , n. *an"ud (p. 'an^"id) *inib. 
grass, n. hashish. 



158 ARABIC MANUAL 

grass-hopper, n. jundub p. jnedib. 

grateful, a. memnun; shekur. 

grater, n. mabrashi. 

gratis, ad. belesh,; bila mesari. 

gratitude, n. shukr. 

grave, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

gravel, n. p. bahs. 

gravy, n. mar"a. 

graze, v. n. (3rd per.) biyir'a, re'i (ra'i). 

grease, n. shahm; dihni (duhn); v. a. bidhan, dahant, 

dhan p.p. madhun. 
greasy, a. midhin. 

great, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar; 'azim p. 'azam. 
Greece, beled al-yunan (al-arwam); Greek, a. yunani; 

rumi ; Greek church, kenisit ar-rum ; Greek catholic, rum 

katolik; Greek orthodox, rum ortodoks. 
greedy, a. shi'rih; majfu'a; mfejj'an. 
green, a. akhdar f. khadra p. khudr. 
green-grocer, n. khudarji. 
greens, n. khudra. , 

grey, a. rimedi. 

grey-hound, n. kelb slu"i (slai"i). 
gridiron, n. msabb'a. 
grief, n. ghamm ; hizn. 
grieve, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir; to be grieved, 

V. n. binghamm, inghammait; it grieves me, bigh- 

umm-ni. 
grind, v. a. bit-han, tahant, t-han p.p. mat-hun ; bijrush, 

jarasht, jrush p.p. majrush. 
grindstone, n. jelkh. 

groan, n. *anin; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), 'in. 
grocer, n. 'attar. 



VOCABULARY. 1 59 

groom, n. se'is (sa'is) p. siyes; v. a. bhiss> hassait (has- 
seyt), hiss p.p. mahsus ; bsus, sust, sus ; btemmir, tem- 
mert, temmir. 

ground, n. ard. 

groiind-fioor, n. taba"i tahteni. 

groundless, a. batil; ad. bila ases; it is groundless, ma 
luh asl. 

group, n. [persons) jema'a; sirbi; {money) surra. 

grow, V. n. [persons) bikber, kebirt; (plants) (3rd per.) 
biyinmi, nimmi; grown up^ a. reshid (rashid); full- 
grown, a. midrik. 

grumble, [at) v. bitdemmir, tdemmert, tdemmir (min) ; 
V. n. bit"am"am, ta"am"amt. 

guarantee, n. kefeli; [person) kefil. 

guard, n. haris p. hurras; v. a. bihrus, harast, hrus p.p. 
mahrus. 

guardian, n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi. 

guess, V. a. bihzur, hezirt, hzur. 

guest, n. daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 

guide, n. delil; guide-book, delil sefer; v. a. [to) bdull, 
dellait (delleyt), dull ('ala). 

guild, n. rabta. 

guilt, n. zenb. 

guilty, a. miznib; mijrim. 

guitar, n. "itar; 'ud ; tanbur. 

gulf, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

gum, n. simgh (samgh); [of teeth) nirit as-snen. 

gun, n. barudi ; bund"iyi p. bnedi" ; {double-barrelled) 
n. jift p. jifuti. 

gunboat, n. merkeb harbi. 

gunner, n. topji p. topjiyi. 

gunpowder, n. barud. 



l60 ARABIC MANUAL. 

gut, n. misran p. masarin. 

gutter, n. mizreb p. mezerib; gutter-pipe, "astal ("aster) 

al-mizreb. 
gymnasium, n. marsah (mala'ab) al jimnastik. 
gymnastics, n. jimnastik. 



H. 



habit, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. 'awe'id. 

hail, n. barad (bered); v. n. (3rd per.) biyinzel, nizil 

bered; hailstone, baradi; hail-storm, zakhat bered. 
hair, n. sh'ara p. sh'ar; camel's hair, wabr aj-jem^l. 
hair-dresser, {barber) n. halla*'. 
hairy, a. mish'arani. 
half, n. nuss; in halves, bin-nuss; half-price, nuss at- 

temen; half-way, nuss ad-derb. 
hall, n. dehliz; memsha. 

halty'V. n. bu"af, u"ift, u"af; bwa""if, wa""aft, .wa""if. 
halter, n. rasan; ma'Vad. 
ham, n. janbun. 
hamlet, n. mezra'a p. mezer'i. 
ha^niner, n. shekush ; [large) matra"a; v. a. bitru", tara"t, 

tru"; bdu"", da" "ait, du"" p.p. mad"u". * 
hammock, n. mejruha (marjuha). 
hafid, n. id p. ideyn (daiyat); right-hand, id al-yemin 

left-hand, id ash-shimel. 
hand-cuff, n. "eyd p. "iyud; hadid. 
handful, n. [one hand) kemshi; [both hands) hafni. 
handkerchief, n. mahremi p. maharim. 
handle, n. meski; "abda. 
handsome, a. jemil c. ejmel. 



VOCABULARY. l6l 

handwritings n. khatt p. khutut. 

hang, (up) V. a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" p.p. ma'alla" ; v. n. 

{dowfi) bit'alla", t'alla"t. 
happen, v. n. (y^ per.) bisir, sar; biyijri, jara. 
happiness, n. keyf; surur; hazz. 
happy, a. mabsut; farhan. 

harass, v. a. bit'ub, ta'ebt, te'ib (tu'ub) p.p. met'ub. 
harbour, n. mina p. mien. 
hard, a. "asi c. a"asa; yebis; [difficult] s'ab f. s'ubi c. 

as*ab; hard up, ma*asur; mutdaiyi". 
harden, v. n. [^^^ per.) bijiff, jeff; biyi"sa, "isi. 
hardly, ad. bil-kedd ; bi s'ubi (s'obi). 
hard mouthed [of a horse), a. ras-uh "asi (ti"il). 
hardship, n. mesha" "a. 
hardy, a. "owi p. "awaiya. 
hare, n. arnab p. aranib. 
harem, n. harim p. hurum. 
harm, n. darar ; aziyi ; there is no harm, ma biseyl (///. 

there is no question), 
harmful, a. mdurr; mu'zi. 
harmless, a. ghair (mush) mdurr. 
harness, n. ta"m al-'arabiyi; v. bshidd, sheddait, shidd 

('ala) ; v. a. {put the horses to) bikdun, kedent, kdun p.p. 

makdun. 
harp, n. ^^anun. 
harsht a, "asi; j^fi; khishn. 
harvest, n. hisad. 
hash, n. yakhni. 
hasp, n. sukr (sikr). 
haste, n. *ajeli; make haste, v. n. browwij, rowwajt, 

rowwij; bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; hasten, v. a. b'ajjil, 

'ajjelt, 'ajjil; hasty, a. 'ajul. 

11 



1 62 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hat^ n. birneyta p. buranit. 

hatch, V. a. (3rd per. f.) bitfa" "is, fa""esit; to be hatched^ 

V. n. (3rd per. f.) bitif'us, fa"esit. 
hatchet, n. ferra'a; fes; balta. 
hate, V. a. bibghud, baghadt, bghud. 
hatred, n. bughda. 
haughtiness, n. kibriya. 
haughty, a. mutkebbir. 
haul down, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 
have, V. / have etc, li ; 'ind-i, 'ind-ak etc, [vide grammar 

verb 'to have*), 
hawk, n. baz p. bez^t. 
hay, n. hashish yebis. 
haze, n. dabeb (dabab). 
hazy, a. madabdbi. 
he, pro. hu (hui). 
head, n. ras p. ru'us (rus); at the head of, fi ras; fi 

owwel; *'iddem; head to foot, min ras-uh li "adem-uh 

(li k'ab rijleyh); head over heels, sha"labi ma'Uabi; 

heads or tails, tura ow na*'shi. 
headache, (I have, I had a) ras-i biyuj*a-ni, waj'a-ni. 
headstrong, a. 'anid; ras-uh "owi. 
heal, V. n. (3rd per.) bitib, tab; biyibra, bfri. 
health, n. sihha (sahha); his health, suhht-uh. 
healthy, a. nasih ; suhht-uh taiyib ; [of place) hawa-h taiyib, 
heap, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
hear, v. a. bism'a, sma'at, sm'a p.p. masmu'a. 
heart, n. "alb ("elb) p. "ulub; fuad; (at cards) kubba; 

by heart, ad. ghaiban; *al ghaib. 
heat, n. harara ; showb (shob) v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, 

sakhkhin p.p. msakhkhan. 
heathen, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 



VOCABULARY. 1 63 

heaveny n. sema. 

heavy, a. ti"il c. at"al p. ta"al. 

hedge y n. siyej p. siyejet. 

hedgehogy n. "unfuz p. "anafiz ("unfud, p. "anafid); ke- 

bebit shok. 
heely n. k'ab p. ka'ab; heel ropey shkel p. shkelet. 
heighty n- 'ulu; [of stature) tul; "ami. 
heiry n. weris p. wurras (warasi). 
helly n. jehennam. 
hebnety n. khuzi p. khuaz. 
helpy n. mse*adi ; v. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id ; it cannot be 

helpedy mush fil-id; the matter could not be helped, 

hal-mes'eli ma ba"it fil-id. 
helpless y a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
heniy n. hashiyi. 
hemlocky n. showkeran. 
hemorrhoidy n. basur p. bwesir. 
hempy n. "innib. 
heuy n. djeji p. djejet c.p. djej. 

hence y ad. min hown; henceforth, min halla" u raih. 
(j^ hery [pro. suff.) ha (a). 
herby n. 'ushb p. 'asheb. 
herdy n. "atiy'a p. *'uta*an. 

herey ad. hown; here and there y hown u hown. 
hereditary y a. wurti (urati); bil-irs. 
heresyy n. harta"a. 
heretiCy a. hartu'*i p. harat**a. 
hermit, n. n^sik p. nussak ; z^hid p. zuhad. 
hero, n. batal p. abtal. 
herself, pro. i^t-ha. 
hesitate, v. n. bitwa** "af, twa""aft, twa*"'af; bitreddad, 

treddadt, treddad. 



1 64 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hesitation, n. tereddud. 

hiccup, n. hazzu"a (hazza"). 

hide, V. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba. 

hiding-place, n. mikhbeyi. 

high, a. 'aali c. a'ala; high-handed, a. mustebidd. 

Highness (Your), simu-ak; His — simu-uh. 

highway^ n. sikki sultaniyi. 

hill, n. telli, p. tellet c.p. tlel (tlal). 

hilt, n. "abda. 

him, (pro. suff.) uh (h). 

himself, pro. zet-uh. 

hinder, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; bsudd, saddait, sudd 

p.p. masdud. 
hindoo, n. Hindi p. hunud. 
hinge, n. mfassali p. mfassalat. 
hint, n. ishara. 
hire, n. ujra (ijra); kira; (let on hire) v. a. b'ejjir, ejjert, 

ejjir; bikri, kerait, kri; (take on hire) v. a. biste'jir, 

ste'jert, ste'jir; bistikri, stekrait, stikri. 
hirer, n. muste'jir. 
his, (pro. stiff.) uh (h). 
history, n. tarikh (terikh). 
hit, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub p.p. Vi\d.^x\x\i\(7iot to miss) 

bsib, sibt, sib. 
hither, ad. ila hown. 
hitherto, ad. li hadd al-wa"t. 
hoe, n. mejrafi. 

hoist, V. a. birf a, ref'at, irfa p.p. marfu'a. 
hold, n. "ar al-merkeb; v. a. bimsik, mesakt, msuk p.p. 

memsuk; v. a. (contain) 3rd per. bise'a, se'a; to hold 

out, V. n. b"ewim "evvamt, "ewim. 



VOCABULARY. 1 65 

hole, n. jura p. juar; tu"ub p. tu"ubi (ti"ib); {small) 
bukhsh p. bkhushi. 

holiday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed; t'atil; btali; rukhsa; to take a 
— , V. bbattil, battalt. 

Holiness (to the Pope), Your — , "adesit-kum ; His — , 
"adest-uh. (Patriarch), Your — , ghibtat-kum ; His — , 
ghibtt-uh. (Metropolitan), Your — , siedit-kum; His — , 
siedt-uh. 

Holland, Hulanda; Dutch, a. hulandi. 

hollow, a. mjowwif; mjowwar; v. a. bjowwif, jowweft, 
jowwif p.p. mjowwaf. 

holsters, n. "ubur. 

holy, a. m"addas. 

home, n. (house) beyt p. biyut; (country) watn; beled. 

hone, n. msenn. 

honest, a. amin p. limena; honesty, n. ameni. 

honey, n. 'asel; honeycomb, "urs 'asel. 

honorary, a. ikrami. 

honour, n. sheref; (respect) 'ird; improbity) namus; v. a. 
bukrim, akramt, krim; (to do the honour) v. a. bsher- 
rif, sherreft, sherrif; {to have the honour) v. n. bit- 
sherrif, tsherraft, tsherrif ; will you do me the honour 
of coming to see me, btsherrif-ni ; / had the honour 
of going to see him, ana tsherraft li 'ind-uh ; in honour 
of, minshen; li ejl-uh {^ith pro. stiff.), 

honourable, a. musta"im. 

hood, n. {of a cloak) "ubu'a; (of a carriage) kebbut. 

hoof, n. hafir p. hawefir. 

hook, n. shenkel p. shnekil; killabi p. klelib; hook atid 
eye, bikli wa *irwi. 

hoop, n. tara. 

hope, n. amel p. amd; v. n. bit'ammel, t'immelt. 



1 66 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hopeful (it is), fih raja (amel). 

hopeless (it is), ma fih raja (amel). 

hops, n. p. hashishit ad-dinar. 

horizon, n. uf". 

horn, n. "arn p. "urun. 

hornet, n. debbur p. dbebir. 

horrible, a. mukhif; ha'il. 

horse, n. hisan p. uhsni c. p. kheyl; dabbi p. dawab; 
(blood) kehil; {pack) kedish p. kidsh; (stallion) fahl 
p. fuhul; (gilding) tawashi ; (bay) ahmar f. hamra; 
(bay with black legs) ahmar mharra" ; (black) adham 
f. dahma; (dark chestnut) kestanewi; (light chestiiut) 
ash"ar f. sha"ra; (grey) azra" f. zer"a; (iron grey) 
azra'* hadidi; (light grey) azra" wadih; (dappled grey) 
mba*' "aj ; (grey with black points) akhdar f. khadra ; 
(reddish grey) mawaradi ; (white) hamemi ; (with white 
stockings) mhanjal; on horseback, 'al al-hisan; khaiyal 
(khaiyel). 

horse-cloth, n. kuben (kuban). 

horseman, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli. 

horse-shoe, n. n'ali p. na'al (n'al); nadwi p. nadwet. 

hospitable, a. kerim p. kurama ; he is — , beyt-uh maftuh. 

hospital, n. khastakhani. 

hospitality , n. diyafi. 

host, n. sahib al-beyt; hostess, sahbit al-beyt; (among 
Bedouins) m'azzib f. m'azzbi. 

hostage, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

hostile, a. khusm p. akhsam. 

hostilities, n. harb. 

hot, a. showb (shob) c. ashwab; sukhn; harr; to be hot, 
V. n. bshowwib, showwebt. 

hotel, n. lukanda. 



VOCABULARY. 1 6/ 

houTy n. se*a p. se'at. 

house, n. beyt p. biyut; {large house [Beirut]) hara p. 

harat; v. a. bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin. 
household, n. *aiyeli p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
hoTv, ad. kif; however, m'a zelik; how mauy, kam; how 

much^ "add esh. 
howl, n. *awi; v. n. (3rd per.) bi'owi, 'owa; biyinbah, 

nabah. 
hulk, n. jism al-merkeb. 
humayi, a. insani; besheri. 

humanity, n. insaniyi; he is humane, fih insaniyi. 
humble, a. mutwad'i; humility, n. tawad'u. 
hump {of a camel), n. hadabbi (hadbi). 
humpback, a. ahdab. 

Hungary, beled mejer; Htmgarian, a. mejeri. 
hunger, n. ju'a. 

hungry, n. ju'an; to be Imngry, v. n. bju'a, je'ut. 
hunt, V. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
hunter, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
hunting, n. said. 
hurricane, n. zowba*a (zoba'a). 
hurry, n. 'ajeli; v. n. bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; browwij, 

rowwajtf rowwij ; v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
hurt, V. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; bwajj'i, 

wajj'at, wajj'i; to be hurt, v. n. bindarr, indarrait; 

to hurt, V. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj*a (wij'e). 
husband, n. zowj (joz) p. rjel. 
hush, {itnper.) hus f. husi. 
husk, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ushur). 

hut, n. kukh p. akwakh ; {for silkworms) khuss p. khsas. 
hyacinth, n. khazemi p. khazam. 
hyena, n. dab'a p. db'a. 



1 68 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hymrij n. ternimi. 
hypocrisy, n. ri'a. 
hypocrite, n. mra'i. 



/, pro. ana. 

ibex, n. w'al p. wa'al. 

ice, n. jlid; snoiv ice, telj ; manufactured ice, ]\\dvcidi,mQ\; 

ices, buza; dondurma. 
idea, n. fikr p. afkar. 

identical, a. bi zet-uh; bi nefs-uh (zvith pro. stiff.), 
idiom, n. istilah. 

idiot, n. ablah; a. m'atuh; belid. 
idle, a. keslen p. kesela. 
idleness, n. kesel. 

idol, n. weten (waten) p. owten; sunm p. asnam. 
idolater, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 
idolatry, n. 'ibedit al-asnam. 
//, con. izaken; inken (with pres. tense); iza; low (with 

past), 
ignorance, n. jeheli. 
ignorant, a. jehil, p. juhhel; mghaffal. 
ill, a. marid p. murada ; sakhin (sakhnan) ; to fall ill, 

V. n. bimrad, maridt; biskhun, sakhant. 
illegal, a. ghair sher'i; haram. 
illegitimate, a. bandu". 

illiterate, a. ghair (mush) mu'allem; mau mrabba. 
illfiess, n. marad. 
illuminate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen; 

bnowwir, nowwert, nowwir p.p. mnovvwer. 



VOCABULARY. 1 69 

illumination, n. tenwir; zini. 

illustrate, v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msowwer. 

illustration, n. resm p. rusum; sura p. suar. 

illustrious, a. shehir. 

image, n. timsel p. temesil. 

imagination, n. owham; tesowwur. 

imagine, v. a. bitsowwir, tsowwert, tsowwir. 

imitate, v. a. bi"ellid, "elledt, "ellid p.p. m'elled. 

imitation, n. ta"lid. 

immediately, ad. "awem; fil-hal. 

immense, a. kbir p. kbar; wes'i. 

imminent, a. "arib p. "urab. 

immoderate, a. miifrit. 

immodest, a. *'alil al-haiya. 

immunity, n. ma'afiyi; 'afu; imtiyez. 

impartial, a. 'adil. 

impartiality, n. ha" " ; 'adl. 

impassable, a. mesdud. 

impatience, n. "illit as-sabr ; nar. 

impatient, a. nirani; "alii as-sabr; he is impatient, tab'a- 
uh hazi"a (nar). 

impede, v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 

imperfect, a. na"is p. nu"as. 

imperceptible, a. ghair (mush) mahsus. 

imperial, a. mulukaniyi. 

impertiiience, n. wa"aha. 

impertinent, a. wi"ih. 

implicate, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhalt, dakhkhil; impli- 
cated in, luh dukhl fi; a. m"arish. 

import, V. a. bijlub, jalabt, jlub p.p. majlub. 

importance, n. ehemiyi. 

important, a. muhimm c. ahamm. 



170 ARABIC MANUAL. 

imports, n. p. waridat. 

importunate, a. lajuj; ti"il. 

impossible, a. ghair (mush, mau) mumkin; it is impos- 
sible, la yumkin ; ma bisir. 

impossibility, n. 'adem imkan (imken). 

impose {on), v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. 
maghshush. 

impostor, n. mzowwir; kezzeb. 

impression, n. te'esir. 

imprison, v. a. bihbus, habast, hbus p.p. mahbus. 

imprisonment, n. habsi. 

improbable, a. ghair (mush) muhtfmil. 

improper, a. ghair (mush) leyi". 

improve, v. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan; 
V. n. bithassan, tahassant, tahassan ; (3rd per.) bisir, 
sar fih tahsin. 

improvement, n. tahsin; nejeh (nejah). 

^mprudence, n. hama"a; jeheli. 

imprudent, a. jehil p.. juhhel; ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 

imptinity, n. berrat; with impunity, bila **isas. 

impure, a. maghshush; mush khaHs. 

in, pr. fi; bi; dekhil; juwwa; iyi ^w<^ ^7^^, juwwa u berra; 
i?idoors, fil-beyt; in order to {that), hatta (ta); in so 
fUr^as, *'add ma. 

inability, n. 'ajz ; 'adem imken. 

inaccessible, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 

inuccurccte, a. ghair (mush) mazbut. 

inadmissible, a. ghair (mush) ma"bul. 

inattention, n. ghiflet; 'adem intibeh. 

incapable, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

incapacity, n. 'ajz. 

incefise, n. bakhur. 



VOCABULARY. lyi 

incessant, a. de'im. 

incident, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

inclination, n. meyl. 

include, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhalt, dakhkhil. 

included, ad. min aj-jumli; hicluding, ad. bi ma fih. 

incogjiito, a. mutnekkir. 

income, n. madkhul; dukhl (dakhl). 

hicomprehensible, a. ghair (mush) mafhum. 

inconsistent, a. 'adim as-sebet. 

inconvenience, n. kilfi; ti"L 

inconvenient, a. ghair (mush) mwefi"; ti*'li. 

incorrect, a. ghair (mush) sahih. 

increase, n. zod; v. a. bzid, zidt, zid; v. n. (3rd per.) 

bizid, zad. 
incredible {it is), ma biyitsadda". 
incurable, a. 'addal; he {it) is incurable, ma luh dawa; 

falij la ta'alij. 
indebted [of debt), a. mediyun ; [obligation) memnun ; 

/ am indebted to you, ana (mediyun) memnun-ak. 
indecent, a. razil p. arzal. 
indeed, ad. bil-ha"i"a. 

indefatigable {he is), ma bikill min at-t'ab. 
indefinite, a. mubhem. 
indemnify, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'owwad 

('ala of the person) ; / will indemnify you for the loss, 

b'owwid 'aleyk al-khisara. 
indemnity, n. t'awid. 
independence, n. isti*'lal. 
independent, a. musta"il. 
index, n. fihris (fahras). 

India, beled al-hind; Indian, a. hindi p. huntid. 
iyidiarubber , n. mighait; {eraser) mahaiyi. 



1/2 ARABIC MANUAL. 

indifferent [careless), a. ghair (mush) mbeli, it is indiffe- 
rent, mitl ba'ad-uh. 

indigestion, n. 'usr hadm; su hadm; to have — , v. n. 
bintikhim, intakhamt; bisir, sar li takhmi. 

indigo, n. nil. 

indirect, a. ghair (mush) dughri. 

indirectly, ad. bil-wasta. 

indiscretion, n. hama"a. 

indisposed, a. ghair (mush) mabsut ; / am — , ma li keyf. 

indistinct, a. sa"im; ghair (mush) wadih. 

i^idividual, n. zalemi p. zilam. 

industrious, a. mujtehid. 

industry, n. ijtihad. 

inevitable, a. lezim (lazim). 

inexperienced, a. ghashim; ghair (mush) m'owwad; ghurr 
(ghirr). 

infancy, n. tufuliyi. 

infant, n. tifl p. atfal. 

infantry, n. baiyada (biyeda). 

infection, n. 'adwi. 

infectious, a. m'edi. 

inferior, a. adna; owta. 

infidelity, n. khiyeni. 

infirm, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

influence, n. nufuz; satwi. 

influential, a. nefiz; sahib nufuz. 

influenza, n. nezli sidriyi. 

inform (of), v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an); 
b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (f i) ; inform me of what happened 
yesterday, 'arrif-ni fiUi sar imbereh. 

information, n. m'alumiyi. 

ingratitude, n. inkar aj-jemil. 



VOCABULARY. 1/3 

inhabit, v. biskun, sekent (fi) p.p. meskun. 

ifihabitanf, n. ahl al beled ; inJiabitayits, n. p. sukken ; 

ahali (aheli). 
inherits v. a. buras (burat), warist (waritt) p.p. mowrus 

(mowrut). 
inheritance, n. 'irs p. miras (mawaris). 
injure, v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; bu'zi 

(bi'zi), azait (azeyt), zi. 
injury, n. darar; aziyi. 
injustice, n. zulm. 

ink, n. hibr; inkpot, daweyi (dawaiyi). 
inlaid, a. {witJi viotJier of pearl) mta'am ; [witJi jewels) 

mrass'a. 
inn, n. lukanda; khan. 
innocence, n. bera'a. 
innocent, a. beri p. ibriya. 
inquire (about), v. bist'alim, st'alamt, st'alim ('an); bis- 

takhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an). 
insane, a. mejnun. 
insanity, n. jnun. 

inscription, n. kitebi ; khatt p. khutut. 
insect, n. debbebi p. debbebet. 
insecure, a. ghair (mush) amin. 
insensible, a. fe"id al-hasasi ; ad. bila hasasi. 
insert, v. a. bidkhil, adkhalt, idkhil ; [of writing) bhash- 

shi, hashshait, hashshi p.p. mhashsha. 
inside, ad. juwwa; d^khil ; inside out, 'al al-"elb. 
insist (on), v. bharrij, harrajt, harrij ('ala). 
insolence, n. sefaha; wa"aha. 
insolent, a. sef ih ; wi"ih. 
insolvent, a. miflis. 
inspect, v. a. bifl?as, fahast, fhas. 



174 ARABIC MANUAL. 

inspection, n. fahs; teftish. 

inspector, n. mufettish; fahis. 

instalment, n. "ist p. u'^Sat (u"suta). 

instance, n. meteli p. met^l (mesel); for instance, mese- 

len (mctelen). 
instant, n. lahza. 

instead of, pr. bedel; con. bedel ma. 
instruct, v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim; bla*'"in, la" *'ant, 

la" "in. 
instruction, n. t'alim p. t'alimet; ter'in. 
instr^iment, n. ali (eli) p. alet c. p. awe'il; 'iddi p. 'ided. 
insult, n. ih^ni. 
insurance, n. sikurta. 

insure, v. a. bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
insurgent, n. 'asi p. 'usat; te*ir p. te'irin. 
insurrection, n. fitni; towra. 
integrity, n. isti"ami. 
intellect, n. 'a"l. 

intelligence, n. zeka (zika); fahm. 
intelligent, a. zeki (ziki); 'a"il p. *a"ilin ('u"ala). 
intemperance, n. ifrat; shirih. 

intend, v. n. bu"sud, "asadt; binwi, nwait (nweyt). 
intention, n. "asd p. ma"asid; niyi. 
intentional, a. ma"sud. 
intentionally, ad. bil-"asd. 
intercede (for), v. n. bitwassat, twassatt, twassat (ila); 

bitsheflfa, tsheffat, tsheffa (ila). 
intercept, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
intercession, n. wesata; shefa'a. 
interest, n. [money) faiyiz; {bias) gharad; {liking) meyl; 

rughbi (righbi); / have an ifiterest in, li salih fi — ; 

interested in, a. mutgharrid (fi). 



VOCABULARY. 1/5 

interesting, a. mufid; leziz; mlih p. mlah. 

interfere (with), v. n. bitdakhal, tdakhalt, (bitdekhil), 

(tdekhalt) fi. 
interference, n. mudakhili (mdekhili). 
interior, n. dekhil. 
interminable, ad. bila niheyi. 
internal, a. dekhili; juwweni. 
international, a. dowli (dueli). 
interpret, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim. 
interpretation, n. terjemi. 
interpreter, n. terjuman p. tarajmin. 
interval, n. (place) mesefi; {time) middi; in the interval^ 

fi esna. 
interview, n. mwajilia; m"abeli. 
intestate, ad. bila wesiyi. 
intestine, n. misran p. masarin. 
intimate, a. khususi. 
iftto, pr. fi; dekhil fi. 
intolerable, a. ghair (mush) muhtimil. 
intoxicated, a. sekran. 
intoxication, n. sukr. 
intrigue, n. fesad p. mfesid ; desisi p. desa'is; v. n. 

{against) bme"dih, me"diht, me"dih ('ala); bifsud, 

fesadt, fsud ('ala). 
intriguer, n. mufsid; mi*'dah p. ma"adih. 
introduce (to), v. a. b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (fi); b"addim, 

"addamt, "addim (ila); (of things) v. a. bmeshshi, 

meshshait, meshshi. 
intrust (to), v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a (li'ind). 
inundation, n. tufan; hamuli; seyl. 
invent, v. a. bikhtir'i, ikhtar'at, ikhtir'i. 
invention^ n. ikhtira*a. 



1/6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

inventory^ n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 

invest [in), v. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt (fi). 

investigate, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas p.p. mafhus. 

investigation, n. fahs. 

invisible, a. ghair (mush) menzur. 

invitation, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im. 

invite^ (to) v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum (li) p.p. m'azum. 

involuntary, ad. bidun "asd. 

inwards, ad. ila juwwa. 

iron, n. hadid ; n. (fat iron) mikwi ; v. a. bikwi, kaweyt 

(kweyt), kwi p.p. mikwi. 
ironijig-womayi, n. kuweyi. 
irregular, a. ghair (mush) muntazim. 
irresolute, a. mutereddid ; da'if al-'azm. 
irrigate, v. a. bis"i, sa"ait, s"i. 
irrigation, n. sa*'i. • 

island, n. jeziri p. jeze'ir. 
isolate, v. a. bifruz, farazt, fruz p.p. mafruz. 
issue, n. netiji; hasil; v. n. bidhar, dahart, dhar; bitl'a, 

tl'at, tl'a; V. a. bsaddir, saddert saddir. 
it, pro. hu (hui) ; pro, suff. uh (h). 
Italy, Italia; Italian, a. italiyeni. 
itch, V. n. (3rd per.) biyir'a, re'i. 
itching, n. hakki. 
items, n. p. tafsilat ; mufredat ; item, n. (of an account) 

defa p. def'at; nifdi p. nifed. 
itinerary, n. yowmiyi. 
ivory, n. *aj. 
ivy, n. 'amsha". 



VOCABULARY. 1 77 

J. 

jackal, n. wawi p. wawiyi. 
jacket, n. jaketa; sitri; bantu. 

Jaffa, Yaffa. 
jam, n. tatli; hulu; murabba; jani pot, kibbeyi tatli. 

January, kennun at-teni. 

JapaJi, beled al-Yaban ; Japanese, a. yabani. 
jar, n. {large) jarra p. jrar; khabi (khebi) p. khwebi; 
"idri p. "idr; (small), hu"; dweyk p. dweykat; (for 
table use) sherbi (n'ara). 
jasper, n. yasb. 
jaundice, n. ri"an ; sfaira. 

jaw, n. fekk p. fukuk; jaw bone, hanuk p. hanek. 
jealous, a. hasud. 
jealousy, n. hasad. 

Jericho, ariha. 

Jerusalem, "uds; urushlim. 
jessamine, n. yasmin. 
jest, n. mezh; hazl; v. n. bimzah, mezaht, mzah. 

Jesuit, yesu'i p. yesu'iyi. 

Jesus, yesu'a. 'Isa. 

jet, n. silen ; (of water) fis*'iyi ; nofera. 
jetty, n. rasif. 

JeWt yahiidi p. yahud; Jewish, a. yahudi. 
jewel, n. j6whera (johera) p. jewehir (jawahir). 
jeweller, n. jowherji. 

jewelry, n. p. mjowherat; imitation — , mjowherat kizbi. 
job, n. shughl (shighl) p. ashgh^I. 
jockey, n. khaiyel. 
jocular, a. rawendi. 



1/8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

join (to), V. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usil) p.p. mowsul, 

(bi); bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
joint, n. mafsal p. mafasil; (of business) mushterek. 
jolt, n. khadda; v. a. (y^ per.) bikhudd, khadd. 
Jordan, nahr al-urdun. 
journal, n. yowmiyi. 
journalist, n. mketib; muresil. 
journey, n. sefer, p. asfar ; khatra. 
jovial, a. farhan ; mesrur. 
joy, n. farah ; surur. 
judge, n. "adi p. "uda; ne'ib (na'ib). 
judgment, n. hukm. 
judicial, a. sher'i. 
jtidicious, a. 'a"il. 
jug, n. bri" p. beri" (eberi"). 
juggler, n. mz'abir. 
juice, n. 'asir; zum. 
juicy, a. mewi. 
July, tammuz. 
jump, n. fezzi ; v. n. bnutt, nattait, nutt ; bi'*muz, '*amazt, 

"umuz; (over) v. bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala). 
jtinction, n. mel"a; mujtem'a. 
Jime, hazeran. 
jujiiper, n. sindrus. 
just, a. *adil; just so, ad. bit-temem. 
justice, n. *adl; *adeli. 
justify (oneself), v. bberrir zet-i, berreyt zet-i, berrir 

zet-ak; (confirm) v. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit; / am 

justified in doing so, ha** '*-i 'amil heyk. 
justly, ad. bil-'adl; bil-ha" '*. 



VOCABULARY. 179 



kavasSy n. "uwwas p. "owwasa; uniform of — , bedlit 
al-"uwwas; loose jacket with hanging sleeves^ demir 
p. dwemir; kebbut; jacket without sleeves^ kubran p. 
kweberin; embroidered jacket, demir ma"assab; vest 
with sleeves, mintian p. mnetin ; embroidery, *'asab ; 
loose trousers, shirwal p. sherawil; gaiter, tma" p. 
tma"at; sash, zinnar p. znenir; fez (cap) terbush p. 
trabish; tassel, sherrabi p. sherarib; sword, seyf p. 
siyuf; plated sword, seyf mfaddad; sword-belt, bind 
p. bnud as-seyf; shirt, "amis p. "umsan. 

keel, n. "a'dit al-merkeb. 

keen, a. "aris; kheri" p. khawari'*; 'asif p. 'awasif. 

keep, V. a. bba" "i, ba""eyt, ba""i; bkhalli, khallait, 
(khalleyt) khalli; (observe) behfaz hafazt, hfaz p.p. 
mahfuz; keep accounts, v. bimsik, mesakt hiseb; keep 
on doing, v. n. bdamm, dammait 'amil; keep waiting, 
V. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"; / will not keep you 
waiting, ma bitruk-ak tuntur-ni; (one^s word) v, ma 
bikhrum fi"61-i ("owl-i). 

keeper, n. haris p. hurras. 

keepsake^ n. teikar. 

keg, n. barmil zghir. 

kernel, n. "elb ("alb) p. "ulub. 

kettU, n. bri" p. beri". 

key, n. mifteh (miftah) p. mfetih (mefatih); key hole, n. 
tu"ub (ti"ib) al-beb (al-mifteh). 

kickt n. labta; v. a. bilbat, labatt, Ibut; birfus, refest, 
rfis. 

kid, n. jidi p. jdaiya; kid gloves, kfuf jild. 



l8o ARABIC MANUAL. 

kidney, n. kelwi p. kleywi. 

kill, V. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"tul; he was 
killed, "itil. 

kiln, n. atun. 

kind, n. jins p. ajnes; now' (no') p. anw'a; shikl p. 
shikel (ashkal); a. sahib m'aruf; latif p. lutafa. 

kindness, n. lutf. 

king, n. melik p. muluk; (cards) rai. 

kingdom, n. m^mleki p. memalik. 

kiss, n. bowsi (bosi) p. bowset; v. a. bbus, bist, bus. 

kit, n. p. howeyij. 

kitchen, n. matbakh p. matabikh; stove, uja" p. uja"at; 
m6"adi; bars of the grate, msabb'a; chimney, med- 
kheni ; (of iron) dekhun ; oven, firn ; cupboard, khizeni ; 
shelf, reff p. rfuf; sink, balu'a; table, towli p. towlet; 
kitchen utensils, n. p. awe'i (nahas) al-matbakh. 

kite, n. taiyara; to fly a — , btaiyir, taiyert, t-aiyir tai- 
yara; n, (bird) shuha. 

kitten, n. bissi ; "atta zghiri. 

knapsack, n. jerabandiyi. 

knave, (cards) n. fershakh. 

knead, v. a. be'ujun, 'ajant, 'ujun. 

kneading-pan, n. m'ajen. 

knee, n. rikbi p. rikeb (rikeb); knee deep, li rikbi; knee- 
cap, sabunit ar-rikbi ; on one's knees, 'ala rikeb (rikeb). 

kneel, v. n. birk'a, rak'at, irk'a. 

knife, n. sikkin p. skekin ; table knife, sikkin at-towli ; 
clasp-knife, mitwi; mus; pen-knife, 'uwaisiyi; knife- 
sharpener, msenn; small knife, sikkin zghir; large 
knife, sikkin kbir. 

knit, V. a. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil bis-sinnara. 

knitting, n. shighl (shughl) sinnara. 



VOCABULARY. 1 8 1 

knob^ n. meski ; tiffehat al-beb. 

knocky V. a. bdu"", da'* "ait, du""; knock down or over, 

V. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; bibtah, bataht, btah. 
knot, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad; knotted, a. m'a"ad. 
knot (to), V. a. be"'ud, Vadt, 'u"ud p.p. rnVud. 
know, V. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif p.p. m'aruf; make known, 

V. a. b*arrif, *arraft, 'arrif; become known, {y^ per.) 

biyinti'shir, intashar; bishi'a, sha'a. 
knoiuingly, ad. bil-"asd. 
knowledge, n. 'ilm; m'arifi. 
knuckle, n. 'i"dit (p. 'u"ad) al-usb'a. 



label, n. unwen ('ilwan). 

laboratory, n. mahall al-kimia. 

labour, n. shughl (shighl) ; kedd ; t'ab. 

labourer, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 

lace, n. mkeshkesh; dantella; gold — , shrit dahab ("asab); 

silver — , shrit fidda. 
lack, n. "illi; v. (3rci per.) bi'uz; ma fih. 
lad, n. sabi p. subiyan. 
ladder, n. sillum p. selelim. 
lading (bill of), n. bolsit shahn. 
ladle, n. marghafi. 
lady, n. sitt p. sittet (sittat). 
lag (behind), v. n. b"assir, "assert, "assir ; /^^^/w^ ^^/«W, 

a. m"as.sir. 
lair, n. maghara. 

lake, n. bhaira (bheyra) p. bhairat. 
lamb, n. kharuf p. khirfen; (small) "ar*'ur p. '*ara"ir. 



1 82 ARABIC MANUAL. 

laniBy a. 'araj f. 'arja p. 'urj ; to be lame, v. n. be*uruj, 

'arajt; the horse is lame, al-hisan 'amm bey'uruj ; la^ne 

excuse, 'uzr kezib. 
lament, v. bnuh, niht, nuh ('ala) ; bibki, bakit, bki (*ala). 
lamentation, n. menaha. 
latnp, n. "andil p. "anadil; dow; lamp-glass, "izezit 

"andil. 
lance, n. rumh p. rmah; v. a. bibd'a, bad'at, bd'a (bi- 

drub-uh neshter). 
lancet, n. neshter; mibd'a; rishi. 
land, n. ard; (property) riz" p. arza" ; milk, p. amlak; 

on lajid, ad. 'al al-berr; (arable) ard mafluha; (pasture) 

mer'a; (waste) ard mahmuli ; (wooded) ard mshejjer; 

(unwooded) ard sallikh (baiyad); Government land, 

ard miri ; public land, ard meshe'a ; private land, milk 

khass. 
landing-place, n. mina; (wooden) s*'ala. 
landlord, n. sahib al-beyt. 
landmark, n. takhm p. tkhum. 
landowner, n. sahib al-milk. 
lane, n. zarub p. zw^rib; dakhli. 
language, n. lughgha. 
Ia7iguid, a. da'if p. da'af; 'aiyyen. 
lantern, n. (glass) fanus p. fwenis; (paper) fanar p. fa- 

narat; (magic) fanus sehri. 
/^/, n. hudn (hidn). 
lapse, V. n. (3rd per.) bifut, fat; the time has lapsed, fat 

(mada) al-wa"t. 
lard, n. dehn al-khanzir. 
larder, n. khizeni. 
large, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar. 
lark, n. "unbra. 



vcx:abulary. 183 

last, a. ekhir (akhir); (preceding) madi; n. ( shoemaker* s) 

sidden (sinden); v. n. (3rd per.) bitowvvil, towwal; 

bidum, dam (dem); at last, ad. akhiran; last price, 

ekhir s'er; last tUne, ekhir marra; last word, ekhir 

kilmi. 
latch, n. sa"ata (sa"uta). 
late, a. (defunct) mutwaffi ; (of niosletns) merhum ; to be 

late, V. n. bitla" "as, tla" "ast, tla""as; bit'owwa", 

t'owwa"t, t'owwa" ; ^(?« are /^^ to^, t'owwa"t (tla" "ast) 

ktir; lately, ad. mu'akhiren. 
lath, n. lowh (loh) khasheb p. Iweh. 
lathe, n. makhrata. 
lather, n. raghwit as-sabun. 
latitude, n. 'ard. 
latrines, n. kenif; sheshmi; beyt al-mai; beyt al-fada; 

beyt al-khala. 
latter, a. teni. 
latterly, ad. mu*akhiren. 
lattice, n. sh'ariyi. 
laugh, n. dihki (duhki); v. n. bidhak, dahikt, dahak; 

laugh at, V. bidhak 'ala. 
laughable, a. mudhik. 
laughing-stock, n. maskhara. 
laughter, n. dihk. 

launch, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil fil-bahr. 
laundress, n. ghass^li. 
laurel, n. ghar. " 
lava, n. mewad burkaniyi. 
lavender, n. lawanda. 
laWf n. (sacred) sh^riy'a p. sheraiy*a; (civil) nazam; 

destur. 
law-court, n. mahkemi p. mhakim i(uide court). 



1 84 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lawful, a. jeyiz. 

lawn, n. khadra; merj p. mruj. 

lawsuit, n. d'awa p. da'awi. 

lawyer, n. wekil da'awi; avokat. 

laxative, n. mis-hil; sherbi. 

lay, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt; {a table) bhutt as-siifra; 

(eggs) V. n. (3rd per. f.) bitbid, badet. 
layer, n. taba"a; saf (sef) p. sefet; in layers, saf saf. 
lazy, a. keslen p. kesela. 
lead, n. resas. 
lead, V. a. b"ud, "udt, "ud ; btill, tallait, till ; / led him 

by the hand, "udt-uh bi id-uh ; (precede) v. n. bit- 

"addam, t"addemt, t"addam ('ala) ; v. a. bisba", saba"t, 

sba"; [conduct) to, v. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
leader, n. "^yid ("a'id) p. "uwed. 
leading, a. owwel. 
leading-article, n. ma"aH iftitahiyi. 
leaf, n. wara"a p. wara'* (owra*'). 
leak, n. shi" " ; (iyi a roof) delf ; v. n. (3rd per.) (vessel) 

biyizrub, zarab; birowwih, rowwah; (roof) biyidlif, 

dalaf. 
lean, n. habr; a. da'if p. da'af; v. n. [on] bittiki, tek- 

kait, tikki ('ala); bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); v. a. 

{against) bisnud, senedt, snud ('ala) ; / leant the ladder 

against the wall, senedt as-sillum 'al al-hait. 
leap, n. fezzi; v. n. [over) bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala); bi- 

"muz, "amazt, "umuz ('ala)* 
leap-year, n. sini kebis. 
learn, v. a. and n. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif; bit'allam, t'allamt, 

t'allam. 
learned, a. 'alim p. *ulema. 
learning, n. 'ilm; m'arifi. 



VOCABULARY. 1 85 

lease, n. ijar al-beyt. 

leash, n. habli. 

least (the'), al-azghar ; at least, a "allama. 

leather, n. jild p. jlud; untanned — , jild ftir; Russian 

— , jild miskobi. 
leave, n. izn ; rukhsa; v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; bkhalli, 

khallait (khalleyt), khalli; take leave, v. n. bistarkhis, 

starkhast, starkhis; [of servants) bitlub, talabt, tlub 

izn ; on leave, f i (bi) rukhsa ; you had no leave to do 

so, ma ken lak izn t'amil haik. 
leaven, n. khamiri; leavened, a. khamir. 
leavings, n. p. fad la t. 
Lebatton, Libnan; Lebariese, a. libneni. 
lecture, n. khitbi p. khitab. 
ledge, n. hafii p. hafefi. 
ledger, n. defter p. defetir; istez p. asatiz. 
leech, n. 'ala"a. 

lees, n. rasi (rasib) ; (of wine) 'akr ; (coffee) tifl. 
left, n. shimel; to the left, 'ash-shimel; left handed, 

Msrawi. 
leg, n. ijr p. ijreyn ; (of animals) front-leg, id p. ideyn ; 

back — , ijr. 
legacy f n. wusiyi. 
legal, a. sher'i. 
legation, n. sefara. 
legend, n. kharafi p. kharafat. 
legible, a. mi"ri; wadih. 
leisure, n. fadawi; leisurely, a. mute'enni. 
lemon, n. laimuni (leymuni) hamda p. laimun hamud. 
lemonade, n. leymunada. 

lend, V. a. b^'ir, 'irt, e'lr; bu'Vud, "aradt, u"rud. 
length, n. \u\; at full length, *ala t^l-uh. 



I 86 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lengthen, v. a. btowwil, towwalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

lengthwise, ad. bi-tul. 

lenient, a. leyyin; sihl; leniently, ad. bi lutf. 

lent, n. sowm (som) al-kbir. 

lentil, n. 'adasi p. 'adas. 

leper, n. abras p. burs; mejdum p. mjeddemin; ahl al- 
hadiri. 

less, ad. bin-na"is; a"el; fnore or less, aktar ow a"el; 
he gave 7ne less than you, 'ata-ni a"el min illi 'ata-k 
yeh. 

lessee, n. muste'jir. 

lessen, v. a. bi"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 

lesson, n. ders p. durus; meteli p. mete'il. 

lessor, n. mu'jir. 

let [alloiv), V. bismah, semaht, smah (li); / will not let 
you in, ma bismah-lak tefut; [of houses) v. a. b'ejjir, 
ejjert, ejjir; / will let you my house, b'ejjir-ak beyt-i; 
let alone, v. bkhalli, khalleyt, khalli wahd-uh ; let go, 
V. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir; bseyyib, seyyebt, 
seyyib; let in, v. a. bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit; let out, 
V. a. btall'i, tairat, tall'i; let me [him) pass, khalli-ni 
umru" (khalli-h yumru"). 

letter, n. mektub p. meketib; [of alphabet) harfp. huruf; 
letter-bag, kis meketib. 

lettuce, n. khassi p. khasset c. p. khass. 

level, a. sehili; msewa; jelis f. jelsi; suwi f. swiyi; v. a. 
bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. ms^wa. 

lever, n. 'atili; mukhl. 

lexicon, n. "amus p. "awamis. 

liar, n. kezzeb; mnefi". 

liberal, a. kerim p. kiirama; sakhi. 

liberality, n. kerem. 



VOCABULARY. 1 8/ 

liberate, v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu" ; bharrir, harrert, harrir. 

liberty, n. hurriyi. 

library, n. mektebi p. meketib. 

license, n. rukhsa; izn; (disorder) rezeli. 

lick, V. a. bilhas, lahast, Ihas p.p. melhus; n. lahsi. 

lid, n. ghata p. ughtiyi. 

lie, n. kizbi p. kizbet; barbuki ; v. n. bikzub, kzibt, 

kzub. 
lie down, v. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam) ; lying 

down, pres. part, neyim 1. neyimi ; v. n. bitla" "ah, 

tla""aht, tla""ah. 
lieutenant, n. mulezim (mulazim). 
life, n. 'umr; haiya (hiya); by the life of my father, 

bi haiyit bey-i (ab-i). 
lifeless (as if dead), ka in-nuh me'it. 
////, V. a. birfa, refat, irfa; bshil, shilt, shil. 
light, n. dow; nur; a. khafif c. akhaf p. khifaf; [of 

colour) fetih c. aftah ; v. a. bdowwi, dowweyt, dowwi 

p.p. mdowwa; {a fire) v. a. bsha'il, sha'alt, sha'il ; 

lighted, a. she'ili (sha'ali) ; come to light, v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyizhar, zahar; biyinjili, injela; biban, ban. 
lighten, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef; [of 

lightning) (3rd per. f.) bitibri", bera"it (kenet tibri"). 
lightning, n. ber" ; flash of — , ber"a. 
like, a. shebih p. ashbah ; ad. mitl ; v. a. bhibb, hab- 

bait (habbeyt), hibb p.p. mahbub. 
likely, a. muhtimil. 
likeness, n. mshebeha. 
lilac, n. zenzelakht. 
lily^ n. zdnba'*a p. zanba". 
limb, n. 'adu p. *uda. 
lime, n. (tree) zezafiin ; (fruit) laimun hulu ; (cement) kils. 



1 88 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lifnit, n. hadd p. hudud; v. a. bhaddid, haddedt, had- 

did p.p. mahdud; the time is limited, al-wa"t daiyi". 
limp, V. n. bekhud, akhadt min ijr-i. 
line, n. saff p. sfuf; [of writing) satr p. stur; straight 

line, khatt musta"im (dughri); v. a. bbattin, battant, 

battin p.p. mbattan. 
linen, n. kitten; [underclothing) tyeb tahteniyi. 
linifnent, n. duhun. 
lining, n. btani. 
lint, n. neseli; ketit. 

link, n. zaredi p. zarad ; hala"a p. hal"at c. p. hala'*. 
liftseed, n. bezr kitten; — oil, zeyt har; crushed — , bezr 

kitten med"u". 
lintel, n. 'atabi. 

lion, n. seb'a p. sbe'a; asad p. usud. 
lip, n. shift! p. shifef (shffef); upper, lower lip, shifti 

fu"aniyi, tahteniyi. 
liquid, n. se'il p. sew^'il. 

liquidate (debts), v. a. bsaffi, safteyt, saffi p.p. msafta. 
liquorice, n. sus ; root of — 'ur" as-sus ; juice of — rub 

as-sus. 
list, n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 
listen (to), v. bisgha, saghait, sgha (li); listeuing, pres. 

part, saghi. 
literally, ad. harfiyan. 
lithography, n. tab'a-i-hajr. 
litigant, n. sahib d'awa. 
litter, n. takhtirewen ; (for animals) fershi; zibl; in a 

litter, a. m'affashi. 
little (a), n. nitfi ; shwayi; {tirne) burha ; a. zghir c. azghar 

p. zghar; little by little, shwayi, shwayi. 
live, V. n. be'ish, 'isht, 'ish; live on, v. be'ish 'ala; he 



VOCABULARY. 1 89 

lives fro7n hand to mouth, be'yish min id-uh ila 

timm-uh. 
livelihood, n. ma'aishi; means of — , asbeb al-ma'ash. 
liver, n. kibid. 
livery, n. bedli makhsusa. 
lizard, n. hardown p. haradin. 
load, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli); v. a. bhammil, hammelt, 

hammil p.p. mhammel; {a ship) bish-han, shahant, 

shahan p.p. mash-hun ; (a gun) bdikk, dekkait, dikk 

p.p. madkuk. 
loaf, n. (bread) rghif p. irghfi ; [sugar) ras ("alib) sikker. 
loan, n. (money) "ird ("irda) p. "urud; (things) aiyeri 

('aiyari). 
local, a. mahalliyi- 
lock, n. ghal p. ghalet; v. a. bi"ful, "afelt, "iful ("ifil) 

p.p. ma"ful. 
locket, n. kirdan; snoberiyi; medalion. 
locomotive, n. makina. 
locust, n. jeradi p. jerad. 
lodge, V. a. bbeyyit, beyyett, beyyit; v. n. (at) bibat, 

bitt, bat (f i) ; binzel, nzilt, inzel (fi). 
lodger, n. nezil p. nuzela; daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 
lodging, n. menzil; beyt. 
loft, n. 'aaliyi ; taiyara ; hay loft, tebben. 
loiter, V. n. bit*owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa". 
long, a. tawil c. atwal p. tuwal ; long ago, min zemen ; 

for a long time, middi tawili. 
longitude, n. tul. 
look, n. nazra ; lamha ; look at, v. bittall'a, ttall'at, ttall'a 

(fi); look for, v. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala);bdow- 

wir, dowwert, dowwir ('ala) ; look after, v. bdir bel-i, 

dirt bcl-i, dir bcl-ak ('ala); look into, v. a. bshuf, shuft, 



IQO ARABIC MANUAL. 

shuf; V. bunzur, nazert, nzur (fi); look like, v. n. 

bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin mitl; look upon as, v, a. 

bihsub, hasabt, hsub — mitl; be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir — mitl; look here! ttall'a hon; look out! u'a; 

dahr-ak; dir bel-ak; look sharp! rowwij ; intibih. 
looking-glass, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 
loose, a. rakhu f. rakhwi c. arkha. 
loosen, V. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul ; birkhi, rkhait, 

irkhi. 
lop, V. a. bifr'a, fer'at, fr'a p.p. mafru'a; bsheffi, sheffeyt, 

sheffi. 
loquacious, a. ktir al-haki; ktir al-ghalibi. 
lord, n. rebb. 

Lordsprayer, n. as-sala ar-ribbaniyi. 
lose, V. a. bdaiy'i, daiy'at, daiy'i; [money) bikhser, khsirt, 

khsar; {the way) v. ri. btih (btuh), tiht 'an ad-derb; 

(/ lose my temper) v. n. (3rd per.) biyitl'a khiF'-i, tili'a 

khil"-i. 
loser, n. khasran. 

loss, n. khisara ; sell at a loss, v. a. bbi*a, be'ut bi khisara. 
lot, n. sirbi; jumli; (chance) nasib. 
lots {to cast), V. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a. 
lottery, n. "ur'a. 
loud, a. 'aali c. a'ala. 
lousey n. "amli p. "ami. 
love, n. ghuram ; mahabbi ; v. a. bhibb, habbeyt, hibb 

p.p. mahbub; fall in love with, v. a. be'ashi", 'ashi"t; 

he is in love with her, hui mughram fi-ha; 'ashi"-ha. 
loved, a. habib; lover, n. muhibb; habib. 
low, a. wati c. owta; deni (dun) c. adna. 
lower, a. tahteni ; v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ; bdelli, 

dellait (delleyt), delli ; loiver the price, nezzil as-'ser. 



VOCABULARY. I9I 

loyal, a. tai'ya. 

loyalty, n. ta'a. 

lozenge, n. habbi p. hbub. 

luck, n. bakht; tof i" ; hazz; bad luck, nahs. 

lucky, a. mwaffa" ; hazz-uh kbir. 

lucrative, a. mufid; ma'ash-uh mlih. 

ludicrous, a. mudhik. 

luggage, n. 'afsh; howeyij ; hmuli. 

lukewarm, a. fetir f. fetri. 

lump, n. kebshul p. kbeshil. 

lunar, a. "ameriyi. 

lunatic, a. mejnun; {cracked) mef'u'a; {light-headed') 

mesh'ur. 
luncheon, n. ftur. 
lungs, n. riyi. 

luscious, a. hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
lustre, n. lima'an. 
luxurious, a. mutrafih. 
luxury, n. rifeh. 
/yr^, n. *ud p. 'awed. 



M. 

mace, n. "ishr jowz at-tib; {club) 'asa p. 'usi. 

machine, n. makina; eli (ali) p. elet (al^t) c. p. awe'il; 

sewing-machine, elit khiyata. 
mad, a. mejnun [vide lunatic), 
madness, n. jenun. 

madonna, n. sitt-na meriam (al-*adra). 
magazine, n. ncshera (nfshra). 
maggot, n. dudi p. dud. 



192 ARABIC MANUAL. 

magic J n. sehr; a. sehri. 

magician, n. sehir; sahhar. 

magistrate, n. "adi p. "uda; na'ib (ne'ib). 

magnet, n. maghnatis. 

magnetise, v. a. (3rd per.) bimaghnit, maghnat, 

magnificence, n. jeleli; magnificent, a. jelil. 

magpie, n. \^\ ("a") p. "i"an. 

Mahomet, Muhammed; seyyid-na (our lord) Muhammed 
resul-ullah {the prophet of God) ; Mahotnetan, n. mus- 
lim p. musulmin (islam), Mahometanism, islam. 

maid, n. bint p. benet (benat) ; — servant, san'i p. sun- 
n'a; [black) jeriyi p. jeweri. 

7naiden-hair (fern), n. kizbrit al-bir. 

mail, n. dir'a; (post) bosta. 

mainspring, n. {of a watch), zunberak as-se*a. 

maintaiyi [support), v. a. b'ul, *ilt; v. b"um, "umt (bi) ; / 
cannot maintain my family, ma bi"dir b"um bi 'aiyilt-i. 

maintenance, n. "ut; *'iyam bin-nefa*'a. 

maize, n. dara (dura). 

majestic, a. jelil ; majesty, n. jeleli. His [Her) Majesty, 
jelelt-uh, jelelt-ha. 

major, n. bin bashi ; a. [of age) mfdrik ; beligh. 

majority, n. sinn al-bulugh; the majority, al-akteriyi. 

make, v.' a. b*amil, *amilt, 'amul ('amil) p.p. m'amul; 
— the best of, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil; — 
light of, V. bistakhiflf, stakhaffait, stikhifif (fi); — mo- 
7tey, V. n. birbah, rbiht, irbah; — ready, v. a. bhad- 
dir, haddert, haddir; bwaddib, waddabt, waddib p.p. 
mwaddab; — a speech, v. n. bukhtub, khatabt, 
khtub ; — sure, v. a. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid p.p. m'ek- 
ked ; — way [for), v. bwass'a, wass'at, wass'i (li) ; — 
one's way, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injeh fi dunia. 



VOCABULARY. 1 93 

malaria^ n. malaria. 

male, n. zekr p. zukur. 

malice, n. hi"d. 

malicious, a. ha"ud. 

mallet J n. hatura; mda""a. 

Malta, malta; Maltese, a. malti. 

man, n. rijjel p. rjel. 

manage, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt. 

sewi. 
management, n. idara. 
manager, n. mudir p. mudera. 
mane, n. m'arafiyi. 
mange, n. jarab; mangy, a. jarben. 
manger, n. ma'alaf. 

mangle, v. a. (3rd per.) biyimezzi", mezza". 
manhood, n. rujuliyi. 
mankifid, n. al-beshr. 
manly, a. rijjel. 
manna, n. menn. 

manner, n. shikl p. shikel; tari"a. 
manners, n. p. adab ; n. husn suluk. 
manoeuvre, n. tedrib p. tedribat; (military) mnovverat 

harbiyi. 
mantle, n. meshlah p. meshelih; 'aba p. 'ibi. 
manufactory, n. m'amel p. ma'amel; fabrika. 
manufacture, n. *amel; shughl (shighl). 
manufacturer, n. sahib m'amel; kirkhanji. 
manure, n. zibl. 
manuscript, n. khatt yed. 
many, a. ktir p. ktar ; many times, marrat ktiri ; mafiy 

coloured, mlowwan. 
map, n. kharta. 

13 



194 ARABIC MANUAL. 

marble, n. rkham; mermer. 

March, adar; [military) n. meshiyi. 

mare, n. faras p. kheyl. 

margin, n. hashiyi. 

marigold, n. bakhur meriam. 

marine, a. bahri. 

mark, n. 'alemi p. *alemat; marka; v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 

'allim p.p. m'allam ; (commercial) bmerrik, merrakt, mer- 

rik p.p. mmarrak; up to the mark, leyi" lish-shighl; 

titl'a bi id-uh al-maslaha; near the mark, a. musib; 

wide of the mark, a. mukhti. 
market, n. su" p. aswa" (swa"). 
Maronite, maruni p. muwarni ; Maronite church, al-kenisit 

al-maruniyi. 
marriage, n. jewez (zewej); jizi (zija) p. jizet (zijet); 

ceremony of — , iklil ; — service, salat al-iklil. 
marriageable, fi sinn aj-jewez. 
marrow, n. nkh'a ; marrow-bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam 

('adm) ; vegetable-marrow, n. kusa. 
marry, v. n. bitjowwaz, tjowwazt, tjowwaz p.p. mjow- 

waz; give in marriage, v. a. bjowwiz, jowwazt, jow- 

wiz; (perform the ceremony) v. a. bkellil, kellelt, 

kellil. 
marsh, n. bata". 
martingale, n. kurfsan. 
martyr, n. shehid p. shuheda. 
martyrdom, n. shehedi. 
marvellous, a. gharib; 'ajib. 
masculine, a. mzekker. 

mash, V. a. bihlus, halest, hlis p.p. mahlus; bihrus, ba- 
rest, hris p.p. mahrus. 
mask, n. wijh 'aiyeri; maskhara p. msekhir. 



VOCABULARY. I95 

masout n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi. 

masonry, n. hejara. 

mass, n. [things) kumi (komi) p. kuam; [people) jemhur 

p. jemahir. 
massacre, n. mezbaha (medbaha). 
mast, n. sari p. sawari. 
master, n. [superior) ma'allim ; (of a trade) usta p. us- 

tawat; v. bitghallib, tghallabt, tghallib ('ala). 
masterpiece, n. da"it shighl ; shighl al-ma'allim. 
mastic, n. 'ara*'. 
mat, n. hasiri p. husr. 
match, n. [lucifer) shahaitta p. shahat; kebrit; wal'aj 

[pair) jowz (joz) p. ajwez; v. (3rd per.) biwefi'*, wafa" 

(•ala). 
material, n. "imash ("imesh); [cloth) jukh; [building) V^- 

resta; lawezim al-bina. 
mathematician, n. riyadi. 
mathematics, n. p. ar-riyadiyet. 
matter, n. maslaha p. masalih; mes'eli; "adiyi; what is 

the matter, shu al-mes'eli; what is the matter with 

you, shu bek; ma lak; there is nothing the matter, 

ma fi shi; it does not matter, ma biseyl. 
mattress, n. fresh p. firsh. 
mature, a. reshid (rashid). 
mausoleum, n. ma"am p. ma"amat. 
May^ iyar; nuwar. 
me, pro. suff, i (ni). 
meadow, n. merj p. mruj. 
meal, n. [ground grain) tahin ; [repast) akl. 
mean, a. dun; [stingy) bakhil p. bukhala; khasis; [average) 

m'addal ; v. n. (3rd per.) y*ani ; it meatis, m'ana-uh. 
meaning, n. m'ana. 



196 ARABIC MANUAL. 

means J n. imken (imkan); "udra; by mea?is of, hi w^stSit. 
meanwhile (in the), fi hal-fursa; fil-wa"t zet-uh. 
measles, n. hasbi ; himeri. 
measure, n. *'iyes p. "iyeset; tape — , mitr p. amtar; 

(of capacity) keyl; (weight) wazn; (proceeding) tedbir 

p. tedebir; tari"a ;. full measure, 2i. kemil; short — , 

na"is; above — , ad. fow" al-'adi; what does it measure ? 

shu "iyes-uh; v. a. bi"is, "ist, "is; bekhud, akhadt, 

khud al-"iyes; (by weight) buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. 

mowzun; (by capacity) bkeyyil, keyyelt, keyyil p.p. 

mkeyyel. 
meat, n. lahm. 
Mecca, mekki. 

medal, n. nish^n p. nieshin; medalion. 
meddle (i?i), v. n. bitdakhal (bitdekhal), tdakhalt (tdek- 

halt) m'a; bitahashshir, tahashshart, tahashshir (fi). 
meddler, n. hishri; fuduli. 
medicine, n. dawa p. edwiyi. 
mediocrity, n. hali mutwassta. 
meditate, v. bit'ammel, t'ammelt, t'ammel (fi). 
tneditation, n. ta'ammul. 
Mediterranean sea, al-bahr al-mutwassit. 
medlar, n. z*arura p. z'arur. 
meek, a. wadiy'a. 
meet, v. a. bla"i, la"ait, la"i; {by chajice) v. a. bisduf, 

sadaft; where shall we meet? weyn minitla"a. 
meeting, n. ijtima*a; mula"a; vteeting place, mahall 

ijtima'a; (rivers) mer'a. 
melancholy, n. sweda; sowdewi; msodan. 
mellow, a. mistwi. 
melodious, a. mutribi. 
melody, n. lahn p. alhan. 



VOCABULARY. 1 9/ 

melon, n. battikh asfar, {water-melon) battikh akhdar; 

[sweet scented) shemmem; "aun. 
melty V. n. (3rd per.) bidub, dab; v. a. bdowwib, dow- 

wabt, dowwib p.p. mdowwab. 
member, n. 'adu ; honorary — , 'adu ikrami. 
memorandum, n. mzekkeri; ta"rir. 
memory, n. zakra; my memory, zakirt-i; in memory of, 

tezkar li. 
menace, n. tahdid ; wa'id; v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, 

tahedded ; v. bitwa'ad, twa'adt, twa'ad (ila). 
mend, v. a. bsallih, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah; to be 

mended, (3rd per.) biyitsallah, tsallah; [of pens) v. a. 

bibri, berait, bri p.p. mibri. 
mention [to), v. a. bizkur, zakert, zkur p.p. mezkur (li); 

/ mentiofied it to him, zakert-illuh yeh. 
merchandise, n. p. bda'a (badaiy'i). 
merchant, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
merciful, a. rahum ; shefu". 

merciless, a. mush (mau) rahum; ad. bila rahmi. 
mercury, n. zaiba". 
mercy, n. rahmi ; shefa"a. 
merely, ad. bes; fa"at. 

merit, n. istih"a"; v. a. bistaha" ", staha""eyt, stihi"". 
merry, a. farhan. 
mess, n. 'aj"a; lakhbata; [dirt) wasakh; [fig.) irtibek; 

l^beki; in a mess, a. m*aju'*; [fig>) murtibik. 
message, n. khaber; to send a — , bib'at, ba'att li — 

khaber. 
messenger^ n. sd'i (sa'i); mirsel. 
metal, n. m'aden p. ma'aden. 
metaphor, n. mejaz. * 

meteor, n. shehab p. shiihub. 



198 ARABIC MANUAL. 

method, n. tari"a. 
metre {verse), n. beyt p. abiyet. 
metropolitan, n. mitran p. matarni. 

'ntew, V. n. (3rd per.) binowwi, nowwa ; mewing, a. nowwi. 
microscope, n. mikroskob. 
mid-day, n. dohr. 

middle, n. wast; in the middle of, pr. fi wast; middle- 
man, dellel; simsar; middle course, tari" mutwassit; 

middle-aged, a. mutwassit fis-sinn. 
mid-night, n. nuss leyl. 
mid-way, n. nuss ad-derb. 
midwife, n. deyi. 

migrate, v. n. (riomads) birhal, rahalt, rhal. 
migration, n. mhajera ; {nomads) rahil. 
mild, a. latif p. liitafa; leyyin. 
mildeiu, n. 'afn ('ufuni). 
mile, n. mil p. amyal. 
military, a. 'askeri. 
milk, n. halib; fresh — , halib taza; boiled — , halib 

mighli; hot — , halib sukhn; cold — , halib berid; 

sotir — , lebn. 
viill, n. tahun p. twahin; hand — , jarushi p. jwerish; ;;z27/- 

stone, hajr (p. hijjar) tahun; mill-wheel, ferash at-tahun. 
miller, n. tahhan. 
millet, (vide maize). 

7nillion, n. meliyun p. mleyin ; tnillionaire, sahib meliyun. 
mimic, v. a. bi'*ellid, 'elledt, "ellid p.p. m*'elled. 
minaret, n. medni p. mawadin. 
mince, v. a. bifrum, faramt, frum p.p. mafrum. 
mind, n. 'a"l; v. [pay attention to) bintibih, intebeht, 

intibih (ila); [care about) binhamm, inhammait (li); 

[interest) v. a. (3rd per.) bihimm, hamm ; / dont mitid. 



VOCABULARY. I99 

ma bihimm-ni ; make tip ones mind, v. n. be'itimid, 

'etamedt ('ala); mind oyie's busijiess, v. bdir, dirt bel-i 

'ala shighl-i ; speak one's mind, v. behki, hakeyt fikr-i ; 

7tei'er mind, ma biseyl, la bes. 
mine, n. m*aden p. ma'aden; v. a. bilghum, laghamt, 

Ighum p.p. melghum. 
miner, n. m'adenji. 
mineral, a. aiid n. m'adeni p. ma'aden; — water, mai 

m*adeniyi. 
minister, n. wezir, p. wuzera ; prime — , sadr'azam ; 

(foreign affairs), nazir (nezir) al-kharijiyi; (interior), 

— ad-dakhliyi; (finance), — al-meliyi; (justice), — al- 
'adliyi; {public iustruction), — al-ma'arif; (marine), — 
al-bahriyi ; (war), — al-harbiyi ; (public works), — 
an-nefa; (pious foundations), — al-ow"af; (commerce), 

— at-tijara; (police), — az-zabta. 
minor, n. "asir p. "ussar. 

mijit, n. (platit) n*an'a; {for coining) darb khani; sikki. 

minute, n. da"i"a p. da'*ayi'\ 

miracle, n. 'ajibi p. 'ajeyib. 

mirror, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 

mischief, n. darar ; aziyi. 

misconduct, n. su siri; siri rediyi. 

misdeed, n. zenb p. znub. 

miser, n. bakhil n. bukhala; shahih. 

miserable, a. meskin ; (bad) shi"i. 

misery, n. sha"ewi; fu*'r. 

misfortune, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

miss, V. a. bifut, fitt, fut; bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit; 
/ missed the opportunity, fatft-ni al-fursa; dofit miss 
the opportunity, la tfowwit al-fursa; (aim) v. n. bukhti, 
kha^ait, khti. 



200 ARABIC MANUAL. 

mission, n. sefara; {religious) risali; irsaliyi; ba'Ati 

diniyi. 
missionary, n. "asis p. "usus; mursel p. murselin. 
mist, n. ghtaita. 
mistake, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat; khata; 7nake 

a mistake, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlutt (ghlitt), 

ghlat. 
mistress, n. ma'allimi; my mistress, ma'allimt-i. 
misunderstanditig, n. su fahm. 

mitigate, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef. 
mitre, n. tej p. tijen. 
mix, V. a. bukhlut, khalatt, khlut p.p. makhlut ; {drugs) 

bimzij, mazajt, mzuj p.p. memzuj. 
mixed, a. memzuj ; makhlut. 
mixture, n. mezij. 

moan {moaning), n. 'anin ; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), *in. 
moat, n. khenda" p. khanadi" (khnedi"). 
mob {the), al-owbash (obash). 
mockery, n. dihki (duhki). 

model, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel; {fig^) *'idwi. 
moderate, a. mu'tfdil. 
moderation, n. 'itidel. 
modern, a. jdid p. jidad. 
modest, a. mahshum; modesty, n. hfshmi. 
fnoist, a. rutib. 

moisten, v. a. brattib, rattabt, rattib p.p. mrattab. 
moisture, n. rtubi. 
mole, n. khuld p. menajiz. 
molest, V. a. bu'zi (bi'ii), azeyt (azait), zi. 
moment, n. lahza. 

monarch, n. melik p. muluk; sultan. 
monastery, n. deyr p. diyura. 



VOCABULARY. 20I 

Mondayj nahar (yowm) al-itneyn. 

moyiey^ n. mesari (misriyat); m'ameli; — market, bursa; 

— changer, serraf p. saiyerif. 
mongrel, n. bandu". 
monk, n. rahib p. ruhben. 
monkey, n. s'aden p. sa'adin. 

monopolise, v. a. bihsur, hasert, hsur p.p. mahsur. 
monopoly, n. hasr; al-yed al-wahdi. 
monster, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 

Montenegro, jebel as wad ; Montenegrin, min jebel aswad. 
month, n. shehr p. shuhur (ish-hur); monthly, a. shehri. 
monument, n. asar p. asar (eter p. atar). 
jHoon, n. "amer; new — , hilel; — light, dow al-"amer; 

full — , bedr. 
moor, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut. 
moorings, n. marbat. 
morals, n. p. adeb. 

more, a. and ad. aktar; moreover, ad. aidan. 
morning, n. bukra; subh; in the moriiing, 'a bukra; 

this morning, al-yowm 'a biikra. 
Morocco, marakesh; Moor, mughrabi; Moorish, a. ma- 

gharbi. 
morsel, n. sha"fi. 
mortal, a. me'it; {deadly) "attel. 
mortar, n. [of copper) hewin (hawin); (stone) jurn. 
mortgage, n. rahn ; v. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 
mortgagee, n. murt^hin. 
mortgagor, n. rahin. 
mosaic, n. tenzil. 

mosque, rt. j^m*i p. jaw^m'i; mesjid p. mes^jid. 
mosquito, n. berghashi p. berghash ; nemusi p. nemus; 

mosquito-net, nemusiyi. 



202 ARABIC MANUAL. 

moss, n. khazz. 

most, a. and ad. al-aktar; aktar min al-kull (kill); for 

the most part, al-aghlab. 
moth, n. 'itti p. 'itt; to be motheate?i, v. n. (3rd per.) 

bi'attit, 'attet p.p. m'attit. 
mother, n. imm p. immet; mother-in-law, 'ammi. 
^notion, n. hareki; in motion, a. mutaharrik; meshi. 
motive, n. sebeb p. asb^b; gharad. 
motto, n. kelimi; 'ibara. 

mould, n. tirab; (shape) "elib ("alib) p. "awalib. 
mouldy, a. m'affin ; to go mouldy, v. n. (3rd per.) bi*affin, 

'afifan. 
fHoult, V. a. (3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah; biyibdal, bedel ; 

the bird moults, at-tayr biyishlah rish-uh. 
mound, n. telli p. tlel. 
mount, V. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); (an animal)] v. a. 

birkeb, rkibt, irkeb. 
mountain, n. jebel, p. jib^l; range of — , silslit jibel. 
mounted, a. rekib. 
mourn (for), v. behzan, hzint, hzan ('ala) ; bhidd, had- 

dait, hidd ('ala) ; wear mourning, v. bilbus, Ibist, ilbus 

hided. 
mourniftg, n. hided; hizn; ifi — , l^bis hided. 
motise, n. fara p. firan c. p. far. 
mouse-trap, n. masiyadit far. 
moustache, n. sherib p. shwerib. 
mouth, n. timm (tumm) p. itman; fimm (fumm) p. af- 

weh; buz. 
mouthful, n. lu"mi. 
mouthpiece, n. biz. 
move, V. a. (put in motion) bharrik, harrakt, harrik; 

bmeshshi, meshshait, meshshi; (transport) bin"ul, na- 



VOCABULARY. 203 

"alt, n"ul; move away, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil; v. n. 

bitaharrak, taharrakt, taharrak; move about, bdur, 

durt, dur. 
mow, V. a. bhishsh, hashshait, hishsh p.p. mahshush ; 

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
Mr, Mrs, al-khowaja; as-sitt. 
much, a. a?id ad. ktir c. aktar p. ktar. 
7nud, n. wahl. 

muddle, n. 'aj"a; {Jig.) irtebek {vide mess), 
muddy, a. muhil; wehil. 
mug, n. kuz p. akwaz. 
mulberry, n. tuti p. tut; (white) tut hezez; {black) tut 

sh^mi; — tree, tuti. 
mule, n. baghl p. bghal; she-mule, baghli; kicking mule, 

baghl shmus. 
muleteer, {mule-driver) n. mkeri p. mkeriyi ; "atfrji. 
multiply, V. a. {a iiumber by another), bidrub, darabt, 

drub p.p. madrub (fi); multiply 3 by 4., drub tleti fi 

arb'a. 
multiplication, n. darb. 
mumps, n. abu ka*ib (k'ab). 
municipality t n. belediyi ; President of — , raiyis al- 

belediyi. 
murder, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"t{l) p.p. ma"tul; 

a murdered man, "atil. 
murderer, n. **6til ("atil) p. "utela. 
murmur, n. ta**um"um; v. n. bitdemmir, tdemmert. 
muscle, n. 'adali p. 'adalet. 
museum, n. d^r at-tuhaf. 
mushroom, n. futr; khibz al-"a*\ 
music, n. musika; {vocal) ghina; {church) tertil ; psaltika ; 

musician, musiki ; {of a band), nubdtji. 



204 ARABIC MANUAL. 

muskj n. misk. 

muslin, n. shesh ; muslina. 

must, I must go {come), ana lezim ruh (iji). 

mustard, n. khardal. 

musty, a. m'affin. 

mute, (to be) v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut (W<2^^ silent); a. 

akhras. 
mutineer, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
mutiny, n. 'isiyan. 
mutton, n. lahm dani. 
mutual, a. mutbedil; mushterek. 
muzzle [of a guft), buz al-barudi. 
my, pro. stiff, i (ni). 
myrrh, n. murr. 
myrtle, n. rihan; as; myrtle berries, habb al-as (han- 

felas). 
myself, pro. zet-i. 
fnysterious, (mystic) a. sirri; 'ajib. 
mystery, (mysticism) n. sirr p. asrar. 



N. 



nail, n. mismar p. mesemir; (of the finger) difr (zifr) 
p. adfar (azfar). 

naked, a. 'ariyen ; zlait ; stark naked, bi zult. 

7iame, n. ism p. asemi (esami) ; v. a. (to give a name to) 
bsemmi, sammait, semmi p.p. msemma; (to mention) 
bizkur, zakert, zkur; i7i the name of, bi ism. 

namely, ad. y'ani; ay. 

namesake^ n. smi. 



VOCABULARY. 205 

napy n. {of cloth) zughbera; (dose) nown (nom) ghatta; 

to take a 7iap, v. n. bnam (bnem), ninit, nam (nem) 

ghatta. 
napkin, n. futa p. fuat. 
narcissus y n. narjis. 
narcotic y n. mkhadder; mnowwim. 
narrow, a. daiyi" c. adya" ; narrow-minded, 'a"l-uh 

daiyi" ("asir). 
nasty, a. wisikh ; mush (mau) murdi ; mush mlih. 
nation, n. ummi p. umam. 
national, a. watani. 
nationality, n. jinsiyi; tab'iyi; his — , jinsiyit-uh; tab- 

'iyit-uh. 
native, a. watani; native-land, n. watn. 
nativity [feast of the), 'eid al-milad. 
natural [naturally), a. and ad. tabt'i. 
jiaturalise, v. a. bjennis, jennest, jennis; to be naturalised, 

bitjennas, tjennast, tjennas. 
naturalisation, n. tejnis. 
nature, n. tabi'a. 
nausea, n. "irf; to be nauseated [with), v. n. be*'raf, 

"irift (min). 
naval y a. bahri. 
nave, n. sahn. 
navel, n. surra. 

navigation, n. sefer (seyr) al-bahr. 
navy, n. 'amara al-bahriyi. 
Nazareth, an-nasra. 
near, a. **arib p. "urab; pr. hadd; "arib; jenb; "irb: 

*'idd^m; nearly, ad. "arib ; ta'Viban. 
neat, a. ndif p. ndaf. 
necessary, a. lezim ; daruri ; // is — , lezim ; it is not — , 



206 ARABIC MANUAL. 

mush (mau) lezim; n. lezim p. lawezim; necessarily j 

ad. daruri. 
necessity y n. luzum; darura; there is 710 — , ma fi luzum. 
neck, n. ra"bi; necktie, n. rabtit ra"bi ("amtit ra"bi). 
necklace, n. 'a"id p. 'u"udi. 
need, n. ihtiyej ; v. a. b*uz, 'izt; bihtej, ihtajt. 
needle, n. ibri; knitting — , sinnara; eye of a yieedle, 

ti"ib al-ibri; needle-work, shighl al-ibri. 
negation, n. inkar. 

neglect, v. a. behmil, hamelt, hmil p.p. mahmul. 
negligence, n. ihmel. 
negligent, a. mutahemil. 
negro, n. 'abd p. 'abid ; zenji p. znuj. 
7ieigh [neighing), n. sahil; v. n. (3rci per.) biyus-hul, sahal. 
neighbour, n. jar p. jiran. 
fieighbourhood, n. jiri; my — , jirt-i. 
neither — 7ior, con. la wa la. 
nephew, n. ibn akh (khey) ; ibn ukht (ikht). 
nerve, n. 'asab p. *asab. 
nervous, a. basses. 
nest, n. 'ishsh p. 'ushush ('ashesh) ; nest-egg, moda'a 

fil-*'inn. 
net, n. shebeki p. shbek. 
nettle, n. "urrais. 

neuter, a. la mzekker wa la mu'annas. 
neutral, a. mutahaiyid. 
7ieiitrality, n. hiyyedi. 
never, ad. abaden; mnowb (mnob); nevertheless, m'a 

zelik. 
new, a. jdid p. jidad; new fashion, zey jdid; modajdidi. 
Newfoundland, ard aj-jdidi. 
news, n. khaber p. (akhber); good news, n. beshara. 



VOCABULARY. 20/ 

newspaper J n. jurnel p. jurnelet; gazetta; jeridi. 

nexty a. teni; "admi. 

Niagra [falls of)y shelelet niagra. 

nibj n. rishi p. riesh. 

nibbUy V. a. (3rd per.) biyi'Vut, "arat. 

nicey a. zarif p. zuraf; mlih p. mlah; kwaiyis. 

nichey n. ta'*a. 

nicknamey n. tilbi"a ; libi". 

niecey n. bint akh (khey); bint ukht (ikht). 

nighty n. leyl p. liyeli; by nighty fil-leyl; all nighty kill 

al-leyl ; tul al-leyl ; the thousand and one nights y alf 

leyli u leyli. 
nightgowny n. tyeb an-nowm. 
nightingaley n. bulbul p. blebil. 
nightmarey n. kabus (kebus). 
NiUy nahr an-nil. 
ninibley a. neshit (nishit); herik. 
nippUy n. hilmi p. hilem. 
nitre y n. natrun. 
noy ad. la; nobody (?io-one) hada; I saw nobody y ma shuft 

hada; no where y wila bi matrah. 
noblcy a. sherif. 
nobility y n. sheref. 
nody n. haniyi. 
noise y n. dajji (doji); 'ayta; make a noise y b'amil, 'amilt, 

'amul dajji; bdowwij, dowwajt, dowwij. 
noisyy a. bulit. 

nomady n. nuri p. nawar; bedewi p. bedu ; rahil p. ruhhul. 
nominally^ ad. bil-ism. 
nonsense, n. hels ; kelem ferigh ; it is nonsense, bila m'Sna ; 

to talk — , V. n. bihlus, halest, hlis. 
noony n. ad-dohr. 



208 ARABIC MANUAL. 

noose, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad; running noose, 'i"di shuta. 

normal, a. tabi'i. 

north, n. shimel (shimal); northern, a. shimeli. 

Norway, noruj ; Norwegian, a. noruji. 

nose, n. minkhar, inf. 

nosebag [of a horse), n. kis sh'ir; kis tibn. 

nostril, n. khaishum p. khieshim. 

not, ad. ma ; la ; not at all, abaden ; not one, ma hada ; 
not qnite, lissa; b'ad ma. 

fiotable, a. mesh-hur; notables, n. p. 'aiyen. 

note, n. tezkeri p. tei^kir; [observation] mulahaza; (of 
music) nota p. notat; notes of a piano, sillum; note 
book, defter mfekkera; v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 
p.p. m"eyyed. 

nothing, n. shey (shi); there is nothing, ma fi shi; it will 
come to nothing, ma biyistif id shi ; biruh di'an ; it is 
good for nothing, ma biyfnfa shi ; ma biyfswa shi ; 
better than nothing, ahsan min belesh. 

notice, n. e*alen; khaber; v. a. [observe) blahaz, lahazt, 
lahaz ; give notice [about) ; v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, 
khabbir ('an); give notice [to), v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht, 
nebbih ('ala); it is worth noticing, biyistahi'*" az-zikr; 
short notice, middi *'asiri. 

notoriety, n. shuhra; notorious, a. mesh-hur. 

noun, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 

nourish, v. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am p.p. mta'ama. 

nourishment, n. t'am. 

novelty, n. shey jdidi. 

November, teshrin at-teni. 

novice, n. [religious) mibtidi ; a. ghurr (ghirr) ; ghashun. 

now, ad. halla"; issa; now and then, ahiyenen; now or 
never, wa ilia fa la; nowadays, fi hal-iyem. 



VOCABULARY 



209 



nudge, n. defshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush. 

yiuisance^ n. shey (shi) miiz'ij, mut'ib. 

null, a. batil (battal) ; 7iull and voidy la y'umel fih. 

nujnby a. khadran. 

number, n. 'aded p. 'aded; v. a. bnemmir, nammert, 
nemmir p.p. mnammer. 

numbered, ad. taht numero. 

numberless, ad. bila 'aded; bila numra. 

numeral, n. ra"m p. ar"am. 

numerous, a. ktir p. ktar; 'aded-uh ktir. 

nun, n. rahbi p. rabbet. 

nurse, n. mrabbiyi; wet-nurse, murda'a. 

nut, n. (hazel) bind"a p. bindu"; — tree, bind"a; (pi- 
stachio) fistu"; (cocoa) narjil; jozit hind p. joz hind. 

nutmeg, n. jowzit tib p. jowz tib ; nutmeg grater, ma- 
brashi. 

nutshell, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 



o. 



oak, n. sindiani p. sindian; balluta p. ballut. 

oar, n. mi"daf p. ma"adif. 

oasis, n. waha p. wahat. 

oath, n. yemin p. aiyemin ; hulfan ; to take an oath, 

V. n. bihluf, halaft, hluf ; to administer an oath to, v. a. 

bhallif, halleft, halHf. 
oats, n. shuf^n. 
obedience, n. ta'a. 
obedient, a. tai'y^ p. tai'yin. 
obey, V. a. and n. bti'a, te'at, ti*a. 

14 



2IO ARABIC MANUAL. 

object^ n. "asd; gharad; ghaiyi; {anything seen) shey 

(shi); V. n. [to) be'itirid, 'itaradt, e'itirid ('ala). 
objectiony n. 'itirad; there is no — , ma fi men'i (man'i). 
obligation, n. memnuniyi ; to be under an — to, v. bkun, 

kint memnun-uh (luh) or taht memnuniyit-uh. 
oblige, V. a. (to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala); [put anyone 

under an obligation) bij'al, ja'alt, ja'al-uh memnun; 

bsaiyir, saiyert-uh memnun; obliged [grateful) a. mem- 
nun; mutshekkir. 
oblong, a. mustatil. 
obscene, a. sefih; ri'zil (razil) p. arzal; obscene language, 

kelem sefih (ri'zil). 
observation, n. mulahaza. 
observe, v. a blahaz, lahazt, lahaz; [keep) behfaz, hafazt, 

hfaz. 
obstacle, n. men'i (man'i) p. mwen'i. 
obstinate, a. 'anid ; ras-uh yebis. 
obstruct, V. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
obtain, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt 

('ala). 
obtainable, a. mowjud. 

obviate (a difficulty), v. a. bzil, zilt, zil al-men'i. 
obvious, a. wadih. 
occasion, n. fursa; to avail oneself of, v. n. bintihiz, in- 

tahazt, intfhiz al-fursa. 
occasionally , ad. ahiyenen. 
Occident, n. al-gharb. 
occupayit, n. sekin p. sukken. 
occupation, n. shighl (shughl), {niilit.) ihtilel; ar^ny of — , 

jeysh al-ihtilel. 
occupy, V. a. bshaghhhil, shaghghalt, shaglighil; to be 

occupied [with), v. n. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil (fi); 



VOCABULARY. 211 

to occupy oneself {with) v. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tsella 
(f i) ; [milit.) V. a. {a place) bhill, hallait, hill (f i). 

occur, V. n. (3rd per.) bisir (f. bitsir), sar (f. saret) ; biyi"a 
(f. biti'*a), wa"a (f. wa"at) ; it occurs to my mind, 
biyiji, ija (biyukhtur, khatir) fi bel-i. 

occurrence, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

ocean the, n. al-muhit. 

o'clock {what o'clock is it?), *'add esh as-s6'a; shu as-s^'a 
(vide grammar, time). 

October, teshrin al-owwel. 

odd, a. gharib; *ajib; (not even) ferd. 

odour, n. riha p. rweyih. 

off (far), a. be'id. 

offence, n. (insult) iheni; (crime) zenb; (anger) ghaiz. 

offeyid, V. a. bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt), ghiz. 

offensive, a. (obnoxious) muhin (mhin); (foul) kerih; (dis- 
pleasing) mukeddir; offensive and defensive alliance, 
ma'ahedit hujum u dife'a. 

offer, n. talab p. matalib; v. a. {to) b'urud, 'aradt, 
•urud (*ala). 

off-hand, a. toshi. 

office, n. (post), wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'muriyi; (com?ner- 
cial) mekteb p. mketib; (room) de'iri p. dwe'ir; ma- 
hall; government offices, dwe'ir al-hukumi; mahall ash- 
shughl. 

officer, n. zabit p. zubbat. 

official, n. ma'mur p. ma'murin; a. resmi; officially, ad. 
resmiyen. 

often, ad. ktir; marrat ktiri. 

oil, n. (olive) zeyt; (linseed) zeyt har; (castor) zeyt 
kharw'a; v. a. bzeyyit, zeyyett, zeyyit p.p. mzeyyet. 

oil cloth, n. mshemm'a. 



212 ARABIC MANUAL. 

oil colour, n. lown zeyti. 

ointment J n. duhun. 

oke, n. 6"a p. o"at [4.00 drams), 

old, a. "adim p. "udm; 'ati" p. 'uta; [in age) ikhtiySr; 

ta'in fis-sinn; old age, n. sheykhukha; old fashion, 

moda "adimi; old maid, bint; old wo7nan, 'ajuz p. 

'ajeyiz. 
oleander, n. difli. 

olive, n. zeytuni p. zeytun ; [tree) zeytuni. 
omelette, n. 'aijji. 

omen, n. [good) 'alemi taiyibi; {bad) fel redi. 
omission, n. ihmel; sehu. 

omit, V. a. bfut, fitt, fut ; bitruk, tarakt, truk p.p. matruk. 
on, pr. 'ala; on account of, bi sebeb; minshen; 'alashen, 

on all fours, 'al al-arb'a ; on the other hayid, min jeha 

teni; on no account, abaden. 
once, n. marra; at once, ad. halan ; "aw^m; once for all, 

bes marra; oyice more, marra teni; once upon a time, 

fi zemen al-"adim. 
oneself, pro. zet-uh ; nefs-uh [with pro. suff.). 
onion, n. basli p. basl ; (spring) basl akhdar. 
07ily, ad. fa"at; bes; a. wehid-uh {with pro. stiff.), 
onyx, n. jaz'a. 
open, a. maftuh; iji the open air, fil-fela; v. a. biftah, 

fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
opening, n. ti"ib (tu"ub); shi" ". 
openly, ad. jehran (jiharan). 
operation, n. 'ameliyi. 
opi?tion, n. rai p. raiyat. 

opium, n. afiyun; opium smoker, sherib afiyun. 
opponent, n. khusm p. akhsSm. 
opportuyiity , n. fursa. 



VOCABULARY. 2 1 3 

Oppose, V. a. bdadd, daddedt, dadd. 

opposite, pr. "ibel; a. m"^bil. 

opposition, n. m "awe mi. 

oppress, V. a. bizlum, zalamt, zlum p.p. mazlum; v. 
bibghi, baghait, ibghi ('ala). 

oppression, n. zulum ; bagha. 

oppressor, n. zaiim p. zuUem; baghi p. bugha. 

or, con. ow; am. 

orange, n. (sweet) burd"ani p. burd"an (bird"an); (tree) 
burd"ani; (blood) mawaradi; (seville) sfeyr (sfayr); 
laimun bisfayr (abu sfayr); {bitter) narenji p. narenj; 
(mandarin) yusuf Effendi. 

orator, n. khatib p. khutaba. 

orchard, n. bistan p. besatin (bsetin). 

order, n. amr p. awemir ; {arrange^nent) tertib ; nazam ; 
(decoration) nishen (nishan) p. nieshin; {commercial) 
talebiyi; talab; in good order, a. mazbut; v. a. (com- 
rnand) bi'mur, amert, emir (umur); (goods) bitlub, 
talabt, tlub; (anything to be 7nade), v. bwassi, wassait, 
wassi ('ala). 

ordinary, a. 'itiyadi ('atiyedi); 'aadi. 

ordinarily, ad. 'adeten. 

organ, n. urghun. 

Orient, n. al-mishri'*; ash-shar'*. 

oriental, a. shar"i. 

origin, n. mebda; asl. 

original, a. asli. 

ornament, n. zini. 

orphan, n. yetim p. ait^m. 

orphanage, n. d^r al-ait^m. 

orthography, n. hija. 

ostensible, a. zahir; wadih. 



214 ARABIC MANUAL. 

ostrich, n. na'ami. 

other y a. and ad. ghair; otherwise, ad. wa ilia; the other 

day, ems; hidik al-yom. 
Ottoman, a. 'osmeni ('osmani); Ottoman empire, al-mem- 

lek^t al-*osmaniyi. 
ought, a. lezim; / ought to do [ought not) lezim (mush 

or mau lezim) 'amil; / ought fiot to have doyie it, ma 

ken l^zim 'amil-uh. 
our, pro. stiff, na. 
ourselves, pro. zet-na. 
out, ad. berra; outside, kherijen; min berra; outwards, 

ila berra ; out of doors, berrat al-beyt ; otit of place, 

fi ghair mahall-uh; fi ghair wa"t-uh. 
outpost, n. haris p. hurras. 

outrage, n. fehshi p. fawehish; [indignity) iheni. 
oval, a, baidi; bi shikl al-baida. 
oven, n. tennur; (kitchen) firn. 
over, pr. fow*' (fo") ; 'ala ; all over, a. kill-uh [with pro, 

suff.)\ over and above, a. 'alewi ('alawi); over again, 

teni marra; overhead, fow" ar-ras; [ended) v. [y^ per.) 

khalas; inteha. 
overcoat, n. [European) saku p. saket; bantu; {native) 

kebbut p. kbebit; tif'ili. 
overlook, [inspect) v. bnazir, na^ert, nazir ('ala) ; {excuse) 

bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr ('an). 
overseer, n. nazir p. nuzzar; [on a farm) khowli 

(kholi). 
oversight, n. sehu. 

overturn, v. a. and n. bi"Iub, "alabt, i"lub p.p. ma"lub. 
overwhelm, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
owe^ I owe {owed) you mo?iey, ill-ak (ken ill-ak) 'ind-i 

mesari; you owe [owed) me money, ill-i (ken ill-i) 



VOCABULARY. 21$ 

'ind-ak mesari ; how nuich do I owe you ? "add esh 

ill-ak *ind-i. 
owing, a. matlub ; owitig to, pr. bisebeb. 
owl, n. bumi p. bum. 
own, V. a. bimlik, melakt; [admit) v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, 

e'itirif (fi); b"urr, "arrait, "urr (fi); / own a house, 

ill-i beyt. 
owner, n. mellek; sahib p. as-hab. 
ox, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). 
oyster, n. mhara; oyster-shell, n. sadafi p. sadaf. 



pace, n. sur'a; (step) feshkha. 

pacify, V. a. bheddi, heddait (heddeyt), heddi p.p. 

mhedda. 
pack, V. a. bdubb, dabbeyt, dubb p.p. madbub; {in 

bundles) bihzum, hazamt, hzum p.p. vci^zxxm. {of cards), 

n. shiddi. 
package, n. rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
packhorse, n. kedish p. kidsh. 
packing needle, n. mselli. 
packing thread, n. khitan massis. 
pack-saddle, n. {camel) hedeji p. hedejet; (mtile or donkey), 

]\€\ p. jlelet. 
pad {padding), n. hashwi; v. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. 

mihshi; b"uttin, "attant, "uttin p.p. m"uttan. 
padlock, n. "ifl p. "ufiil ("ifal).* 
page, n. wijh p. wujuh. 

pail, n. satl p. stuli; (of a well) dalu p. idilwi. 
pain, (pains) n. waj'a p. owj^'a. 



2l6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

painfull a. muj'i. 

painty n. {oil) boya; dihan ; {water-colour) lown al-mai; 

V. a. {a picture) bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msow- 

wer; {a house) bidhan, dahant, dhan p.p. madhun. 
paint-brushy n. firsheyit dihan (boya). 
painter, n. dahhan; [artist) msowwir. 
painting y n. teswir; — in oily in water-coloury teswir 

biz-zeyt, bil-mai. 
pairy n. jowz (joz) p. jewez (ijwaz). 
palacey n. "asr p. "usur; n. p. blat. 
palatey n. sa"f al-hal". 
pale, a. asfar p. sufr. 
Pales tine y Falastin. 
palingy n. taswini p. tasawin. 
pally n. ghata an-n*ash. 
palfKy [tree) sejerit belah; nakhli p. nakhl; [of the 

hand) keflf p. kfuf. 
Palmy ray Tidmur. 
paltryy a. deni. 
payiy n. [copper)y lekken p. Iken; [earthenware) m'ajen 

p. ma*ajin. 
paney n. [of glass)y lowh (loh) "izez ("izaz). 
pannier y n. seriji p. sreyij ; zenbili (zenbeli) p. znebil. 
panty V. n. (3rd per.) biyilhat, lahat. 
pantaloons, n. shirwal p. sherawil. 
panther, n. fahd. 
pantry, n. beyt al-muni. 
papery n. wara"a p. wara" (owra"); writing papery wara" 

kitebi. 
paradey n. [milit.) *ard al-'asker; t'alim. 
parade-groundy n. sahat al-'askeriyi. 
paradisey n. jinni; ferdows. 



VOCABULARY. 2 1 7 

paragraph, n. jumli p. jumel. 

parallel, a. mawezi. 

paralysed, a. mafluj. 

paralysis, n. felij. 

parasol, n. shemsiyi. 

parcel, n. rizmi p. rizmet c. p. rizm. 

parchment, n. ri" ". 

pardon, n. *afu; semeh; v. be'ifi, 'afeyt, *ufi ('an); to 

beg some one's pardon, bitlub, talabt, tlub al-'afu min; 

/ beg your pardon, la twakhfd-ni (twakhiz-ni) ; (when 

asking for something said to be repeated), n'am; 

bitrajj'a-k. 
pare, v. a. b"eshshir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"esh- 

sher. 
parent, n. w^lid; parents, weldeyn. 
parliament, n. jeme'i al-'aiyen; barlamento. 
parrot, n. dirra. 
parsley, n. ba"dunis. 
part, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem); jiz' p. ajeza; on the 

part of ^, min "ibel ; for my part, min jiht-i; partly 

ba'ad-uh haik, ba'ad-uh haik. 
partial, a. mutgharrid. 

particular, a. muda""i"; n. tafsil p. tafsilat; i7i parti- 
cular, 'al al-khusus. 
partner, n. sherik p. shureka. 
partnership, n. shirki ; sheraki. 
partridge, n. hajel p. hijel. 
party, n. (association) hizb p. ahz^b; (assemblage) fir'*a 

p. fiira"; (entertainment) sahra. 
pasSt (through) v. n. bmurr, marrait, murr (fi); (by) 

bimru'*, mara"t, mru" (fi or min); let pass, v. a. 

bmarra", marra"t, marri" ; n. (mountain) tari" aj-jebel. 



2l8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

passage, n. zarub p. zwerib; (of a house) ma'addiyi; 

(of troops) 'ubur. 
passenger, n. rekib p. rukkeb. 
passion, n. (anger) ghaiz; (love) hawaj ruling passion^ 

meleki. 
passionate, a. hadd ; (of love) 'ash"an. 
passport, n. bazaburt. 
past, a. madi. 

paste ^ n. nisha; — diamonds, ilmas kizzeb. 
pastime, n. tesliyi. 
pastry, n. m'ajjenet. 

pasture, n. mer'a; (protected land) himi. 
patch, n. ru"a'a p. ru'V; v. a. bra""i', ra" "a't, ra" "i' 

p.p. mra"'V. 
paternal, a. abevvi. 

path, n. tari" p. turu"; derb p. drub. 
patience, n. sabr. 
patient, a. sabur; ruh-uh tawili. 
patriarch, n. batrak p. batarki. 
patriarchate, n. batrak-khani. 
patriot, n. muhibb li watn-uh. 
patriotic, a. watani. 

patrol, n. dowra (dora) ; v. a. and n. bdur, durt, dur. 
patron, n. hami. 
patronage, n. himeyi. 
patronise, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi. 
pattern, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 
pave, V. a. bballit, ballatt, ballit p.p. mballat. 
pavement, n. blat. 

pavillion, n. khaimi p. khiyem ; shedir p. shewedir. 
paw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar). 
pawn, V. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 



VOCABULARY. 219 

pawn-broker y n. murtehin. 

pay, n. (salary) ma'ash; (wages) ujra (fjra); v. a. (lo) 

bidf 'a, dfa'at, df a (li) p.p. madfu'a j pay the penalty 

V. n. bit*'assas, ta"assast. 
payment, n. defa p. defat. 
pea, n. (green) bezella; (chick) hummus. 
peace, n. sulh. 
peach, n. dirra"ni (dirre"a) p. dirra"in (dirre'') jjeach-tree, 

dirra"ni (dirre"a). 
peacock, n. taus p. tawawis; pea-hen, djejit taus. 
peak (moimtain), n. ras jebel p. rus. 
pear, n. injasa p. injas; pear-tree, injasa; prickly-pear, 

sabr (subber). 
pearl, n. lulu ; mother of pearl, 'ur" lulu. 
peasant, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
pebble, n. bahsa p. bahs. 

peculiar, a. gharib; peculiar to, khass bi; makhsus fi. 
pecuniary, a. meli. 
peddler, n. dawwar; sirrah. 
pedigree, n. sel61i. 
peel, n. "ishr; orange peel, "ishr al-burd"an; v. a. b"esh- 

hir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"eshsher. 
peg, n. (tent) wated p. owtad; (hat) shenkel p. shnekil. 
pelican, n. baja'a p. baj'a. 
pell-mell, a. msha"lab. 
pen, n. "alam p. "ilam; pen-knife, "alam Xx2&\i\ pen-case, 

daweyi (dawaiyi). 
penalty, n. "isas p. "isasat. 
pencil, n. "alam resas. 
peninsula, n. shibi jeziri.] 
penitence, n. towbi (tobi). 
penniless, a. tafrSn; mfflis. 



2 20 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pension^ n. ma'ash ta"a'ud. 

pensioner J n. muta"a'id. 

penury y n. fu*'r. 

people, n. nes; sh'ab. 

pepper y n. fulful; pepper-corn, habb fiilful; white — , 

fulful abyad; black — , fulful aswid. 
peppermint, n. "urs n'an'a. 
perceive, v. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf. 
per cent, fil-miyi ; 5 ^/q khamsi fil-miyi. 
perception, n. shu'ur. 
peremptory t a. mshedded; "at'i. 
perfect, a. kemil. 
perfidy, n. khiyeni. 
perform, v. a. btemmim, temmemt, temmim; [duty) v. 

n. b"um, *'umt, *'um bi wejbet. 
perfume, n. riha 'utriyi p. rweyih; v. a. b'attir, 'attert, 

'attir p.p. m'attar; bhutt ila — riha. 
perhaps, ad. yumkin ; belki (berki); con. rubbama. 
peril, n. khatr; at your peril, 'ala mes'uliyit-ak. 
period, n. middi. 

periodically , ad. kill middi u middi. 
perish, v. n. bihlak, hlikt; biftus, fatist. 
permanent, a. de'im. 
permissible, a. jeyiz; {by religion) halal. 
permission, n. izn; rukhsa; with your permission (said 

on rising to leave), bi izn-ak; bistarkhis; smah-li. 
permit, n. rukhsa; v. bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
perpendicular, a. "a'im; 'amudi. 
perplex, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

bshowwish, showwesht, showwish afkar-uh. 
perquisite, n. berrani. 
persecute, v. a. bidtahid, idtahadt, idtahid p.p. mudtahad. 



VOCABULARY. 221 

persecution, n. idtihad. 

perseverance, n. sebet; mdewami. 

persevere, v. bdewim, dewamt, dewim ('ala); bwazib, 

wazabt, wazib ('ala). 
persevering, ruh-uh tawili. 
Persia, beled al-'ajem; Persian, a. 'ajemi. 
persist, v. bluhh, lahhait, lihh (fi). 
persistance, n. ilhah. 

person, n. shakhs p. ashkhas; zalemi p. zilam. 
personal, a. shakhsi; personally, bizet-uh [with pro, suff.). 
perspiration, n. 'ara"; in a — , a. 'ar"an. 
perspire, v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
persuade, v. a. be"ann'u, "ann'at. "ann'a. 
persuasion, n. i"n'a. 
pestle, n. mda""a. 
petition, n. 'ardhal; m'arud. 
petitioner, n. mustedd'i; m"addim al-'ard. 
petrified (to become), v. n. (3rd per.) biyitahejjar, tahajjar 

p.p. mutahajjer. 
petroleum, n. zeyt ghaz. 
petticoat, n. tannura p. tenenir. 
philosopher, n. felosuf. 
philosophy, n. felsefi. 
phlegm, n. balgham. 
phosphorus, n. fosfor. 
photograph, n. sura p. suar; v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, 

sowwir, p.p. msowwer ; to have one's photograph taken, 

bsowwir hal-i. 
photographer, n. msowwir shems. 
photography, n. teswir shems. 
physician, n. tabib p. atibba. 
pick, V. a. [flowers), bla*'it, la"att, la**it p.p. mla*'at; 



222 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pick Up, V. a. blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum; 

pick out, bna""i, na" "ait, na" "i p.p. mna" "a. 
pickaxe, n. menkush p. menakish. 
pickle, n. [anything preserved in vinegar) mkhallel ; v. a. 

bikbus, kebest, kbis mkhallel — ; we will pickle onions, 

mnikbis mkhallel basl. 
pick-pocket, n. harami p. haramiyi. 
,picnic, n. seyran. 

picture, n. resm p. rusum; sura p. suar. 
piece, n. sha"fi ; "it*a; [of works) by the piece, n. ma"a- 

ta'a; [of cloth) towb (tob). 
pierce, v. a. {make a hole in) bit"ub, te"ebt, tu"ub p.p. 

met"ub. 
piety, n. ta"wa. 
pig, n. khanzir p. khnezir; sucking — , khannus p. 

khnenis. 
pigeon, n. hamemi p. hamemet c. p. hamem. 
pigeon-hole, n. beyt p. biyut. 
pile, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
pilgrim, n. (Christian) zeyir p. zuwar; [to Jerusalem) 

mu"disi p. ma"adsi; [to Mecca) hajj p. hujjej. 
pilgrifnage, n. ziyara ; [to Mecca) hajj ; to fftake the pil- 
grimage, bhijj, hajjait, hijj. 
////, n. habbi p. hbub. 
pillage, n. nehib; selb; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhab (nhub) 

p.p. menhub. 
pillar, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 
pillow, n. mkhaddi. 
pilot, n. "alauz; delil. 
pimple, n. habbi p. hbub. 

pin, n. debbus p. debebis; hair pin, debbus sh'ar. 
pince-nez, n. 'awenat; kuzluk. 



VOCABULARY. 223 

pincers, n. kammeshi. 

pinch, n. "arsa; v. a. bu"rus, "arast, "urus. 

pine, n. snowbara (snobara) p. snowbar; pine-tree, snow- 
bara. 

pink, n. and a. "arunfli p. "ariinful. 

pious, a. ta"i (ti*'i). 

pipe, n. "astal p. "asatil; anbubi p. anabib; [music) z6- 
mer p. izmura; mijwiz; {tobacco) shubu"; (long) ma- 
sura ; {hubble-bubble) arkili ; parts of the 'arkili' : — top, 
"ub'a; pan, ras; feeder, "alb ("elb); tube, narbish 
(nabrish) ; mouth-piece, biz. 

pirate, n. "ursan bahr. 

pistol, n. tabanja p. tabanjet; ferd p. frudi. 

pit, n. hafra p. hafr; jura p. juar. 

pitch, n. zift; v. a. bzeffit, zeffett, zeffit p.p. mzeffet; 
V. a. {throw) bishlah, shalaht, shlah; bzitt, zetteyt, 
zitt; — a tent, v. a. binsub, nasabt, nsub khaimi. 

pitcher, n. jarra p. jrar. 

pith, n. libb; {of an argument) zebed. 

pitiless, a. "asi ; bila shefa"a. 

pity, n. shefa"a; v. bishfa", shfi"t, shfa" ('ala) ; it is a 
pity, dey*an-uh (lit: we have lost it)-, ya khisara. 

placard, n. e'alen (e'ilan) p. e'alenet. 

place, n. matrah p. matarih ; mahall ; v. a. bhutt, hattait, 
hutt; to take place v. n. (3rd per.) bisir, sar; biyihdus, 
hadas; the affair will take place {took place), bitsir 
(saret) al-hadisi; in place of, ad. bedel min ('an)j 
*awad *an; out of place, mush fi mahall-uh. 

plague, n. t^'un. 

plain, n. s^hil p. suhul; a. wadih; jelli; (ugly) bish'i f. 
bish*a; plainly, ad. sarihan. 

plaintiff, n. mudd^'i (mudda'i). 



224 ARABIC MANUAL. 

plait, n. jdili p. jede'il; dfiri p. dfaiyir; v. a. bijdul, 

jedelt, jdul p.p. mejdul. 
plan, n. tedbir p. tedebir; (drawing) resm. 
plane, n. [level) sat-h; {tool) minhat; fara. 
plane-tree, n. dilbi p. dilb. 
planet, n. nejmi p. njum. 
plank, n. deff p. dfuf; lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 
plant, n. nebet p. nebetet; gharsi; v. a. bughrus, gha- 

rast, ghrus p.p. maghrus. 
plaster, n. jefsin (jebsin); v. a. [with lime) bjeffsin, jeflf- 

sant, jeffsin p.p. mjeffsan; (with clay) btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiyen. 
plate, n. sahn p. suhun; table-plate, aweni fiddiyi. 
platform, n. mastabi p. masatib. 
play, n. I'eb (I'ub) ; v. n. {at) bil'ab, I'ibt, I'ab (bi or f i) ; 

[an instrument) v. a. bdu"", da" "ait, du"" [and with 

'ala); [a part) v. a. bshakhkhis, shakhkhast, shakh- 

khis. 
playfellow, n. refi" p. rfe" (arfa"). 
playthiftg, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. lu'ab. 
plea, n. hijji p. hujej. 

pleasant, a. taiyib; mlih p. mlah; latif p. lutafa. 
please, v. a. bibsut, basatt, bsut; to be pleased, [at), bin- 

busit, inbasatt (min); it pleases, (pleased) w^, bi'ajib-ni, 

'ajab-ni; if you please, 'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak; do as 

you please, stifil. 
pleased, a. mesrur; mabsut. 
pleasure, n. surur; farah. 
pledge, n. rahn p. ruhuni (rhun). 
plenipotentiary, n. sefir p. siifera. 
plentiful, a. ktir p. ktar. 
plenty, n. kitra; in plenty, bi kitra. 



VOCABULARY. 22$ 

plot, n. rabita (rabta); [of ground) deff ard p. dfuf; v. 

b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul rabita. 
plough, n. mihrat; v. a. bihrut, haratt, hrut p.p. mah- 

rut; biflah, felaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
ploughshare, n. sikki. 

pluck, V. a. {feathers) bintuf, nataft, ntuf p.p. mentuf. 
plug, n. sdedi; v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
plum, n. khowkha (khokha) p. khowkh ; plum-tree, 

khowkha. 
plumage, n. rish. 
plumb-li?ie, n. fedin p. fwedin. 
plump, a. smin p. sman. 
plunder, n. nehbi; ghanimi; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhub 

(nhab) p.p. menhub. 
plural, n. jem'a. 
pocket, n. (coat) seyli p. syel; [trousers) jeybi p. jyeb; 

pocket-book, n. kit^b jeybi; pocket-money, n. kharjiyi; 

masruf jeybi. 
pod, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 
poem, n. "asidi p. "asaiyid. 
poet, n. she'ir p. shu'ara. 
poetic, a. she'ri (shu'ri). 
poetry, n. sh'er (sh'ur); nazm. 
point, n. nu"ta p. nu'*at; [object) ma"sad ; {weapon) ras ; [of 

view) rai ; to point out, v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin. 
pointed, a. mrowwas. 
poison, n. semm p. sumum ; v. a. bsimm, sammait, simm 

p.p. mesmum; bsemmim, semmemt, semmim. 
poisonous, a. msimm. 
Poland, Bolonia; Pole, n. Boloni. 

pole, n. 'amud p. *awemid; (of a carriage) *arish; {geo- 
graphical) '*utb. 

«5 



226 ARABIC MANUAL. 

policey n. bolis; [policeman) zabtiyi. 

policy, n. siyesi. 

polish, n. lima'an; sa"l; v. a, blamm'i, limm'at, lamm'i 
p.p. mlamm'a; bis"ul, sa"alt, s"ul p.p. mas"ul. 

polite, a. latif; adib. 

politeness, n. adab; lutf. 

political, a. siyesiyi. 

politics, n. siyesi; bolitikiya. 

pollute, V. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis p.p. mnejjes. 

pomegranate, n. rummeni p. rummen ; — tree, rummeni. 

pomp, n. hafli; fakhfakha. 

pompous, a. mfakhfakh; pompous language, kelem fakh- 
fakha. 

pond, n. birki p. burak. 

ponderous, a. ti"il p. ta"al. 

pony, n. hisan zghir. 

poor, a. meskin; fa"ir; poorly, a. deblen. 

Pope, Baba. 

poplar, n. howra (hora) p. howr. 

poppy, n. khishkhashi p. khislikhash ; — seed, bezr khish- 
khash. 

popular, a. mahbub. 

population, n. p. sukken ; aheli. 

populous, a. 'amer; ktir as-sukken. 

porcelain, n. sini. 

porch (portico), n. rwe" p. rwe"at. 

porcupine, n. "vinfudi p. "anafid. 

pore {of the skin), n. mesam aj-jild p. mesamat. 

pork, n. lahm al-khanzir. 

port, n. mina, p. mien; bunt. 

portable, a. khafif p. khifaf. 

Porte (the Sublime), al-bab (beb) al-'aali. 



VOCABULARY. 22/ 

porter, n. 'attel p. 'atteli; hammel p. hammeli. 

porterage, n. 'ateli. 

portion, n. "ism p. a"sam; jiz' p. ajeza. 

portmanteau, n. shanta. 

portrait, n. sura p. suar. 

Port Said, Bort Sa'id. 

Portugal, Bortughal; Portuguese, a. bortughali. 

position, n. merkez p. merakiz; mahall p. mahallet. 

positive, a. akid; m'ekked; positively, ad. bi te'ekid. 

possess, V. a. bimlik, melakt. 

possession, n. {immovable) milk (mulk) p. amlak; [mova- 
ble] n. p. mowjudet. 

possible, a. mumkin ; it is — , yumkin. 

possibility, n. imken (imkan). 

possibly, ad. belki; mumkin. 

post, n. (letters) bosta ; (situatioii) wazifi ; merkez ; [tim- 
ber) *amud p. 'awemid. 

posthumous, b'ad al-mowt. 

post-office, n. bostakhani ; post 7naster, mudir al-bosta. 

postpone, V. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher. 

postscript (to a letter), n. sahh. 

pot, n. "idri p. "idr; hu" p. h"a"; dweyk p. dvveykat; 
(for preserving fruit etc.) martaban ; coffee-pot, dolit 
"ahwi. 

potash, n. "ili. 

potato, n. batata. 

potter, n. fakhuri. 

pottery, n. fakhkhar. 

pouch, n. jrab. 

poultice, n. labkha; lez"a. 

pound, n. [coin) lira; [weight) libra [i^o drains), v. a. 
bdu"", da" "ait, du"" p.p. med"u". 



228 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pour [out], V. a. bsubb, sabbait, subb p.p. masbub; 

(away) v. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
poverty, n. fu"r; sha"ewi. 

powder, n. budra ; {anything pulverised) mezhun. 
power, n. "udra ("idra); "uwi; (power of attorney) we- 

keli; to do all in one's power, v. b'amil, 'amilt jehd-i; 

burkud mejhud-i. 
powerful, a. "owi. 
powerless, a. da'if p. da'af. 
Powers (the Great), ad-duwel al-'azimi. 
practice, n. mumaresi; tamrin; pratika. 
practise, v. bmeris, merest, meris (fi); b'amil, 'amilt 

pratika (fi). 
praise, n. medh ; v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
prank, n. sheytani. 

pray {to), v. a. and n. bsalli, sallait, salli (ila). 
prayer, n. sala p. salawat; prayer-book, kiteb as-sala. 
preach, v. n. bu'iz, wa'azt, wa'az. 
preacher, n. wa'iz; keriz. 
precaution, n. ihtiyat p, ihtiyatat. 
precedent, n. seb"a p. sew^bi". 
precious, a. temin; precious stone, hajr kerim. 
precipice, n. warta. 
preface, n. ma"addemi. 
prefer, v. a. bfaddil, faddalt, faddil. 
pregnant, a. na"il; hibli ; [of animals) ma'asheri. 
premature, "abl wa"t-uh. 
premiiwi, n. baj. 
preparation, n. istihdar p. istihdarat; ist'eded p. ist- 

'ededet. 
prepare, v. a. bhaddir, haddert, haddir p.p. mhaddar; 

bwaddib, waddabt, waddib p.p. mwaddab. 



VOCABULARY. 229 

prescription, n. resheta p. reshetet; wasfi. 

presence, n. hadra; hadur; in the presence of, fi hudur; 
presence of viind, n. ta'a""ul; haviyig presence of mind, 
a. muta'a""il; wa'i. 

present, n. hediyi p. hedaiya; ikramiyi; (tense) al-hal; a. 
hadir; v. a. (to) b"addim, "addamt, "addim (ila) ; 
bihdi, hedeyt, hdi (ila) ; / presejited it to him, "ad- 
damt-ill-uh yeh; hedeyt-ill-uh yeh; to present arms, 
V. bekhud, akhadt, khud salam (salem); the soldiers 
presented arms, al-'asker akhad salam; at present, ad. 
halla"; fil-hal; for the present, lil-wa"t al-hadir; pre- 
sently, ad. b'ad shwayi. 

preserve, n. (jam) murabba; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz 
p.p. mahfuz. 

president, n. raiyis p. ruasa. 

press, V. a. be'usur, 'asert, *asur p.p. m'asur; (on) v. a. 
bikbus, kebest, kbis p.p. makbus. 

presume (imagi?ie), v. n. bzunn, zannait; bitsowwir, 
tsowwert (fi); (be presumptuous ) (3rd per.) biyidde'i. 

presumption, n. zunn; takhmin; (boldness) idde'a. 

presumptuous, a. mudde'i (mudda'i). 

pretence, n. tazahur. 

pretend, v. n. bitzahir, tzahert, tzahir. 

pretender, n. mudde'i. 

pretension, n. idde'a. 

pretext, n. hijji p. hujej ; hili p. hiel. 

pretty t a. kwaiyis; zarif p. zuraf; jemil c. ejmel. 

prevent, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a ; I pre- 
vented him from going, men'at-uh yaruh. 

previous, a. s^bi"; previously, sdbi"an; "ablan. 

prey, n. ferisi; bird of — , k^sir p. kaw^sir; beast of — , 
wahsh dari p. wuhush dawari. 



230 ARABIC MANUAL. 

price, n. temen p. atmen; s'er p. as'ar. 

priceless, [it is) ma biyi"a 'aleyh temen. 

prick, V. a. binkez, nakezt, nkuz p.p. mankuz (binghaz, 

naghazt, nghuz). 
pride, n. kibriya. 
priest, n. khuri p. khawarni. 
prince, n. emir; princess, emira. 
principal, n. (money) rismel (rismal); a. (chief) raiyis; 

asl ; the principal thing, as-shey ar-raiyisi. 
principality, n. imara. 
principle, n. (maxim) "anon p. "awanin. 
priiit, V. a. bitb'a, tab 'at, tb'a p.p. matbu'a. 
printer, n. tabb'a. 

printing-press, n. matb'a p. matab'i. 
prison, n. habs ; sijn. 
prisoner, n. mahbus p. mahbusin. 
privacy, n. wehdi. 
private, a. khususi. 
privately, ad. sirran; 'al inferad. 
privilege, n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet. 
prize, n. jeyizi p. jewe'iz. 
probable, a. arjah ; probably, al-arjah. * 
procession, n. movvkib; (bridal) jelwi; (religious) ziyeh. 
procure, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil ; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
produce, n. (of the earth) hasil; mahsulat; ghalli; v. a. 

(cause) bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib; bintij, natajt, intij ; 

(show) bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; (of the earth) (3rd per.) 

f. bitghill, ghallet. 
profession, n. (occupation) san'a p. sanaiy'a; shighl (shughl). 
professor, n. ma'allim; mederris; isted. 
profit, n. menf'a p. menaf'i; fe'idi p. fvve'id, to sell at 

a profit, V. bbi'a, be'ut bi ribh. 



VOCABULARY. 23 1 

profitable, a. nef 'i ; muf id. 

profound, a. ghami". 

progress, n. nejeh (nejah); ta"addum. 

prohibit, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 

prohibited (by religion), a. haram; {by law) memnu'a. 

prohibition, n. men 'a. 

project, n. murad; ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"asid. 

prolong, V. a. btowwil, towvvalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

promise, n. w'ad p. mawa'id; v. a. bu'id, wa'adt, wu'id 

(wu*ud) p.p. mow'ud; we promised to do it, wa'ad-na 

n'amil-uh. 
promote, v. a. bra" "i, ra""ait (ra""eyt), ra" "i p.p. 

mra""a; to be promoted, bitra" "a, tra""ait, (tra""eyt) 
promotion, n. tera""i; ter"iyi. 
pronounce, v. a. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz p.p. melfuz. 
profiu?tciation, n. lafz. 
proof, n. burhan p. berahin. 
proper, a. mvvefi"; mnesib. 
property, n. (landed) milk (mulk) p. amlak; riz" p. arza"; 

(money) mal p. amwal. 
prophecy, n. nebuwi. 
prophet, n. nebi p. enbiya. 
proposal, n. talab p. matalib. 
propose (suggest), v. b'addim, "addamt, "ad dim fikr 

(rai) ; (intend) v. n. bu"sud, "asadt. 
proprietor, n. mellek; sahib mulk. 
prose, n. nesr. 
prosecute, v. bishtiki, shtakait (shtekeyt), shtiki ('ala); 

bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i ('ala). 
prosecutor, n. mushtfki. 

prospect, n. amel p. am^l; (view) manzar; nazara. 
prostitute, n. zaniyi. 



232 ARABIC MANUAL. 

prostitution^ n. zina. 

protect^ V. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi p.p. mehmi. 

protection^ n. himeyi. 

protectory n. mhami. 

proud, a. mutkebbir. 

prove, V. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet; v. 

bberhin, berhent, berhin ('ala) p.p. mberhan. 
proverb, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel (emtel). 
provide, v. a. b"addim, "addamt, "addim ; / provided 

him with all he required, "addamt-ill-uh kill lawezim- 

uh; V. a. (with provisions) bmovvwin, mowwent, 

mowwin. 
provided that, con. 'ala shart ann. 
providence, n. 'an^yi. 
provittce, n. wilaiyi p. wilaiyet. 
provisions, n. muni; zakhra (zkhiri). 
provoke, V. a. (vex) bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt); (excite) bhar- 

rik, harrakt; v. bfowwir, fowwert damm-uh; bitahar- 

rash, taharrasht (fi). 
prudence, n. futni. 
prudent, a. futin. 
prufte, V. a. bsheffi, sheffeyt, sheffi p.p. msheffa ; (of the 

vine only) bshahhil, shahhalt, shahhil; bizbur, zabert, 

zbur p.p. mezbur; pruning, n. tesh-hil. 
psalm, n. mezmur p. mezemir. 
public, n. (the) an-nes; aj-jemhur; a. 'umumi; in public, 

bil-maftuh; jiharan (jehran). 
publish, V. a. binshur, neshert, nshur p.p. menshur. 
pudding, n. hulu; hilwiyet (halawiyet). 
ptiff out, V. a. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh p.p. menfukh. 
pull, V. a. bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab; bjurr, jarrait, jurr; 

(down) bihdum, hadamt, hdum; bhabbit, habbatt, habbit. 



VOCABULARY. 233 

pulleVy n. bakera. 

pidpitj n. menber p. menebir. 

pulse, n. nabd (nabt) ; to feel the — , bdiss, dassait, diss 
an-nabt. 

pumice-stone, n. khafifen. 

pump, n. tlumba (trumbi) v. a. bshaghghil, shaghghalt, 
shaghghil at-trumbi. 

pump km, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 

p7m, n. towriya. 

punctual, a. mazbut fil-wa"t (fiz-zeman). 

punctuality, n. zabt (dabt) fiz-zeman. 

punctually, ad. fi wa"t-uh. 

punish, V. a. b"asis, "asast, "asis p.p. m"asas; (of chil- 
dren) brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba. 

punishmeyit, n. "isas; (children) terbiyi. 

pupil, n. telmiz p. telemiz. 

puppy, n. jeru p. ijriyit al-kelb. 

purchase, n. mushteraj v. a. bishtri, shtrait, shtri p.p. 
mushtera. 

purchaser, n. mushteri p. mushtenyi; sheri. 

pure, a. khalis. 

purgatory, n. mat-har. 

purge, n. mus-hii (mis-hil) ; sherbi; v. to take a — , 
bekhud, akhadt, khud mis-hil (sherbi). 

purify, V. a. btahhir, tahhert, tahhir p.p. mtahhar. 

purple, a. urjuwen. 

purport, n. madmun ; fahwa. 

purpose, n. '*asd ; ghaiyi; on purpose, ad. '*asdan. 

purse, n. jizden p. jizdenet; msarr p. msarrat. 

pursue, V. a. btarid, taradt, tSrid; bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 

pursuer, n. mutarid. 

pursuit, n. mt-aradi. 



234 ARABIC MANUAL. 

push, n. defshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush p.p. med- 
fush. 

put, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt ; — aivay, v. a. bshil, 
shilt, shil; — by (money), v. a. bsammid, sammadt, 
sammid; — in order, v. a. brettib, rettebt, rettib 
p.p. mretteb; bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa; — off, 
V. a. b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel; — out, [fire) v. a. 
bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tf i p.p. mutfi ; — %ip (at an hotel) 
V. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel ('ind or f i) ; — any one up, v. a. 
bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 

putrefy, v. n. (31^ per.) biyirwih, arwah. 

putrid, a. mirwih. 

puzzle, n. irtebek; (game) hazzura (hizzera); v. a. b'ar- 
bis, 'arbest, 'arbis. 

Pyramid, n. haram p. ahram. 



quack (doctor), n. dejjel. 

quackery, n. dejl; tidjil. 

quadrangle, n. mrabb'a. 

quadruped, n. zawet al-arb'a; dabbi p. dawab (daweb). 

quadruple, n. arb'at ad'af. 

quail, n. firreyi p. firri. 

qualification, n. ehliyi; sifa p. sifat. 

qualified, a. musta'id. 

quality, n. (persons) sifa p. sifat; (things), jins p. 

ajnes. 
quantity, n. kemmiyi. 
quarantine, n. karantina. 



VOCABULARY. 235 

quarrel, n. khna"a; toshi (towshi); 'ileji; v. a. [with] 

bkhani", khana"t, khani"; bkhasim, khasamt, khasim; 

b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
quarry (stone), n. ma'Ta p. ma"ari. 
quarter, n. rub'a; (of a town) hai ; hara; the Christian 

(Moslem) quarter, hai an-nasara (al-musulmin). 
quatrain, n. rubai'ya p. rubai'yat. 
quay, n. bunt. 

queen, n. ineleki p. meleket; (cards) bint. 
queer, a. gharib; {in the head) m'atuh. 
quell, V. a. bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin ; to be quelled, v. n. 

behda, hidit, hida. 
quench, v. a. (fire) bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tfi p.p. mutfi; 

to be quenched, [y^ per.) biyintifi, intafa; {thirst) birwi, 

rawait, rwi 'atash. 
question, n. mes'eli p. mese'il; su'el p. su'elet; [affair) 

"adiyi p. "adaiya. 
quibble, n. rewaghan; v. n. brugh, rught. 
quick, a. 'ajul; seri'a c. asr'a. 
quickly, ad. bil-'ajeli ; "awem. 
quicksand, n. rami rakhu. 
quicksilver, n. zaiba". 

quiet, a. hedi ; be quiet, v. (2nd per. imper.) hida. 
quietly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh [with pro. stiff.), 
quill-pen, n. rishi p. riesh. 
quilt, n. lahaf p. lihf. 
quince, n. sferjcli p. sferjelet c.p. sferjil. 
quinine, n. kina. 
quit, V. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
quite, ad. bit-tem^m; bil-killiyi. 
quits, a. p. muts^win; khalisin; we are quits, nahn 

muts^win. 



236 ARABIC MANUAL. 

quiz, n. maskhara; v. bitmaskhar, tmaskhart, tmas- 

khar ('ala). 
quotation, n. i"tibes p. i"tibeset. 
quote, V. a. bi"tibis, i"tabast, i"tibis p.p. mu"tebes. 



rabbi, n. khakham ; chief — , khakham bashi. 

rabbit, n. arnab p. aranib. 

rabble, n. owbash (obash); owlad (uled) Baba Hasan. 

rabies, n. keleb. 

race, n. sbe" (seba") ; {lineage) seleli ; race horse, hisan 

seba" (sbe"); race course, mermah; miden. 
racing, n. as-sbe" (as-seba"). 
radical, a. asli. 
radish, n. fijli p. fijil. 

raft, n. towf p. atwaf ; [of inflated skins) kelek. 
rafter, n. rumiyi p. rwemi. 
rag, n. khir*'a p. khfra". 
ragged, a. mun'tt; retit; he is ragged, tyeb-uh muritti 

(retiti). 
rail [of railway), n. khatt. 
railing, n. drabzin (drabzun) p. drabzunat. 
raihuay [railroad), n. sikkit al-hadid. 
rain, n. shiti; matar ; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bitshetti, shettit; 

bitmattir, mattarit. 
rainbow, n. "ows "adah. 
raise, v. a. birfa, ref'at, irfa p.p. marfu'a. 
raisin, n. zbibi p. zbib. 
rake, n. musht; mejrafi. 
ram, n. kebsh p. akbesh (kebush). 



VOCABULARY. 237 

ramble, v. n. bdur, durt, dur. 

ramrod, n. mdekk al-barudi. 

rancid, a. miznikh. 

rancour, n. hi"d. 

random (at), ad. bila "asd; bila fikr. 

range, n. mada ; mesefi ; at long (short) range, 'ala mada 

be'id ("arib). 
rank (degree), n. rutbi; dereji; {inilit.) saff p. sfuf. 
ransack, v. a. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ktir; {milit.) bin- 

hab, nahabt, nhab p.p. menhub. 
ransom, n. fi'diyi; v. a. bifdi, fedait (fedeyt), fdi p.p. 

mifdi. 
rape, n. fadah (fatah). 
rapid, a. seri'a. 

rare, a. nedir; rarely, ad. nediren. 
rascal, a. muhtel; khabis; n. ibn haram. 
rash, n. (eruption) tafra; a. 'ajul. 
rat, n. jirdown p. jeradin. 
rate, n. (speed) sur'a; (exchange) s'er. 
ratification, n. musada"a. 
ratify, v. a. bsadi'*, sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. musada" 

'aleyh. 
rattle, n. tantani ; v. a. ^«^ n. btantin, tantant, tantin ; 

{childs' toy) n. khashkhashi ; death rattle, kharrara. 
raven, n. ghrab p. ghurben. 
ravine, n. wedi p. widian. 
raw, a. (uncooked) ney; (unprepared) khami. 
ray, n. sha'a. 

raze, v. a. bihlu**, hala"t, hlu". 
razor, n. mus (hala"a) p. mw^s. 
reach, v. a. (grasp) btul, tult, tul ; (arrive) v. n. (y^ per.) 

biyusal, wusil; within reach, bi"dir tal-uh (lit: I can 



238 ARABIC MANUAL. 

reach it); out of reach, ma bitusal id-i ill-ha (lit: my 

ha?id does not arrive at it) ; the parcel reached me, 

ar-rizmi wuslit-ni ; to be within reach, v. n. (31^ per.) 

biyintal, intal m'a; it is out of my reach, ma biyi'n- 

tal m'a-i. 
read, v. a. bu"ra, "arait ("areyt), "ra. 
readily, ad. 'al ar-ras wal-'ain. 
reading, n. "araiyi; reading the papers, "araiyit aj- 

jurnel. 
ready, a. hadir; make ready, v. a. bwaddib, waddabt, 

waddib p.p. mwaddab; get ready, v. n. bhaddir, had- 

dert tel-i, haddir hal-ak; ready viade, a. hadir; ready 

money, n. na'*diyi. 
real, a. ha'T'i; real property, n. mulk (milk) p. amlak; 

really, ad. fe'elen. 
reap, v. a. buhsud, hasadt, hsud p.p. mahsud. 
reaper, n. hassad. 
rear, n. mukhir; (bring up) v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi; 

[of a horse) v. n. (y^ per.) biyu"af (biwa" "if), wa" "af 

'ala rijleyh. 
reason, n. [sense) 'a"l; (cause) sebeb p. asbeb; by reason 

of bi sebeb. 
reasonable, a. ma"ul; (moderate) mu'tidil. 
rebel, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
rebellion, n. 'isiyan. 
rebound, v. n. (3rd per.) bituj, taj ; the ball rebounds on 

the ground, at-tabi bittuj 'al al-ard. 
rebuild, v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid al-bina. 
rebuke, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh; n. towbikh. 
recall, v. a. brejj'i, rajj'at, rejj'i; (remember) bitzekkir, 

tezekkert, tezekkir. 
recede, v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 



VOCABULARY. 239 

receipty n. wasl p. wusulet. 

receive^ v. n. (3rd per.) (///: it reaches 7ne) biyusal-ni, 
wusil-ni ; biyurid-li, warad-li ; v. a. (money) bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad ; {visits) bista"bil, sta"belt, sta"bil. 

recent, a. jdid; hadis. 

recently, ad. min middi "asiri; mu'akhiren. 

reception, n. isti"bel; reception day, yowm isti"bel. 

recess, n. ta"a. 

recite, v. a. bu"ra, "arait, "ra; / will recite it to you, 
bu**ra lak yeh. 

reckless, a. taiyish; 'ajul. 

reckon, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

recognise, v. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif ; [admit), bsellim, sellemt, 
sellim (fi). 

recollect, v. biftan, ftunt, ftan (fi). 

recommend, v. bwassi, wassait, wassi (f i) ; / recommended 
him to you, wassait-ak fih. 

recommendation, n. towsiyi ; letter of — , mektub towsiyi. 

recompense, n. jeza; mkefa. 

reconcile, [to) v. a. bsalih, salaht, salih m'a; to be recon- 
ciled to, V. n. bitsalah, tsalaht , tsalah m'a; / recon- 
ciled them to one another, salaht-hum m'a ba'ad-hum. 

reconciliation, n. msalaha. 

record, v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m"eyyed. 

recover, v. a. {get back) bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bhassil, 
hassalt, hassil ; (health) v. n. bsuhh, sahhait, suhh ; 
bishfa, shefit. 

recovery, n. shffa. 

recruit, n. 'asker "ur'a. 

red, a. ahmar f. hamra p. humr. 

redress, n. tardiyi. 

Red Sea, al-bahr al-ahmar. 



240 ARABIC MANUAL. 

reduce, v. a. bkhaffid, khaffadt, khaffid; bna" "is, na" "ast, 

na""is; b"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 
reduction, n. takhfif. 
reed, n. "asabi p. "asabat. 
reef, n. sakhra p. skhur ; {of a sail) taiyi. 
reel, n. kerker p. kerakir ; reel of cottoyi, bekeret khitan. 
refer, [to) v. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil (ila); braj'i, 

raj 'at, raj'i; / referred him to you, ba'att ill-ak yeh; 

/ will refer to you, braj'ak. 
reflect (think), v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi) ; (light) v. n. 

(3rd per.), biy'ekus, 'akas; the mirror reflected the 

light, al-mereyi 'akaset ad-dow. 
reflection, n. fikr; (light) 'aks. 
reform, n. islah p. islahat. 
refresh (revive), v. a. bin'ish, na'asht, ne'ish; brattib, 

rattabt, rattib; to be refreshed, bint'ish, inta'asht. 
refreshing, a. mun'ish. 
refuge, n. melja; to take — , v. n. biltiji, iltajeyt, il- 

tiji (ila). 
refugee, n. multiji. 
refufid, V. a. brudd (bridd), raddait (reddeyt), rudd 

(ridd). 
refusal, n. rafad. 
refuse, v. a. burfud, rafadt, urfud; refuse to answer, 

bridd, reddeyt, ridd ('ala). 
regard, n. 'itibar; v. a. (esteem) be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir; (look at) bunzur, nazert, nzur; bshuf, shuft, 

shuf. 
regent, n. ne'ib (na'ib) melek. 
regimeyit, n. alay p. alaiyat. 
region, n. jeha p. jihet. 
register, n. sijill p. sijillet; defter p. defetirj v. a. b"ey- 



VOCABULARY. 24 1 

yid, *'eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m'*eyyed; bsejjil, sejjelt, 

sejjil; (letters) bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
regret, n. asaf; (penitetice) nedemi; v. bit'assaf, t'assaft 

(bit'essaf, t'esseft) 'ala. 
regrettable, a. mukeddir. 
regular, a. muntazim; "anuni. 
regularly, ad. haseb al-"an6n. 
regulation, n. "anon p. "awanin. 
reign, n. (government) mulk ; (period) 'ahd ; reign over, 

V. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum; v. bimluk, melekt, 

mluk ('ala); {influence) v. n. (3rd per.) biyistowli, 

istowla 'ala; terror reigned over the people, istowla 

al-khowf 'al an-nes. 
rein, n. sir'a p. sru'a. 
reinforce, v. a. binjud, nejedt, njud. 
reinforce7nent, n. nejdi p. nejdet. 
relate, {to) v. a. behki, hakait (hakeyt) hki ila; / related 

him a story, hakeyt ill-uh hikeyi. 
relation {relative), n. "arabi p. "araiyib (ahl); {on the 

mother's side) nesib p. ansiba. 
release, n. khalas; v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu" ; bdeshshir, 

deshshert, deshshir. 
reliance, n. ittikal; istinad. 
relic, n. ikhiri (dkhiri) p. zakhaiyir. 
relief, n. mse*adi; is'af; bas-relief, na"sh beriz. 
relieve, v. a. bis'ef, sa'aft, se'if. 
religion, n. din (diyeni) p. adien. 
religious, a. dini. 
relish, n. t'ami; Hzzi. 
reluctance, n. nufur. 
rely {on), v. n. bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); bittikil, 

ittakelt, ittikil (ala). 

16 



242 ARABIC MANUAL. 

remain^ v. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bwa" "if, wa" "aft, 

wa""if; V. n. bduU, dalleyt, dujil. 
remainder^ n. be"i (ba"iyi). 
refnark, n. mulahaza. 
remarkable J a. mustahi"" az-zikr. 

remedy y n. 'ilaj ('ilej) p. 'ilajet; v. a. b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
remember y v. a. bitzekkir, tezekkert, tezekkir. 
remembrancey n. tezekkur. 
remindy (any one of)y v. a. bzekkir, zekkert, zekkir — 

fi; bfattin, fattant, fattin — fi. 
remonstrancey n. 'itirad p. 'itiradat. 
remorse, n. towbikh ad-damir; nedemi. 
remote, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 
removaly n. na"li; (from office) 'azl. 
remove, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil ; (pnt or take ojit) bdahhir, 

dahhart, dahhir; {to displace and to change houses) 

V. a. and n. bin"ul, na"alt, n'ul (n"il); (from office) 

V. a. be'azil, *azalt, 'uzul; to be removedy bin'izil, 

in'azalt. 
render, [cause to be) v. a. bsaiyir, saiyert, saiyir; bij'al, 

ja'alt, ja'al. 
rendezvous y n. multa"a. 

renewy v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid, p.p. mjedded. 
renouncey v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
renoivHy n. shuhra. 

renty n. kiri; ujra (ijra); {tear) shi"". 
repair y [repairs) n. taslih p. taslihat ; v. a. bsallih, sallaht, 

sallih p.p. msallah; bsevvi, savveyt, sewi p.p. msewa; 

it must be repaired, lezim taslih-uh. 
repay, v. a. be'ufi, wafeyt, ufi. 
repeat, v. a. bkerrir, kerrert, kerrir p.p. mkerrer. 
repeatedly, ad. tekraran. 



VOCABULARY. 243 

repent^ v. n. btub, tibt, tub. 

repentance^ n. towbi (tobi). 

repentant, a. teyib. 

repetition, n. muraj'a; tekrar. 

replace, v. a. bridd, reddeyt, ridd ila matrah-uh. 

reply, n, jeweb p. jewebet ; v. a. [to) bjewib, jewabt, jewib. 

report, n. ta"rir p. ta'Virat; [rumour) ishe'a; [firearms) 

tala"; V. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ta"rir; v. a. bkhabbir, 

khabbert, khabbir ('an) ; / will report to you about it, 

bkhabbir-ak 'ann-uh. 
repose, n. raha; v. n. birteh (birtah), irtaht, irteh. 
represent [explain), v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, bey y in ; [as 

an agent) v. bitwekkel, twakkelt, twakkel ('an). 
representations, n. p. beyyenet; m'arudat. 
representative, n. mutawekkil. 
repress, v. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub ('ala). 
reprieve, n. mihli. 

reprimand, n. towbikh; v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 
reprisals, n. akhd at-tar. 
reproach, n. lowm. 

reprove, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh. 
reptile, n. hashra p. hashrat. 
republic, n. jumhuriyi; republican, a. jumhuriyi. 
repudiate, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur. 
repugnance, n. nufur; keraha. 
reputation, n. sit. 

request, n. iltimes; v. biltfmis, iltemest, iltfmis (min). 
require, v. a. b'uz, 'izt; bihtej, ihtajt. 
rescue, n. khalas; v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; to the 

rescue I 'ala ms^'adi. 
research, n. teftish; fahs. 
resemblance, n. mshebeha. 



244 ARABIC MANUAL. . 

resemble^ v. a. bishbih, shebeht. 

reserve, n. ihtiyat; (discretion) ihtiraz; (milit.) redif; in 

reserve, a. ze'id ; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz p.p. mahfuz. 
reserved, a. muhtfriz; ras-uh ti"il. 
reservoir, n. howz (howd). 
reside {in), v. n. biskun, sekent, skun (fi); bisti"im, 

sta"amt (fi). 
residence, n. mesken p. msekin. 
resident, n. sekin p. sukken. 
resign, v. bista'fi, sta'fait, sta'fi (min). 
resigjiation, n. iste'fa; {patience} sabr. 
resigned, a. sabur. 
resiyi, n. simgh (samgh). 
resist i v. a. b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim. 
resistajice, n. m"awemi. 
resolute, a. 'azum; sahib 'azm. 
resolution, n. 'azm. 

resolve [on), v. be'izum, *azamt, 'uzum ('ala). 
resources, n. wesili p. wese'il. 

respect, n. ihtiram v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtfrim. 
respectable, a. muhterem ; mu'eteber. 
respectftd, a. mahshum; muhtishim. 
responsible, a. mes'ul. 
responsibility, n. mes'uliyi. 
rest, n. raha; {remainder) kemeli; b6"i (ba"iyi). 

V. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam(; {on) v. a. bis- 

nud, senedt, snud ('ala); v. n. bistinid, stenedt, 

stinid ('ala). 
restless, a. 'adim ar-raha. 
result, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

resurrection, n. "iyemi; day of — , yowm al-"iyemi. 
retail, n. bey'a bil-muferra" ; to sell — , bbi'a bil-muferra". 



VOCABULARY. 245 

retain, v. a. bib"i, ba"eyt, ba"i ; bba" "i, ba""eyt, ba'* "i. 
retreat, n. ruj'u (rej'it); v. n. birj'a, rj'at, rj'a. 
retribution, n. mjeza. 
return, n. ruj'u; v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'eyt), rj'a (rje'a); 

V. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; bridd, reddeyt, ridd. 
reveal, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf. 
revenge, n. inti"am. 
revenue, n. madkhul; dukhl, (dakhl). 
review (milit:), n. t'alim ; 'ard al-'asker; yu"lama; v. a. 

b'urud, 'aradt, 'urud; b'amil yu"lama. 
revolt, V. n. be'asa, 'asait ('asit), 'asa. 
revolution, n. (turn) dowra ; [rising) towra (tora) ; hareki. 
revolve, v. n. (3""^ per.) bidur, dar. 
revolver, n. rivolver. 

reward, n. mkefa ; {tip) hilwen ; v. a. bkefi, kefait, kefi. 
rheumatism, n. waj'a al-mafasil. 
rhubarb, n. rawend. 
rhyme, n. "afiyi. 
rib, n. dil'a p. adl'a. 
ribbon, n. shrita p. shraiyit. 
rice, n. riz. 

richf a. ghani p. aghniya; zenghin. 
riches, n. ghina; serur. 
riddle, n. hazzura (hizzera). 
ride, v. a. birkeb, rkibt, irkeb {and zvith 'ala). 
rider, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli ; rekib. 
ridge, n. dahr aj-jebel. 
ridicule, n. maskhara ; hazu ; v. (laugh at) bitmaskhar, 

tmaskhart 'ala; (despise) bistehzi, stehzeyt (fi). 
ridiculous, a. mudhik; ad. bila m'ana. 
riding, n. rukub. 
rife, n. barudi msheshkhani p. bawarid. 



246 ARABIC MANUAL. 

right, n. yemin ; to the right, 'al yemin; [truth] ha""; 

sawab; a. musib; [in order) mazbut; you are right, 

al-ha" " m'a-ak (inti musib). 
rigid, a. mtwattir (mwettir). 
rind, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 
ring, n. har'a p. hal'at c.p. hala"; [of a chain) zaradi 

p. zaradet; c.p. zarad; [signet) khatim p. khawatim 

(khawetim); [engagement) khatim al-khitbi; v. a. [a bell) 

bdu"", da" "ait, du"" aj-jaras. 
ringlet, n. khusli p. khusl. 
riot, n. fitni. 
ripe, a. nadij ; mistwi. 

rise, V. n. b"um, "umt, "um; bitl'a, tl'at; tl'a. 
risk, n. khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
rival, n. khusm p. akhsam; mnazir. 
rivalry, n. mseba"a; mnazera. 
river, n. nahr p. nhura (linhur). 
rivet, n. kharzi p. kharzet; rabta p. rabtat; v. a. bikhruz, 

kharazt, khruz p.p. makhruz. 
riveting, n. tekhriz. 
rivulet, n. se"i p. sawe"i. 

road, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. turu"; sikki p. sikek. 
roan [horse), a. mba""aj; (azra" mba""aj). 
roar [of laughter), n. "ah"aha. 
roast, V. a. bishwi, shaweyt, shwi p.p. mishwi. 
rob, V. a. bisru", sara"t, sru"; [on the road) bshellih, 

shellaht, shellih p.p. mshellah. 
robber, n. harami p. haramiyi; seri" p. surra". 
robbery, n. sir"a; selb. 
robe, n. bedH. 
robust, a. "ovvi p. "awaiya. 
rock, n. sakhra p. skhur; v. a. bhizz, hazzait, hizz. 



VOCABULARY. 247 

rocket, n. sahm nari; sarukh. 

rogue, a. khabis. 

roguery y n. khubs; mekr. 

roll, n. leffi; [list] "ai'mi; v. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff p.p. 

melfuf; [of bread) bru"", ra" "eyt, ra""; v. n. (along) 

bdahrij, dahrajt, dahrij. 
roller, n. mahdeli p. mahadil. 
rollingpin, n. showbek p. shwebik. 
Rome, Rumi; Romaji, a. rumani; Ronian church, dX-'ktmsiX. 

ar-rumaniyi. 
roof, n. sath p. stub. 

room, n. uda p. uwad; [space) matrah; fus-ha. 
root, n. shirsh p. shurush ; {of a matter) asl; {up) v. a. 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i"l'a. 
rope, n. habl p. hibal (hibel). 
rosary, n. mesbaha p. mesebih. 
rose, n. wardi p. wardet c.p. ward ; rose-colour, a. wardi ; 

rose-water, ma' ward ; ma'zahr ; attar of roses, 'utr 

al-ward. 
rot, V. n. (3rd per.) [of wood) bisowwis, sowwas, p.p. 

msowwis; [vegetables) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. mihtfri; mihri. 
rotation [in), ad. bin-nowbi (nobi); bid-dowr (dor). 
rough, a. ghaliz p. ghulaza ; khishin ; [sea) heyyij ; {road) 

we'ir. 
roughness, n. wa'ar; khushuni; ghalSza. 
round, a. mdowwer; p. 'ala de'ir; howl (hawal); all 

round, *ala de'ir ('ad-de'ir); der min dur; turn round, 

V. n. bdur, durt, dur hawal. 
route, n. tari" p. turu". 

row, n. [line) saff p. sfuf; in rows, bis-saflf; n. [distur- 
bance, khna"a; toshi (towshi) ; [noise) dajji (doji); v. a. 

(a boat) b"addiC "addaft, "addif. 



248 ARABIC MANUAL. 

royaly a. meleki (muluki). 

rttb, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah; bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

{piU) bimhi, mahait, mhi p.p. mimhi ; [scratch) bhikk, 

hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
rubbish, n. [sweepings) knesi ; zbeli ; {nonsense) dun. 
ruby, n. ya"uti p. ya"ut. 
rudder, n. deffat al-merkeb. 
rude, a. fazz; sef ih ; bila merba. 
rudijuents, n. p. usul; mabedi. 
ruffian, n. ibn haram; sherrir p. ashrar. 
rug, n. [carpet) sejjedi; [covering) hram p. hramet. 
rugged, a. we'ir f. we'd. 
ruin, n. khirbi p. khara'ib; v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub ; 

b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil. 
ruined, a. kharab (kharban). 
rtde, n. "anon p. "awanin; v. a. [lities) bsattir, sattart, 

sattir; [govern) bihkum, hakamt, hkum. 
rider, n. [governor) hakim ; [for lines) mastra p. msatir 

(msetir). 
rumour, n. ishe'a. 
rjin, V. n. birkud, rakadt, urkud ; {a race) bsebi", seba"t, 

sebi"; [away) bihrub, harabt, hrub; [after) bilha", 

lahi"t, ilha*'; {risk) bkhatir, khatert, khatir. 
running, n. rakad. 

rupture, n. khilef; kksumi; [hernia) fta". 
rural, a. berri. 
rusk, n. ghurabiyi. 

Russia, Rusiya; miskob; Russian, a. miskobi. 
rust, n. sidi; v. n. (3rd per.) bisaddi, sadda. 
rusty, a. msaddi. 



VOCABULARY. 249 



sabre i n. seyf p. siyuf. 

sacky n. kis p. kyes. 

sacredy a. m"addas. 

sacrifice^ n. {religions) "urben; [fig) dahiyi p. dahaiya; 

V. a. [an animal) bidbah, dabaht, dbah; [fig.) bdahhi, 

dahhait, dahhi. 
sady a. mkedder. 
saddle y n. serj. p. suruj ; {native) 'iddi p. 'ided; — a 

horsey v. a. bshidd, sheddait, shidd 'al al-hisan. 
safey a. selim; n. sandu" hadid. 
safely y ad. m'as-salemi ; bil-amen. 
safetVy n. salemi. 
saffrouy n. z'aferan. 
said (preceding)y a. mazkur. 
sail, n. "al'a p. "ulu'a. 
sailor, n. bahri p. bahriyi. 
sainty n. *'addis p. "adisinj {before a name) mar; {Moslem) 

weli. 
sake (for the sake of)y pr. minshen. 
saladf n. salata; salad oily zeyt as-salata. 
salary y n. ma'ash; mehiyi. 
saUy n. bey'a; for sale, lil-bey'a. 
saliva, n. ri". 
salmoTTy n. somon. 

salty n. tnilh; salt-cellar y memlaha; a. melih f. melha. 
saltpetrey n. milh al-barud. 
salute, n. salam (sal^m); v. bsellim, sellemt, sellim 'ala; 

(milit.) bekhud, akhadt, khud salem. 
salvation, salami; {eternal) khalas. 



250 ARABIC MANUAL. 

same J a. 'ain ; nefs ; zet [with pro. suff.) ; all the samej 

mitl ba'ad-uh ; sawa ; all the same to me, la far" 'ind-i ; 

at the same time, fil-wa"t zet-uh; fi nefs al-wa"t. 
sample, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir) ; (of grain) 'aini p. 

'ainet. 
sanction, n. msadi"a. 

sand, n. rami; sajid-storm^ zowba'a (zoba'a). 
sandal, n. n'ali p. n*al. 
safidal wood, n. sandal. 
sane, a. selim al-'a"l; sahib al-'a"l. 
sanguinary, a. damawi. 
sanguine, a. wesi". 
sanitary, a. sahhi ; mwefi" lis-sihha ; — office, nezarit 

as-sihha ; — cordo?i, kordon ; — doctor, tabib as-sihha. 
sap, n. 'asir an-nebet. 
sapling, n. nasbi p. nasb. 
sapphire, n. hajr as-safir. 
sarcasm, n. istfhza. 
sarcophagus, n. naus p. newewis. 
sash, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
Satan, n. iblis (blis). 
satchel, n. mahfaza p. mahafiz. 
satiated, (to be) v. n. bishb'a, shb'eyt, shb'a. 
satin, n. atlas. 
satisfaction, n. rida. 
satisfactory, a. murdi. 
satisfied, a. radi. 
satisfy, v. a. birdi, rdait, rdi; to be satisfied, v. n. birda, 

irdit, irda (fi or bi); birtidi, irtadeyt, irtidi. 
saturate, v. a. bbill, bellait (belleyt) bill p.p. meblul. 
Satj4rday, nahar (yowm) as-sebt. 
sauce, n. salsa j mar"a. 



VOCABULARY. 25I 

saucepafi, n. tanjara p. tanajir. 

saucer, n. sahn zghir p. suhun. 

sausage, n. ma'*ani (na"ani). 

savage, a. berberi; wahshi. 

save, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; (life) bnejji, nej- 

jait (nejjeyt), nejji; [econoinise) bwaffir, waffert, waffir. 
savijigs, n. p. towfiret; fadlat. 
savoury, a. leziz. 
saw, n. minshar p. meneshir. 
sawdust, n. nishara. 
say, V. a. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il) ; behki, hakait 

(hakeyt), hki. 
saying, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel (emtel). 
scab, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ishur). 
scabbard, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
scaffold, n. meshna"a. 
scaffolding, n. sa"ali. 

scald, V. a. bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru". 
scale, n. mizen p. miezin (mowazin) ; {one side of the 

balance) keffi; [proportion) *'iy^s; (of a fish) "ishri; to 

adjust the weights, b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 
scalp, n. "ishrit ar-ras. 
scandal, n. 'ar. 
scar, n. ^ter jurh. 
scarce, a. nedir; "alii al-wujud. 
scarcely, ad. bil-kedd. 
scarcity, n. "illit al-wujud. 

scarecrow, n. fizze'a p. fizze'at; khiyel p. khiyel(^t. 
scarlet, a. "irmizi. 

scatter, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra". 
scent, n. riha p. rw^yih ; scent bottle, "anninit riha. 
scheme, n. tedbir p. tedebir. 



252 ARABIC MANUAL. 

scholar^ n. telmiz p. telemiz. 

school, n. medresi p. mederis; — felloiv, refi" fil-med- 

resi; — fnaster, ma'allim medresi. 
science y n. 'ilm p. 'ulum; (branch of) fenn p. finun. 
scissors, n. m"ass p. m"assat. 
scold, V. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh. 
scolding, n. towbikh. 
scorch, V. a. bshowwit, showwatt, showwit p.p. mshow- 

wat; to be scorched, v. n. (3rd per.) bishut, shat; 

scorching, n. shwit. 
scorpion, n. a"rabi p. a"arib (a"erib). 
scoundrel, n. sherrir p. ashrar. 
scout, n. delil; [niilit.) ra'id al'asker. 
scrape, v. a. bhikk, hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
scratch, v. a. bikhdush, khadasht, khdush p.p. makh- 

dush ; [of a cat) (3rd per.) bikharmish, kharmash. 
screayn, n. saiha (seyha) v. n. bsih, suht, sih. 
screen, n. stara. 
screw, n. birghi p. beraghi; v. a. bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

screw-driver, mafrak. 
scrub, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
scruple, n. tereddud ; ihtiraz. 

scrupulous, a. mutereddid f i ; (having scruples) muhtfriz f i. 
scull, n. mi"daf zghir p. ma"adif zghiri. 
sculpture, n. na"sh p. n"ush. 
scum, n. raghwi. 
sea, n. bahr. 
seal, n. khatm p. khtumi ; v. a. bikhtum, khatamt, khtum 

p.p. makhtum. 
sealing-wax, n. sham'a ahmar (aswid). 
seam, n. derz p. druz. 
search, v. bfettish, fettesht, fettish (fi); bdowwir, dow- 



VOCABULARY. 253 

wert, dowwir (fi); search for, bfettish, (bdowwir) *ala. 
season, n. fasl p. fusul. 
seasoning, n. hashwi. 
seat, n. ma" 'ad p. ma"a'id. 
seaweed, n. 'ishbi bahriyi. 
second, n. (time) t^niyi (vide numerals), 
secondhajid, a. musta'mel. 
secret, n. sirr p. asrar; a. sirri. 
sect, n. ta*ifi p. tawa'if; milli p. milel. 
section, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem). 
secure, a. amin p. umena; madmun. 
sediment, n. rasib. 
sedition, n. *isiyan. 
seditious, a. 'asi. 

see, V. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf; bi"sh'a, "ish'eyt, i"she'a. 
seed, n. bezr p. bzurat. 
seek, V. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala) ; bdowwir, dowwert, 

dowwir (fi). 
seem, v. n. (y^ per.) bibeyyin, beyyen; biyizhar, zaher. 
seize, v. a. bizbat, zabatt, izbat. 
seldom, ad. nediren. 
select, V. a. bna""i, na""ait, na" "i ; bukhtar, ikhtart, 

ikhtar. 
self, pro. zet; hal ; nefs (with pro. stiff. )\ vide grammar 

p. 17 reflexive pronouns, 
selfish, to be, v. (3rd per.) bihibb iet-uh. 
selfishness, n. mahabbit az-zet. 
sell, V. a. bbi'a, be'ut, bi'a. 
seller, n. bey'i p. bey*an. 
send, V. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at. 
senior, a. akhbar. 
sense, n. *a*'l ; (meaniTtg) m*ana ; the senses, n. p. al-haw^ss. 



254 ARABIC MANUAL. 

senseless (lifeless), a. fe"id al-hiss; ad. bila hassiyi; {mea- 
ningless) ad. kilmi bila m'ana. 

sensible, a. *a"il. 

sensitive, a. basses. 

sentence, n. (phrase) jumli p. jumel; (judicial) hukm p. 
ahkam. 

sentinel, n. ghafer p. ghaferat. 

separate, a. munfusil; separately, wahd-uh wahd-uh. 

separation, n. mfara"a. 

September, ailul. 

sequester, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 

seraglio, n. [edifice) seraiyi; {ladies of) hurmi p. harim. 

sergeant, n. showush. 

serious, a. {things) muhimm c. ahamm ; {persons) razin; 
seriously, ad. bi jedd. 

sermon, n. wa*az; kirezi. 

serpentf n. haiyi p. haiyat c. p. haiyaiya. 

servant, n. ijir f. ijiri ; khadim f. khadmi p. khuddem 
(khiddem p. khiddemin). 

serve, v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 

Servia, beled as-Sirb; Serviari, a. sirbi. 

service, n. khidmi p. khidemet. 

set, n. ta"m p. tu"um (tu"umi); v. a. bhutt, hattait, 
hutt. 

settle, V. a. {a question) bisruf, saraft, sruf; bsewi, saweyt, 
sewi ; {price) bufsul, fasalt, fsul (fs^l) ; {conditions) bsherit, 
sharatt, sherit; v. n. {of wine) (3rd per.) biyursub (bi- 
yirsib), rasab. 

several, a. ba*ad {with pro. suff,). 

severe, a. shedid p. shidad ; sarim. 

sew, V. a. bkhaiyyit, khaiyyatt, khaiyyit p.p. mkhaiyyat. 

s€wer, n. balu'a; siya". 



VOCABULARY. 255 

sex, n. jins p. ajnes. 

shabby, a. retit (retten) ; beli. 

shade, n. fei; zil (zul). 

shadow, n. khiyel p. khiyelet. 

shaft (of a carriage), n. 'arish. 

shake, V. a. bhizz, hzzzait, hizz; [of clothes) bnuffid, 

naffadt, nuffid p.p. mnaffad. 
shallow, a. feyish (faiyish). 
shame, n. 'aib. 
shameless, ad. bila haiya. 
shape, n. shikl p. shikel. 
share, n. sahm p. as-hem; hissa p. hisas. 
shareholder, n. sahib sahm. 
shark, n. kelb bahr. 
sharp, a. madi; hadd. 

sharpen, v. a. bsinn, sennait, sinn p.p. mesnun. 
sharpener [steel), n. msenn. 
shave, v. bihlu", hala"t, hlu" (hli") ila p.p. mahlu"; 

shave me, hli"li; / shaved him, hala"t ill-uh; clean 

shaved, a. hali". 
shawl, n. shel p. shelet. 
she, pro. hiyi. 

shear, v. a. bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
shears, n. mjezz. 
sheath, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
sheathe, v. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt fil-"irab. 
shed, n. si"ifi ; v. a. [blood) bisfuk, sefekt, sfuk; [skin) 

(3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah. 
sheep, n. ghanam p. aghnem; sheep dog, kelb al- 

ghanam. 
sheet, n. sharshaf p. sharashif; [paper) tarhiyi p. tarahi. 
shelf t n. reflf p. rfuf. 



256 ARABIC MANUAL. 

shell, n. sadafi p. sadaf; {bomb) "unbli p. "anebil ("un- 

bera p. "anebir) j shell fishy n. sadaf. 
shelter y n. ma'wa; to take shelter , v. n. bita'awa, ta'a- 

weyt, ta'awa ila. 
shepherd, n. ra'i p. rai'y^n. 
shield, n. turs p. atras. 
shine, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
ship, n. merkeb p. merakib. 
shipwreck, n. inkisar merkeb. 
shirt, n. "amis p. "umsan; "amis kowi. 
shiver, v. n. birjif, rjift. 
shoe, n. subbat p. sababit; (peasanfs) mdas p. mdaset; 

(long red) zarbul p. zarabil; v. a. {horse) bbaitir, 

baitart, baitir p.p. mbaitar; (bbeytir, beytart, beytir 

p.p. mbeytar). 
shoemaker, n. kinderji. 
shoot, V. a. b"owwis, "owwast, "owwis. 
shop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
shopkeeper, n. sahib dikken. 
shore, n. shatt. 

short, a. "asir p. "asar c. a"sar. 
shorten, v. a. b"assir, "assert, "assir p.p. m'assar. 
shortly, ad. bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil; (presently) b'ad "alii; 

b'ad shwayi. 
shortsighted, a. "asir an-nazr. 
shot, n. (lead) khirdu"; (discharge) darb p. drubi ; 

"owwas. 
shoulder, n. kitf p. aktef. 
shout, n. saiha (seyha) ; 'ayta ; v. n. bsih, suht, sih ; (to) 

b*aiyit, 'aiyett, *aiyit (ila);w^ shouted to him, 'aiyet- 

na-luh. 
shovel, n. mejrud p. mejerid. 



VOCABULARY. 257 

show, n. firji; {exhibition) ma'rad ; v. a. {to) bferrji, ferr- 

jait, ferrji ('ala). 
shower, n. zakhkhar. 
shrewd, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

shrine, n. tnazar p. mazarat; ma"am p. ma"amat. 
shrink, v. n. (3rd per.) bighibb, ghabb; bidubb, dabb. 
shroud, n. kefen p. ekfen. 
shrub, n. sejera zghiri. 
shut, V. a. {close) bughlu", ghala"t, ghlu" p.p. maghlu'*; 

(fasten) bsekkir, sekkert, sekkir p.p. msakker. 
shutter, n. derfi p. derfet. 
shy, a. khajulj v. n. {of a horse) (3rd per.) biyijfal, 

jifil. 
sick, to be, V. n. bistefrigh, stafraght, stefragh; to be sea 

sick, V. n. bdukh, dukht. 
sickle, n. menjil p. mnejil. 
side, n. jeneb p. jeneb (jenib p. jewenib); right side 

{of material) wijh; wrong side, "afa. 
siege, n. hisar. 
sieve, n. {coarse) ghirbel p. gharabil; (fine) mfnkhul p. 

mnekhil. 
sift, V. a. bgharbil, gharbelt, gharbil p.p. mgharbel; 

binkhul, nakhalt, nkhul p.p. menkhul. 
sifter, n. minkhul. 

sigh, n. tenahhud; v. n. bitnahhad, tnahhadt, tnahhad. 
sight, n. nazr; sight-seeing, firji; long-sighted, a. be'id 

an-nazr. 
sign, n. 'al6mi p. 'alemet; v. a. bimdi, madait (madeyt), 

mdi p.p. mamdi. 
signal, n. ishara. 
signature, n. imda p. imdawet. 
signet, n. khatim p. khawStim (khaw6tim). 

»7 



258 ARABIC MANUAL. 

silence y n. sukut; v. a. bsekkit, sekkett, sekkit. 

silenty to be, v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut; be silent, (irnper.) 

skut f. skiti; khras; sidd timm-ak. 
silk, n. harir; silk-factory, n. kirkhanit harir; m'amel harir, 
silkworm, n. dudit al-"azz p. dud al-"azz. 
silly, a. ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 
silver, n. fidda. 

silversmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 
similar, a. mitl; shebih p. ashbah. 
simple, a. basit p. busata; simply, bes; fa"at. 
sin, n. khatiyi p. khataiya; zenb p. znub; v. n. bukhti, 

khatait, khti. 
since, pr. min ; ad. b'ad; con. b'ad ma; limma. 
sincere, a. mukhlis. 
sincerity, n. ikhlas. 
sijiew, n. 'asab p. 'asab; (fig.) "uwi. 
sing, V. a. bghanni, ghannait, ghanni; {sacred music), 

brettil, rettelt, rettil. 
singer, n. mughanni. 
singing, n. ghina; [sacred) tertil. 
single, a. ferd; [unmarried) *azeb; singly, kill wehid 

wahd-uh. 
singular, n. mufred; a. gharib. 
sink, V. n. bighru", ghri"t, ghra"; v. a. bgharri", ghar- 

ra"t, gharri". 
sinless, a. beri p. ibriya. 
sinner, n. mfznib; mijrim. 
sir, n. sid-i (/^V. 7ny lord), 
sirocco, n. shlu". 
sirtip, n. sharab. 
sister, n. ikht (ukht) p. khaiyet; sha"i"a; sister-in-law, 

silfi. 



VOCABULARY. 259 

sitf V. n. bu" 'ud, "a'adt, u" 'ud. 

sitting (of a court), n. jelsi. 

situation, n. merkez. 

size, n. "add; (bulk) hajm. 

skein, n. shelli (shilli) p. shlel. 

skeleton, n. heykel p. hiyekil. 

skeiver, n. sikhshek p. siakhshek; sikh p. siyakh. 

skilful, a. mehir. 

skill, n. mahara. 

skin, n. jild p. jlud; v. a. bislakh, salakht, slakh p.p. 

maslukh. 
skirt, n. tannura p. tenenir. 
skittles, n. mahajj. 
skull, n. jumjmi p. jemejim. 
sky, the, n. aj-jow. 
slack, a. rakhu f. rakhwi. 

slacken, v. a. brakhkhi, rakhkhait, rakhkhi p.p. mirkhi. 
slang, 11. kelem derij. 
slap, n. latmi. 

slate, n. lowh hajr; slate pencil, "alam hajr. 
slaughter, n. medbaha (mezbaha); v. a. bidbah, dabaht, 

dbah p.p. medbuh; slaughter house, n. meslakh. 
slave, n. *abd p. *abid; female — , j^riyi p. jeweri. 
slavery, n. 'ubudiyi. 
sleep, n. nowm (nom) v. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, nem 

(nam); asleep, pres, part, neyim. 
sleepless, to be, v. n. bi"la", "ili"t; ad. bila nowm. 
sleepy, a. n*as^n ; sleepifig, n. menami. 
sleeve, n. kimm (kumm) p. kem^m. 
slender, a. refi'a p. rfa'a c. arfa. 
slice, n. sha"fi. 
sling, n. mi"ra. 



260 ARABIC MANUAL. 

slipi V. n. bizla", zli"t, zla"; n. (of a plant) shetli ; feskha ; 

(of the pen) zellit "alam. 
slipper, n. shahata. 

slippery, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) bizelli". 
j/^'/, n. khiz"; V. a. bishrut, sharatt, shurut. 
slope, n. nezli. 
j/tJTi', a. buti ; /^ ^^ slow, v. n. (3rd per. f.) of a watch, 

bitta'akhkhir (bitta'assir) as-s^*a; slowly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh 

(with pro. stiff.) ; shwayi shwayi ; to be slow in, v. n. 

bitda" "ar, tda" "art, tda" "ar fi kitebi (meshi) in writing, 

walking etc. 
slowness, n. mehli. 
sluggard, a. belid; keslen p. kesela. 
sluice, n. sukr p. skura. 
slush, n. wahl. 
sly, a. muhtel; hielji. 

small, a. zghir p. zghar c. azghar sup. al-azghar. 
smallness, n. zughr; (meanness) denewi. 
smallpox, n. jidri. 
smart, a. (intelligent) zi'ki; nfshit; (spruce) ghandur; n. 

alem; waj'a; v. n. (3rd per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
smash, n. dajji (doji); v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. 

maksur; to be smashed, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinkisir, 

inkeser. 
smear (zvith), v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. mlat- 

takh (fi). 
smell, n. riha p. rweyih; bad — , riha rediyi; good — , 

riha taiyibi ; v. a. bshimm, shemmait, shimm; v. n. 

(3rd per.) ill-uh riha, ken luh riha. 
smile, n. tebessum; v. n. bitbessam, tbessamt, tbessam. 
S)nith, n. hadded. 
smoke, n. dukhkhan; v. n. (3rd per.) of a chimney, bi- 



VOCABULARY. 26 I 

dakhkhin, dakhkhan; v. a. [of tobacco) bishrab, shribt, 
shrab (tutun); v. n. bdakhkhin, dakhkhant, dakhkhin. 

smokyfy a. mdakhkhin. 

smooth, a. ne'im (na'im); milis. 

smoothly, ad. bis-suhuli. 

smotJier, v. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu'*. 

smuggle, V. a. bherrib, herrabt, herrib p.p. mherrab. 

smuggling, n. tehrib. 

S?nyrna, Izmir. 

snail, n. bezza"a; halazun. 

snake, n. haiyi p. haiyat cp. haiyaiya. 

snare, n. sherek; masiyadi; fikhkh (fakhkh). 

sneeze, v. n. bu'atus, 'atast, 'utus. 

snipe, n. shikbi p. shikkub. 

snore, v. n. bishkhur, shakhart, shkhur. 

snow, n. telj ; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bititlij, talijit. 

snowdrift, n. kumi telj. 

snuff, n. 'atus; snuff-box, 'elbit 'atus; to take snuff, w.z. 
bshimm, shemmait, shimm 'atus. 

so, ad. haik (heyk); is it not so? mush haik (mauheyk); 
so and so [of persons) a. fulan f. fulani ; [of things), 
ad. keia wa keza; so that, con. hatta (ta). 

soak, V. a. bin'*a', na"a't, n"a'. 

soap, n. sabun. 

sober, a. sahi. 

sociable, a. an is. 

society, n. jem'iyi. 

sock, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrab^t; pair of socks, 
jowz kelset. 

socket, n. tejwif. 

soda, n. "ili. 

sofa, n. diw^n. 



262 ARABIC MANUAL. 

soft, a. rikhis; ne'im (na'im); leyyin. 

soften, V. a. [by water) btarri, tarrait, tarri; {by fire) 

bleyyin, leyyent, leyyin. 
softly, ad. bi hudu. 
soil, n. tirab; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh p.p. 

mwassakh; to be soiled, v. n. bitwassakh, twassakht. 
solace, n. tesliyi. 
solder, n. Iham; v. a. bilhum, lahamt, Ihum p.p. 

melhum. 
soldier, n. *askeri p. 'asker; [private) nefer p. anfar. 
sole, a. wahid; n. [of the foot) asfal (sifl) al-"adam; [of 

a boot) n'ali; n'alit as-sirmeyi p. n'al; solely, ad. 

fa"at; bes. 
solemn, a. ihtifeli. 

solicit, V. biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min). 
solid, a. metin. 
solitude, n. wehdi. 
solution, n. hall. 

solve, V. a. bhill, hallait, hill p.p. mahlul. 
solvejit, a. sagh; "edir 'al al-wafa. 
some, a. ba'ad; somebody, wehid; sometimes, ahiyenen; 

somewhere, f i meken ; f i mat rah ; somehow, kif ma ken ; 

something, shi. 
son, n. ibn p. benin (benun) ; so7i-in-law, suhr p. as- 

har; ojily son, ibn wahid. 
song, n. ghinniyi; {sacred) tertil. 
soon, ad. b'ad "alii; sooner or later, b'ad ktir ow "alii; 

too soon, bekkir; as soon as, metama. 
soot, n. shahhar. 
soothe, V. a. blatif, lataft, latif ; [of pain) bsekkin, sek- 

kent, sekkin. 
sordid, a. tamma'a. 



VOCABULARY. 263 

sore, n. jurh p. juruh; sore back, {of a horse), dahr-uh 

m'a"ur; to be sore, v. n. (3rci per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
sorrow, n. hizn; in sorrow, haznan. 
sorry, a. z*alen; to be sorry, v. n. bit'essaf, t*esseft, 

(bit'assaf, t'assaft) p.p. mut*essif ; ana z'alen, kint z'alen. 
sort, n. sinf p. asnaf ; now' (no') p. anw'a ; v. a. (arrafige) 

brettib, rettebt, rettib p.p. mretteb. 
soul, n. nefs ; ruh. 

sound, n. sowt; hiss; a. (healthy) sagh. 
soup, n. showrba (shorba). 
sour, a. hamud f. hamda. 

source, n. {water) neb'a p. nbu'a; {origi?i) masdar. 
south, n. "ubli ("ibli) ; southern, a. jenubi. 
souvenir, n. tezkar. 

sovereign, n. melik p. muluk; {Turkey) sultan. 
sow, V. a. bizr'a, zar'at, zr'a p.p. mazru'a. 
space, n. fus-ha. 
spacious, a. fasih; wes'i. 
spade, n. merr p. murur; rafsh p. rufush; {of cards) 

bestuni. 
Spain, Isbania; Spanish, a. isbaniyuli. 
spatt, n. shibr p. ashbar. 
spare, v. (do without) bistaghni, staghnait, staghni ('an); 

a. ze'id (za'id); spare copy, niskha ze'idi. 
spark, n. sharara p. sharar. 
sparkle, v. n. (3rd per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
sparrow, n. *asfur p. 'asafir. 
speak, V. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkellam, tkel- 

lamt, tkellam. 
spear, n. rimih p. rmSh. 
special, a, khususi, 
species, n. now' (no') p. anw'a. 



264 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Specimen^ n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 

speck y n. latkha. 

spectacle^ n. firji; manzar; mash-had. 

spectacles y n. kuzluk; n. p. 'awenat. 

spectator J n. mutferrij. 

speech, n. khitab. 

speed, n. sur'a; 'ajeli; speedily, bi sur'a; seri'an. 

spell, V. a. bitahejja, tahejjait, tahejja. 

spelling, n. hija. 

spend, V. a. bisruf, saraft, sruf p.p. masruf; to be spent, 

(3rd per.) biyinsarif, iiisaraf. 
spice, n. bahar p. baharat; tib p. atyab. 
spider, n. 'ankebut p. 'anekib. 
spill, V. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
spin, V. a. bighzul, ghazelt, ghzul (ghzil) p.p. maghzul. 
spinach, n. sbenikh. 
spindle, n. maghzil. 

spinning-wheel, n. dulab (duleb) al-ghazl. 
spirit, n. ruh p. arwah; out of spirits, ma luh keyf. 
spit, n. (for roasting) shish p. shiyesh; sikh p. siyakh; 

V. n. bibzu", baza"t, bzu". 
spite, n. hi"d; iyi spite of, ghasb *an ; raghman 'an. 
spittle, n. bze'*. 
splendid, n. fekhir. 
splint, n. jbar p. jbarat; to put in splints, v. a. bjebbir, 

jebbert, jebbir p.p. mjebber. 
split, n. shi""; V. a. bshi"", sha" "ait (sha""eyt), shi"" 

p.p. mesh"u'*. 
spoil, V. a. binz'a, nez'at, nz'a; b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil; 

V. n. (3rd per.) biyintiz'i, intez*a; spoilt, a. manzu*a. 
spoke, n. {of a wheel) *arda p. *awarid. 
sponge, n. sfinji p. sfinj. 



VOCABULARY. 265 

spooHy n. mara'*a p. ma'ali". 

sport, n. (/ww) I'eb (I'ub); [shooting) said. 

sportsman, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 

spot, n. mowd*a p. mwad'i. 

spout, n. [of a jug) zellumi ; [of a fountain) sab'a p. 

ash 'a [lit. a lion). 
sprain, n. radda; sud'a; v. a. brudd, raddait, p.p. mar- 
dud; bisd'a, sad'at p.p. masdu'a. 
spread, v. a. bmidd, meddait, midd p.p. memdud ; [out) 

binshur, neshert, nshur; bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. 

mafrush. 
sprijig, n. [season) ar-rabi'a; [water) 'ain p. 'uyun. 
sprinkle, v. a. brushsh, reshshait, rushsh p.p. marshush. 
sprout, n. nebti; firkh; v. n. (3rd per.) bferrikh, ferrakh; 

biyinbut, nabat. 
spur, n. mihmez p. mahamiz. 
spurious, a. mzowwer., 
spy, n. jesus p. jewesis. 
squadron, n. 'amara. 

squatider, v. a. bbeddir, beddert, beddir. 
square, a. mrabb'a; n. [open place) saha; the municipal 

square, sahat al-belediyi. 
squeeze, v. a. be'usur, *asert, *asur p.p. m'asur. 
squib, n. fitteshi. 
squinteyed, a. ahwel. 

squirrel, n. "ar'adun p. "ara"din; sinjebi p. sinjeb^t. 
stab, n. t'ani p. t'an^t. 
stability, n. sebet. 

stable, n. yakhur p. yakhurat; istabl p. istablet. 
stack, n. kdis p. kids^n; v. a. bkeddis, keddest, keddis 

p.p. mkeddes. 
stag, n. aiyyel p. aiy^*il. 



266 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Stage, n. {theatre) mersah; (Journey) mhatta. 

stagnant, a. rakid (ra"id). 

stain, n. latkha; v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. 

mlattakh. 
staircase, n. derej p. diraj ; spiral — , lulab p. Iwelib. 
stake, n. wated p. owtad; {at play) rahn p. ruhun. 
stale, a. beyitj yebis; stale bread, khibz yebis; v. n. 

(3rd per.) {of a horse) bibowwil, bowwal. 
stalk, n. se" (sa*') p. si"an. 
stall (for cattle), n. ma'alaf. 
stallion, n. fahl p. fuhul. 
stammer, v. n. btemtim, temtemt, temtim. 
stamp, n. damgha; {postage) bul; wara"it bul p. wara" 

bul; V. a. bidmagh, damaght, dmagh p.p. madmugh. 
stand, V. n. bu"af, u"ift, u"af; stand tip, b"um, '*umt 

("imt) "urn. 
standard, n. {flag) baira" (beyra*'). 
star, n. nejmi p. njum; shooting star, nezi". 
starch, n. nisha; v. a. bneshshi, neshshait, neshshi p.p. 

mneshsha. 
start, V. n. bibtidi, btedeyt, btfdi. 
starve, v. n. bmut, mutt min aj-ju'a; v. a. bmowwit, 

mow watt, mowwit min aj-ju'a. 
state {condition), n. hal; the state of affairs; al-ahwal; 

{pomp) ihtifel. 
statement, n. khaber p. akhber. 
station, n. mhatta. 
stationary, a. wa"if. 
stationery, n. p. lawezim al-kitebi. 
statistics, n. p. 'idadiyet; ta"wim. 
statue, n. timsel p. temesil. 
stature, n. "ami. 



VOCABULARY. 267 

Stay, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bu"'ud, "a'adt, u'*'ud; 

let stay, v. a. bba" "i, ba" "eyt, ba""i; v. n. bdull, 

dalleyt, dull. 
steady, a. rasikh ; sebit. 

steal, V. a. bisru'*, sara"t, sru" p.p. masru". 
steam, n. bukhar. 

steamer, n. wabur p. waburat; (babor p. baborat). 
steel, n. buled; [for striking fire) "addaha. 
steep, a. {downhill) msallat; {uphill) we"fi. 
steer, v. a. bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir. 
stench, n. riha keriha. 
step, n. khatwi; (of stairs) dereji p. derajet; steps, n. 

sillum; derej. 
stern, n. (of a ship) mukhir al-merkeb; a. sarim; "asi. 
stew, n. yakhni. 
steward, n. wekil kharj ; krarji. 
stick, n. 'asa p. 'usi; (small) "adib p. "udben; v. a. 

blazzi", lazza"t, lazzi" p.p. mlazza" ; v. n. (y^ per.) 

biyilza" lizi". 
sticky, a. dibi"; mdebbi". 
stiff, a. (solid) jemid; {hard) silib; "asi. 
stifie, V. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 
stifling, a. ti"il. 

still, a. hedi; ad. kamen; b'ad; m'a zelik. 
stillness, n. sukun; hudu. 
sting, n. les'aa; 'a"sa; v. n. (y^ per.) biyils'a, les'a; 

biy'a"as, *a*'as ; (of a wasp) biyu*'rus, "aras. 
stingy, a. bakhil p. bukhal. 
stink, n. natni; v. n. (3'-d per.) biyintin, natan. 
stipulate, v. n. bishturit, shtaratt, shturit. 
stir, V. a. bharrik, harrakt, harrik; v. n. bitaharrak, 

taharrakt, taharrak. 



268 ARABIC MANUAL. 

stirrupy n. rikebi p. rikebet. 

stocky n. (flower) mentura p. mentur; [of a gun) "anda" 

al-barudi. 
stockitig, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrabet. 
stoker, n. wa'* "ad. 
stomachy n. me'di. 
stone, n. hajr p. hijar; (of fruit) bezri p. bezr; stone 

cement, hajriyi; [for floors) 'adasi; {^for roof s) zxQy'^di. 
stony, a. mehjir. 
stool, n. skemli. 

stoop, V. n. bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
stop, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; v. a. and n. bwa" "if, 

wa""aft, wa""if; [prevent) bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; stop 

up, V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
store, n. [provision) muni; [quantity) kemmiyi; store 

house, hasil ; makhzen ; [for grain) beyiki p. beweyik ; 

store room, beyt al-muni. 
stork, n. lu"lu" p. la"ali". 

storm, n. 'asifi p. 'awasif ; zowba'a (zoba'a) ; [at sea) now. 
^story, n. [of a house) taba"a; upper — , fu"ani; 'ulwi; 

lower — , tahteni ; ardiyi ; [tale) hikeyi ; teller of stories, 

hakawati. 
stout, a. jesim; smin p. sman. 
stove, n. uja" p..uja"at. 
straight, a. dughri; in a straight line, rasan; 'ala khatt 

musta"im. 
straightforward, a. musta"im. 

strain, v. a. (clarify) bsaffi, saffait, safifi p.p. msaffa. 
straiyier, n. misfeyi (misfaiyi). 
strange, a. gharib p. ghvireba; stranger, n. gharib p. 

ghurb. 
strangle, v. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 



VOCABULARY. 269 

Strap, n. seyr p. siyura. 

straw, n. "eshsh ; chopped straw, tibn. 

strawberry, n. tut franji (frez). 

stream, n. se"i p. sawe"i. 

street, n. tari" p. turu" (tur"at); z"a*' p. z"a"at. 

strength, n. "uwi. 

strengthe?i, v. a. b"owwi, "owweyt, "owwi. 

stretch, v. a. bmidd, meddait, midd p.p. memdud. 

strict, a. shedid p. shidad ; sarim ; strictly, ad. bi ted"i". 

strike, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {tents) bi'Ta, "al'at, 

i'Ta al-khaimi. 
string, n. khait massis; v. a. (beads, papers etc.) bshikk, 

shekkeyt, shikk p.p. meshkuk. 
strip, n. sha""a p. shi"a"; v. a. {naked) b'arri, 'arrait, 

'arri ; stripped, a. 'ariyen ; (rob) v. a. bshellih, shellaht, 

shellih; (the leaves of trees) bjimm, jemmeyt, jimm 

p.p. mejmum; bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
stripe, n. "alam p. i"lam; striped, a. ma"allam. 
stroll, n. kezdara; v. n. bkezdir, kezdert, kezdir. 
strong, a. metin ; shedid p. shidad; "owi p. "awaiya. 
strop, n. (of a razor) "aish. 
struggle, n. khna"a; v. (fight with) bita'arak, ta'arakt, 

m'a; (of animals) v. n. (3rd per.) bikhabbit, khabbat. 
stubborn, a. 'anid. 
stucco, n. jefsin (jebsin). 
student, n. telmiz p. telemii. 
study, n. ders; v. a. bidrus, darast, drus. 
stuff, n. (material) "imesh ("imash); v. a. bihshi, hashait, 

hshi p.p. mihshi. 
stumble, v. n. bitd'atir, td'atirt; (of a horse) (y^ per.) 

biyit'as, te'is. 
stumbling block, n. hajr 'atera. 



270 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Stump {of a tree), n. "urmiyi p. "arami. 

stupid, a. ahma" p. him"in (himu"); belid. 

style, n. zey; (of writing) nefes. 

subject, n. [mowdu'a; [of a state) r'aiyi p. ra'aiya; 

teb'a. 
subscribe, v. a. bishtfrik, shtarakt, shtirik; biktitib, ik- 

tatebt, iktitib. 
subscription, n. iktiteb; ishtirak. 
substance, n. maddi. 

substantive, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 
substitute, n. bedel; v. a. [for) bibdul, bedelt, bdul p.p. 

mebdul (bi); — one thing for another, v. a. bistebdil, 

stebdelt, stebdil. 
subtract, v. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh. 
subtraction, n. tarh. 
succeed, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injah; [come after) v. a. 

bekhlaf, khalaft, khluf. 
success, n. tofi"; nejah. 
successful, a. mwaffa". 
successor, n. khalaf p. khulefa. 
such as, a. mitl-uh (with pro, suff.). 
snck, V. a. bmuss, massait, mussj bmu"", ma" "ait, 

mu"". 
sucking, n. mass. 

sudden, a. baghti; faje'i; j«^</^«(y, ad. baghteten; faj'aten. 
suet, n. shahm. 

Suez, Sues; Suez canal, kanat as-sues. 
suffer, V. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil. 
suffering, n. alem ; 'azeb. 
sufficient, a. kefi ; to be — , v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi (biyikfi) 

ken kefi. 
sugar, n. sikker; loaf of — , ras sikker; Imnp — , sikker 



VOCABULARY. 



271 



she"af; moist — , sikker ne'im (na'im); sugar cane, 

"asab mass; "asab sikker. 
suggest, V. b'ati, *atait ('ateyt), 'ati rai (fikr). 
suggestiofij n. rai; fikr p. afkar. 
suicide, n. "atl nefs; intihar; to commit — , v. bi"tul 

nefs-i; bintihir, intahart. 
suit, n. [of clothes) ta"m p. tu"umi; bedli p. bedlet; 

V. a. (3rd per.) biwefi", wafa" [and with 'ala) ; binesib, 

nasib; it suits 7ne, biwefi"-ni (binesib-ni). 
suitable, a. mwefi"; mnesib. 
suitor, n. talib p. tullab. 
sulphur, n. kebrit. 
Sultan, sultan. 
sum, n. (money) meblagh p. mebeligh; (arithmetic) ^aimel 

p. a'mel ('ameliyi); (smn total) al-mejmu'a. 
summer, the, n. as-saif; to pass the — , v. n. bsaiyyif, 

saiyyeft, saiyyif; stimmer residence, n. mahall saifiyi. 
summit, n. ras aj-jebel. 
summon, v. a. bistahdir, stahdart, stahdir. 
summons, n. buslit (buslaiyit) ihdar; wara"it jelb. 
sun, n. shems; sun rise, shuru" (tlu'a) ash-shems; sun 

set, ghiyeb (ghurub) ash-shems (al-mughrib). 
Sunday, nahar (yowm) al-had. 
sunstroke, n. darbat shems. 
sup, V. n. bit'ashsha, t'ashshait, t'ashsha. 
superfluous, a. fadli ; ze'id. 

superintendent, n. nazir p. nuzzar; wekil p. wukela. 
supper, n. *asha. 

suppose, V. n. bzunn, zannait, zunn. 
suppress, v. a. (conceal) bikhfi, khafait, khfi; (restrain) 

bimn*a, men'at, mn'a; (calm) bhammid, hammadt, 

hammid. 



2/2 ARABIC MANUAL. 

sure, a. akid ; m'ekkid ; / am sure, ana mut'ekkid. 
surface, n. sath; wijh p. wujuh. 
surgeon, n. jerrah. 
surname, n. la"ab p. ar'ab. 
surplus, n. fadli ; zod. 

sur price, n. dehshi ; v. a. bidhish, dahesht; [to take un- 
awares) bibghat, baghatt, bghat ; to be surprised, v. n. 

bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt, t'ajjeb p.p. mut*ajjib. 
surrender, n. teslim; v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. 

msellem. 
sjirround, v. a. bhowwit, howwatt, howwit p.p. mhowwat. 
surroundings, n. jiri; his — , jirt-uh. 
suspect, V. bishtibih, ishtabaht, ishtibih (fi); bzunn, zan- 

nait, zunn (fi) p.p. maznun fih. 
suspicion, n. shubha. 
suspicious^ a. (causing suspicion) meshbuh; [entertaining 

suspicion) zannan. 
swallow, n. snuni; hej^ji; v. a. bibl'a, bel'at, bl'a p.p. 

meblu'a. 
swamp, n. bata". 
swan, n. ghurnu" p. gharani". 
swear, v. n. bihluf (bihlif) halaft, hluf; bi"sim, "asamt, 

i'sfm. 
sweat, n. 'ara"; v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
Sweden, Esuj ; Swede, esuji. 
sweep, V. a. bkennis, kennest, kennis p.p. mkennas; 

b"ishsh, "ashsheyt, "ishsh. 
sweet, a. hulu c. ahla f. hilwi; sweets, n. p. halawiyat. 
sweetheart, n. habibi. 
swell, V. n. buram, warimt. 
swelling, n. waram p. owram. 
swift, a. seri'a. 



VOCABULARY. 273 

swinif V. n. bisbah, sabaht, sbah. 

swindle, n. ghish; v. a. bghish, ghashait, ghish p.p. 

maghshush. 
swiney n. khanzir p. khnezir. 
swing, n. marjuha; 'anzu"a p. *anezi*'; v. a. bmerjih, 

merjaht, merjih; v. n. bitmerjah, tmerjaht. 
Switzerland, Swisera; Swiss, a. swisrani. 
swollen, a. werim ; wermen. 
swoon, V. n. bighma, ghmit {vide to faint), 
sword, n. seyf p. siyuf; husem p. husemet. 
sycaviore, n. jimmezi p. jmaiyiz. 
syllable, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'i. 
symbol, n. ramz p. rumuz. 
symptom, n. alemi ; {of disease) 'arad p. a'rad. 
syntax; n. 'ilm an-nahu. 
Syria, Suria; Syrian, a. suri. 
syringe, n. {medical) hi"ni p. hu"n; garden — , trumbi; 

mreshshi; v. a. {medical) bih"un, ha"ant, hu"un. 
system, n. nazam p. nazamet; tari"a p. tiiru". 



table, n. towli p. towlet; table-cloth, ghata towli. 

tablet, n. lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 

tact, n. io" ; man of tact, sahib z6". 

tail, n. danab p. adneb; deyl p. dyal. 

tailor, n. khaiyyat. 

take, V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (khod) ; — away, bshil, 

shilt, shil; — off, bishlah, shalaht, shlah. 
tale, n. hik(5yi p. hikaiya; *'issa p. *'isas. 
talent, n. m6whebi. 

18 



2/4 ARABIC MANUAL. 

talky n. haki; v. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkel- 

1am, tkellamt, tkellam; talk nonsense, bihruf, haraft. 
talkative^ to be, v. n. bijrush, jarasht; b'allik, 'allakt; 

a talkative person, a. *allak. 
tall, a. tawil p. tuwal c. atwal. 
tallow, n. shahm. 
tally (with), v. n. (3rd per.) bitabi", taba" (m'a or 

'ala). 
talon, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar). 
tamarisk, n. turfaiya p. turfaiyet c. p. turfi. 
tambourine, n. deff p. dfuf. 
tame, a. elif; juwwi. 

ta7i, V. a. bidbugh, dabaght, dbugh p.p. madbugh. 
tangle, n. sherbeki; in a tangle, msherbek. 
tank, n. birki p. burak; bahra; howd (hod) p. ahwad. 
tanner, n. debbegh (debbagh). 
tanyard, n. debbegha. 
tap, n. khanafiyi. 
tape, n. shrit. 
taper, n. sham'a. 

tapeivorm, n. dudi 'arida; dudi wahidi. 
tar, n. "atran. 

tarantula, n. rtaila (kirteyli) p. rtailat. 
tares, n. zewen. 
target, n. nishen; *alem. 
tariff, n. ta'rifi. 
tarnished, a. mwassakh. 

task, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; 'amel p. a'mel. 
tassel, n. sherrabi p. sherarib; turra. 
taste, n. t'ami ; v. a. bzu" (bdu"), zu"t (di"t), zu" (du"); 

good taste, n. z6**. 
tauntt n.tai'yir v. a. b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir. 



VOCABULARY. 275 

tax, n. resm p. rusumet; taxes, mal miri; v. a. bekhud, 

akhadt, khud (khod) resm (min). 
tea, n. shay; strong — , shay ti"il; weak — , shay khafif; 

tea cup, finjen p. fn^jin; tea leaves, wara*' ash-shay; 

tea pot, bri'* shay. 
teach, V. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim. 

teacher, n. ma'allim f. ma'allimi; mederris f. mederissi. 
tear, n. dam'a p. dmu'a; shed tears, v. n. bdamm*i, 

damm'at, damm'i. 
tear [rent), n. khiz"; shi'"*; v. a. bikhzu", khaza"t, 

khzu'* p.p. makzu"; bkhazzi", khazza"t, khazzi" p.p. 

mkhazza"; bshi", sha""eyt, shi"" p.p. mesh"u" ; 

bimzu", meza"t, mzu" p.p. memzu". 
tease, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul; b'azzib, *azzebt, 'azzib 

p.p. m'azzab. 
tedious, a. mut'ib; mumill. 
telegram, n. tilaghraf. 

telegraph, v. bdu"", da" "ait (da" "eyt) du"" (di"") ti- 
laghraf; — office, beyt at-tilaghraf; — pole, 'amud 

at-tilaghraf; — wire, shrit at-tilaghraf. 
telegraphist, n. tilaghrafji. 
telescope, n. nazzara (naddara). 
tell, V. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il) ila. 
temper, n. khul"; tab*a p. atb'a; bad te^nper n. hama"; 

khul"; good tempered, atb*a-uh leyyini ; tab'a-uh mlih ; 

bad tempered, atb'a-uh shirsi ; khur'uh daiyi" ; hot 

tempered, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
temperature, n. mizen al-harara. 
temple, n. heykel p. hiy^kil. 
temporary, a. mwa""at. 
tempt, V. a. bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
temptation, n. tijrubi p. tejerib. 



2/6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tenacious^ a. 'anid; mutmessik. 

tenant i n. muste'jir. 

tendency, n. meyl. 

tender, [offer] n. talab p. talbet cp. matalib a. rikhis ; tari. 

tent, n. khaimi p. khiyem (khiyem). 

tepid, a. fetir f. fetri. 

term, n. [delay] middi ; mihli; (condition) shart p. shurut; 

what are your terms, esh matlub-ak ; vtake terms with, 

V. a. bsherit (bsharit) sharatt, sherit (sharit). 
terrace, n. sath p. stub. 
terrible, a. h^yil (ha'il); mukhif. 
terrified, a. khaiyif. 
terrify, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif. 
territory, n. ard. 
terror, n. fez'a; khowf. 

test, n. imtihan ; v. a. bimtihin, imtahant, imtihin. 
testaynent, n. wasiyi p. owsiyi; Old Testament, at-towra; 

Nei.v Testament, al-injil. 
testimony, n. sheh^di. 

tether, n. twali; v. a. burbut, rabatt *al at-tvvali. 
text, n. metn; khulasa; [of the bible] mowdu'a. 
than, con. min. 
thank, v. a. bishkur, shakert, shkur; thank you, kettir 

khair-ak; eywah; sellim daiyat-ak [lit, may God 

preserve yonr hands], 
that, pro. haidak f. haidik (hidik); con. ann; iji order 

that, hatta (ta). 
thaiv, V. n. 3rd per. bidub, dab. 
theatre, n. tiyatro. 
thee, pro, suff. ak f. ik. 
theft, n. sir"a. 



VOCABULARY. 2// 

theniy {their)y pro. stiff, hum (um). 
themselveSj pro. zet-hum. 
the?ty ad. b'adeyn ; sum. 
thence, ad. min hownik. 
theoryy n. hiliya p. hiliyat. 

there, ad. hownik (howniki); thereabouts, t3i''nha.n; there- 
fore, li zelik; bina'-in-'aleyh. 
thermometer, n. mizen al-harara ; termometre. 
they, pro. hum f. hinni; these, pro. howdi. 
thick, a. smik p. smak c. asmak; t-khin c. athkan; (of 

liquids) khatir c. akhtar; {tiot clear) m'akur. 
thief, n. haram p. haramiyi; seri" p. surra"; luss p. 

lusus. 
thigh, n. fakhad p. fkhad. 
thimble, n. kishtben p. keshetbin. 
thin, a. [of persons) nahif p. ni'hafa ; [lean) da'if c. ad'af 

p. da*af; {of paper) ra*'i"; {slender) refi'a c. arfa; 

{liquids) khafif p. khifaf. 
thing, n. shey (shi) p. eshiya ; things, n. p. awa'i (awe'i) ; 

ighrad. 
think {of), V. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi); v. n. bzunn, 

zannait, zunn. 
thirst, n. *atash. 
thirsty, a. *atshen. 
this, pro. haida f. haidi; (hai). 
thistle, n. hasaki p. hasak. 
thither, ad. ila hownik. 
thorn, n. showki (shoki) p. showk (shok). 
thoroughbred, a. asil; nejib; {of a horse) kehil. 
those, pro. haidolik. 
thou, pro. inta f. inti. 
thought, n. fikr p. afkar. 



2/8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

thoughtful^ n. sahib fikr; {considerate) sahib m'aruf. 

thoughtless^ a. taiyish. 

thrash, v. a. [grain) bidrus, darast, drus; {beat) bidrub, 

darabt, drub. 
thread, n. khait, khitan. 
threat, n. tahdid p. tahdidat. 
threaten, v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, tahedded. 
threshingfloor, n. baider (beyder) p. biyedir. 
threshold, n. 'atabi p. 'ateb. 
throat, n, hal"; zerum. 
throne, n. 'arsh p. 'urush ; the patriarch^ s throne, kirsi 

al-batrak. 
through, pr. fi; throughout, min al-owwel il al-ekhir. 
throw, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah; bilhush, lahasht, 

Ihush; birmi, rmait (rmeyt), rmi. 
thrush, n. simni p. simnet (simmun). 
thumb, n. bdhim p. bwehim; my thumb, behm-i. 
thunder, n. r'ad; v. n. (3rd per. f.) bitira'id, ra'adet. 
thunderbolt, n. za"a. 
Thursday, n. nahar (yowm) al-khamis. 
tJms, ad. haik (heyk). 
thy, pro. suff. ak f. ik. 
thyself, pro. zet-ak f. z^t-ik. 
tick, n. "radi p. "rad. 
ticket, n. wara"a p. owra" (wara"). 
tickle, V. a. bzekzik, zekzekt, zekzik. 
tide, n. medd. 
tidy, a. muretteb. 
tie, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut; tie a knot, 

be'"ud, Vadt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud. 
tier, n. taba"a. 
tiger, n. nimr p. nimura. 



VOCABULARY. 279 

tighty a. shedid p. shidad. 

tighteuy V. a. bshidd, sheddait, shidd p.p. meshdud. 

tile, n. "armidi p. "armid; (glazed) "ishani. 

timber y n. khasheb ; a piece of — , khashbi. 

tiniey n. wa"t ; zeman ; to be in time for (catch), v. a. 

bhassil, hassalt, hassil; iyi time (timely), fi wa"t-uh. 
timid, a. jeben. 
tin, n. tenek. 

tin-opener, n. [key] mifteh; [knife) sikkin. 
tinder, n. sufen. 
tinker, n. sankari. 
tinsel, n. shrit "assab. 
tip, n. ras; taraf. 
tipsy, a. sekran. 

tiptoe, on, ad. 'ala ras asabi'-uh. 
tire, V. a. (3rd per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
tired, a. t'aben. 
tiresome, a. mut'ib. 
tissue paper, n. wara"leff. 
title, n. la'*ab p. ar'ab. 

title deed, n. sakk p. skuk; wara'*it tabu p. owra". 
tittle tattle, n. la"sh; 'alk. 
toast, n. khibz mhammas; v. (a health) bishrab, shribt, 

shrab sirr (with pro. suff.). 
tobacco, n. tutun ; dukhkhan ; (for the hubble bubble) 

tinbak. 
to-day, ad. al-yowm (al-yom). 
toe, n. isb'a rijl (ijr) p. asab'i. 
together, ad. sawa; m'a ba'ad-hum. 
toil, n. kedd; t*ab. 
token, n. *al^mi. 
toll, n. baj ; resm baj. 



280 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tomato, n. banadura. 

tofnb, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

to-morrow y ad. bukra ; ghadi ; the day after to-fuorroiUy 

b'ad bukra; b'ad ghadi. 
tongs, n. mer'at. 
tongue, n. lisen p. lisenet. 
tool, n. ali p. alet cp. awe'il; (eli p. elet). 
too-little, a. "alii ktir. 
too-miich, a. ktir; ad. bi ziedi. 
tooth, n. (front) sinn p. snen; (back) dirs p. diras; 

toothache, waj'a dirs; tooth-picky miswek; to draw 

teeth, V. a. bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; to stop 

teeth, V. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 
top, n. ras. 

topsy-turvy, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
torrent, n. seyl p. siyul. 
tortoise, n. zilhfi p. zlehif. 
torture, n. 'azeb; v. a. b'azzib, 'azzebt, 'azzib p.p. 

m'azzab. 
toss, V. a. bzitt, zetteyt, zitt; v. a. bilhush, lahasht, 

Ihush. 
total, n. mejmu'a; totally y ad. bil-killiyi; bij-jumli. 
tottery V. n. (3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtaz. 
touch, V. a. bid"ur, da"art, d"ur p.p. med"ur; bmiss, 

massait, miss; bilmus, lamast, Imus. 
touchstone, n. magnatis. 
touchy, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
tough, a. "asi; yebis. 
tour, n. dowra (dura); make a tour, v. n. bdur, durt, 

dur. 
tourist, n. seyih (saiyih) p. suweh (suwah). 
tow, n. mesha"a; v. a. bjurr, jarrait, jurr. 



VOCABULARY. 28 1 

towards i pr. ila; sowb. 

towely n. manshfi p. mneshif. 

tower t n. birj p. abraj. 

towiiy n. {large) medini p. mudn; {small) beled. 

townsman^ n. ahl al-beled; fellow — , ibn beled. 

toy, n. I'ebi p. lu'ab. 

trace, n. asar (eter) p. asar (atar); {harness) jirrara p. 

jirarat. 
track, n. {road) derb; {trace) asar (eter). 
tract (of land), n. "it'at ard. 
trade, n. tijara; metjr. 

traffic, n. {movement) 'ubur; {trade) tijara. 
train, n. tren; babor; {of camels) "itar p. "itarat; v. a. 

btabb'i, tabb'at, tabb'i p.p. mtabb'a; {exercise) bmar- 

rin, marrent, marrin p.p. mmarrin. 
traitor, n. khaiyin p. khaiyinin. 
transact, {business), v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, *amul ('amel) 

ash-shighl. 
transfer v. a. bin"ul, na*'alt, n"ul p.p. men"ul. 
translate, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim. 
translation, n. terjemi. 
translator, n. terjuman. 
transparent, a. sheffaf. 
transport, v. a. bin"ul, na'*alt, n'*ul p.p. men"ul; n. 

(freight) nowulun. 
trap, n. masiyadi. 

trappings (of a horse), n. selebend. 
travel, v. n. bsefir, sefert, s^fir. 
traveller, n. ms^fir p. ms^firin; seyih (saiyih) p. suw^h 

(suwah). 
tray, n. s^niyj (sniyi) p. sw^ni. 
treachery (treason), n. khiy^ni. 



282 ARABIC MANUAL. 

treadf n. d'asi; v. n. (to tread on), v. a. bid'as, da'ast, 

da'as [and with 'ala) p.p. mad'us. 
treadle f n. dosi. 
treasure^ n. kenz p. kunuz. 
treasurer, n. amin as-sandu". 
treasury, n. khazini. 

treat, v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul (*amd). 
treatment, n. m'ameli. 
treaty, n. ma'ahedi. 
tree, n. shajara (sejara) p. ashjar. 
trellis, n. sh'ariyi. 
tremble, v. n. birjif, rjift, rj6f. 
trench, n. khenda" p. khnedi". 
/r^jj (of hair), n. jdili p. jede'il. 
trial, n. mahakemi; (/^j/) imtihan; tljrubi; on trial, *ala 

tijrubi. 
triangle, n. mtellet. 
/r/<^^, n. *'abili p. "abe'il; *ashiri p. 'ashe'ir; (of Israel), 

sibt p. asbat beni Israel. 
tribtmal, n. mahkemi p. mhakim; mejlis. 
tribute, n. jeziyi. 
trick, n. hili p. hiel ; to play a trick on — , v. b'amil, 

'amilt, 'amul ('amd) hili 'ala. 
trifle, n. shi zehid; it is a mere trifle, ma biyihriz. 
trigger, n. zunberak. 
trinket, n. hfliyi p. hila. 
trip, n. khatra; sefra. 
tripod, n. tlet rijleyn. 
Tripoli, Trablus ash-shem; [iyi Barbary) Trablus al- 

gharb. 
tritanph, n. nasr; triumphal arch, "ows an-nasr. 
troop, n. zumra p. zumr; troops, n. p. jnud; 'asker. 



VOCABULARY. 283 

troty n. rahf; v. n. (3rd per.) biyirhuf, rahaf. 

trouble, n. t'ab; (grief) hizn; to take trouble, v. be'atini, 

'etenet, e'atini (f i) ; to give trouble, v. a. bit'ub, ta'ebt, 

tu'ub; bte"'U ta""elt, te""il ('ala). 
troublesome, a. mut'ib. 
trough, n. jurn p. jran. 
trousers, n. bantalon. 
trousseau, n. sda"; jihaz. 
trowelf n. mara"a; lozi. 
truce, n. hidni. 

true, a. sahih; truly, ad. ha" "an. 
trutnpet, n. nefir; bu" p. abwa". 
trumps, n. atu. 
trunk, n. (of a tree) se" (sa") p. su" (si"an) ; (^^;»r) sandu" 

p. snedi". 
trust, V. bittikil, ittakelt, ittikil ('ala); busi", wasa"t(fi); 

b'emmin, eminent, emmin (ila); on trust, 'al am^ni. 
truth, n. sid"; ha"". 
try, V. a. bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
tub, n. tusht p. tshut; m'ajen p. ma'ajin. 
tube, n. anbubi p. anabib. 
Tuesday, nahar (yowm) at-tleti. 

tuft, n. (of hair) khusli p. khusl ; (plumage) "unbra. 
tug, n. babor (wabor) jerrar. 
tulip, n. khizemi p. khizem. 
tumble, V. n. bu"'a, wa" 'at, u"'a; (slip) be'ater, 'atert, 

'atar. 
tumbler, n. (glass) kibb^yi. 
tumour, n. waram p. owram. 
tune, n. naghmi; v. a. bduzin, dozant, dozin; in tune, 

a. mdozan. 
tunic, n. "amis p. "umsin. 



284 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tunnely n. tunnell; "abu. 

turban^ n. leffi p. leffet. 

turf, n. n'as. 

Turkey, Turkiya ; beled al-'osmalli ; Turk, Turk p. atrak ; 
turkish, turki. 

turkey, n. dik habesh; turkey-hen, djejit habesh p. djej 
habesh. 

turn, n. dowra (dura); v. n. bdur, durt, dur; v. a. bdow- 
wir, dowwert, dowwir; — back, v. n. birj'a, rj'at 
(rj'et), rj*a (rje'a); v. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; — aside, 
V. n. bhid, hidt, hid; — off, v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, 
sidd p.p. mesdud; — on, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah 
p.p. maftuh; — over, v. a. and n. bi"lub, "alabt, 
i"lub; — out, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i; v. n. {become), 
(3rd per.) bisir, sar; — round, v. n. biltifit, iltefett, 
iltifit; turuing round, n. fetli ; turning dervishes, fetlit 
derwish; turning point, n. madar; in turji, ad. bid- 
dowr (dor); bin-nowbi (nobi). 

turnip, n. lifti p. lift. 

turpentine, n. zeyt tirbentina. 

turquoise, n. firuz. 

turtle-dove, n. tirghalli p. tirghall. 

tutor, n. ma'allim. 

tweezers, n. mer'at sh*ara (shoki). 

twice, n. marrateyn. 

twig, n. tarbun p. trabin. 

twilight, n. shefa". 

twift, n. sha" "it towm p. towm (torn). 

twine, n. khait massis. 

twist, V. a. bitni, teneyt, tni p.p. mitni; (cord) biftul, 
fatalt, ftul p.p. maftul. 

two-edged, bi haddeyn. 



VOCABULARY. 285 



tyranyiy^ n. ziilum; jowr. 
tyrantf n. zalim p. zullem. 



u. 



uddery n. dirri. 

ugliness, n. bshe'a; "ubh. 

ugly, a. bish'i f. bish'a; "abih. 

ulcer, n. "arha. 

ultimate, a. niheyi; ekhir. 

ultimatum, n. belagh resmi. 

umbrella, n. shemsiyi p. shemesi. 

umpire, n. hakam p. muhakkemin. 

ufiatiimous, a. muttefi'*; unanimously, ad. bil-ittifa". 

unarmed, p.p. ma msellah; ad. bila sleh. 

unawares, ad. *ala ghafli. 

unbecomirig a. (of dress) ma lebi"; (improper) ma leyi'*. 

unbeliever, n. kefir p. kafara. 

unbind, v. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul. 

unbounded, ma luh hadd. 

unburied, p.p. ghair (ma) medfun ; {animals) ghair (ma) 
matmum; ad-bila defn. 

uncertain, a. ghair m*ekked ; p.p. ma mesbut ; (of tem- 
per) a. muta"allib; / am uncertain, ana murteb. 

uncivil, a. khishin; fazz. 

uncivilised, a. mutawahhish. 

uncle, n. (paternal) 'amm p. *am^m ('amam); (maternal) 
khal p. khw^li. 

unclean, a. wfsikh. 

uncomfortable, a. mut'ib. 



286 ARABIC MANUAL. 

uncommon, a. nedir. 

unconcerned, a. ghair miktiris; to be — , v. ma biktiris, 

iktarast (fi). 
unconditional, ad. bila shart. 

tincover, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf (kshef) p.p. makshuf. 
uncultivated, (land), n. bur. 
uncut, a. sahih; p.p. ma ma"sum; (of grass) p.p. ma 

mahshush. 
undecided, a. muteredded. 
under, pr. taht. 
mider ground, ad. taht al-ard. 
underhand, ad. min taht li taht. 
underneath, pr. taht. 

under sigjied, n. al-mumdi; al-wad'i ism-uh. 
understand, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
tindertake^ v. b"um, "umt ("imt), "um (bi). 
undertaking, n. meshru'a. 
undesirable, a. ghair meshkur. 
undo, (vide unbiftd, untie), 
undoubtedly , ad. bidun shubhi (shekk). 
undress (oneself), v. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah at-tyeb; 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i"l'a at-tyeb ; [another) v. a. bshellih, 

shellaht, shellih at-tyeb; bi"airi, "all'at, "all'i at-tyeb. 
uneasy, a. meshghul al-bel; fikr-uh mush (mau) murteh. 
unequal, mush (mau) "add ba'ad-hum. 
uneven, mush (mau) sehili. 
unexampled, ma luh metil (mesil). 
U7iexpected, a. ghair muntazar. 
unfair a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unfavourable, a. ma'akis. 
Mifinished, a. mush (mau) khalis. 
unfit, a. mush (mau) leyi". 



VOCABULARY. 28/ 

unfold (unfurl), v. a. binshur, neshert, nshur p.p. menshur. 

unforseen, a. ghair muntazar. 

unfortunatey a. ta'is; "alii al-bakht. 

unfurnished^ p.p. ma mafrush. 

u?igrateful, a. jehid (jahid) ; nekir aj-jemil. 

unhappyy a. maghmum. 

unharness, v. a. bshellih, shellaht, shellih; bfikk, fekkait, 

fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
unhealthy, a. mdurr (mdirr) bi sihha; hawa-h 'aatil. 
uniform^ n. bedli resmiyi. 
uniformly, ad. 'ala nesa" wehid. 
unimportafit, a. ghair muhimm. 
unintentionally, ad. bila "asd. 
uninterrupted, a. de'im; p.p. ma min"ut*a. 
uninterruptedly , (at one go), ad. ferd sahabi. 
uninvited, ad. bila 'azimi. 
union, n. itihad. 
united, a. muttehid; United States of America, dX-^WdAyit 

al-muttahidi. 
universal, a. *umumi. 
universe, the, n. al-kown (kon). 
university, n. medresit 'umumiyi. 
unjust, a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unkind, a. "asi ; mush (mau) hanuni. 
unlawful, a. mush (mau) jeyiz. 
unleavened, a. ftir. 
unless, con. iza; ma; low la. 
unlike, a. mukhtilif. 
unlimited, p.p. ma mahdud. 
unload, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ('an) ; bhutt, hattait, 

hutt ('an) ; [of ships) bferrigh, ferraght, ferrigh ('an). 
unlocked, p.p. ma ma'*ful; ma mda""r. 



288 ARABIC MANUAL. 

unlucky i a. "alii al-hazz. 

unmarried^ a. 'azeb f. 'azba ; [of priests) betul. 

U7inatural, a. ghair tabi'i. 

unnecessary^ a. mush (mau) lezim (daruri). 

unofficial, a. ghair resmi. 

unpack, V. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi; bferrigh, ferraght, 

ferrigh. 
tmpaid, p.p. ma madfu'a. 
unpleasant, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
imprejiidiced, a. 'adil. 
unprofitable, a. mush (mau) mufid (nefi). 
unreasonable, a. mush (mau) m'a"ul. 
unripe, a. fejj; p.p. ma mistwi. 
unsafe, a. khutir; muktir. 
unsatisfactory, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
unseemly, a. mush (mau) leyi". 
unshod, a. hafi p.p. mhaffa. 
unsound, a. m'aiyub; mush (mau) sagh. 
unsteady, a. ghair sebit. 
unsuitable, a. mush (mau) mwefi". 
untidy, a. ghair muretteb (mhendam). 
untie, V. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
until, con. hatta ma; ilia. 
tmtimely, ad. mush fi wa"t-uh. 

untouched, a. sahih; p.p. ma memsuk; ma med"ur. 
untrained, a. jeleb; p.p. ma mtabb'a. 
imtried, p.p. ma mjerrab. 
untrue, a. ghair sahih. 
untruth, n. kizbi. 
untruthful, a. kezzeb. 
unusual, a. gharib. 
unwell, a. mush (mau) mabsut; 'aiyyen. 



VOCABULARY. 289 

uyiivilling, a. mush (mau) radian (radi). 

unwillingly, ad. ghasb *an-nuh. 

U7izuise, a. jehil p. juhhel. 

unworthy, a. mush (mau) leyi'* (ahl). 

up to (fit for), kharj al-maslaha; he is not up to the 

work, mush (mau) kharj al-maslaha. 
uphill, ad. ila fow'*; fi tal'a. 

uphold (afi opinion), v. n. bwefi", wafa"t 'ala fikr-uh. 
upon, pr. 'ala. 
upper, a. fu"ani ; *ulwi. 
upper hand, the, n. al-ghalib. 
uppermost, the, n. al-a'ala. 
upright, a. we"if; dughri; j^lis. 
upset, V. a. bi"lub, "alabt, i"lub; {liquids) bkibb, keb- 

beyt, kibb; (fig.) (y^ per.) bi'akker, 'akker; the news 

upset me, al-khaber 'akker-ni. 
upside down, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
upstairs, ad. fow'*. 
urge, V. a. bhitt, hattait, hitt; v. bharrij, harrajt, 

harrij ('ala). 
urgent, a. dirik f. dirki ; mulihh. 
urine, n. bowl. 
us, pro. suff. na. 
usage, n. 'adi ; ist'emel. 
use, n. nefa ; fe'idi ; v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil p.p. 

musta*mel; to be of use, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; 

biyinf*a; use up, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; 

bfaddi, faddait, faddi. 
useful, a. mufid. 
useless, ad. bila fe'idi; 'abes. 

usual, a. *itiyadi ('atiyedi); usually, ad. ghaliben. 
usury, n. riba; faiyiz. 

19 



290 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Utensil, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i. 

utmost, the, a. al-aktar; to do one's utmost, v. a. b'amil, 
'amilt jehd-i; do your utmost, 'amul ('amel) jehd-ak. 



V. 

vacancy, n. fragh; mahall ferigh. 

vacant, a. fadi ; ferigh. 

vacate, v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi; bferrigh, ferraght, 

ferrigh. 
vaccinate, v. a. bta'im, ta'amt, ta'im. 
vaccination, n. tat'im. 
vagabond, a. battal. 
vague, a. mubhem. 
vain, a. she'if (sha'if) hal-uh; mu'ijib bi nefs-uh; in vain, 

ad. batilan; 'abes. 
valid, a. sher'i; sahih. 
valley, n. wedi p. widian. 
valuable, a. temin. 
value, n. temen ; v. a. btemmin, temment, temmin p.p. 

mtemmen. 
valve, n. birghi. 

vanish, v. n. (3rd per.) bizul, zal. 
vanity, n. butl. 
vapour, n. bukhar. 
variable, a. muta"allib; mutaghaiyir. 
variety, n. p. shikel; anw'a. 
various, a. mutnoww'i; mukhtilif. 
varnish, n. vernish. 
vary, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, 

tghaiyert. 



VOCABULARY. 291 

vase^ n. we 'a (wa*a) p. awe'i. 

vasti a. fasih; wes'i. 

vaulty n. "abu p. u"bwi; [tomb) "abr p. "ubur. 

vaulted, a. me"bi. 

veal, n. lahm 'ijl. 

vegetables {vegetation)^ n. khudra. 

veily n. mendil p. menedil; womatCs white veil, izar p. 

yizr. 
veiled, p.p. miyezzer; mghatta. 
vein, n. 'ir** p. 'iru'*. 
vellum, n. ri" ". 
velvet, n. makhmal. 
venerable, a. muhteram; wa"ur. 
venerate, v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim. 
vengeance, n. inti"am. 
venison, n. lahm said. 
venom, n. semm. 
venomous, a. msimm; sam. 

ventilate, v. a. bhowwi, howwait, howwi p.p. mhowwa. 
ventilation, n. tehwiyi. 
ventilator, n. nefida p. nawefid. 
venture, n. {chance) sudfi p. sidaf; fursa p. furas; (risk) 

khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
Venus, zahra ; [Queen of Beauty) melekit al-husn. 
veranda, n. rw^" p. rwe"at. 
verb, n. f'^l p. af'al. 
verbal, a. shifehi ; bil-lisen. 
verbatim, ad. harfi bi harf. 
verdigris, n. jinzar. 
verification, n. tah"i". 
verify, V. a. bha'*"i", ha" "a"t, ha" "i". 
vermin, n. p. hashrat. 



292 ARABIC MANUAL. 

verse, n. beyt p. abiyet. 

very, ad. ktir. 

vespers, n. salat al-ghurub. 

vessel, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i; (ship) merkeb p. merakib. 

vest, n. *'amis 'adi (tahteni). 

vestibule, n. dehliz. 

vestige, n. eter (asar) p. atar (asar); resm. 

vestmeyit, n. bedli p. bedlet; hilli p. hi'lel. 

veterinary surgeon, n. beytar p. beyatara ; tabib al-kheyl. 

vex, V. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 

vexation, n. keder. 

vibration, n. ihtizez. 

vibrate, v. n. (3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtez. 

vicar, n. ne'ib (na'ib); wekil. 

vice, n. rezeli p. reze'il; [tool] melzemi. 

viceroy, n. wali (w^li). 

vicious, a. razil (rizil) p. arzal. 

victim, n. ferisi. 

victor, n. ghalib p. ghalibun. 

victory, n. ghaleba; nasr. 

victuals, n.p. me'kuldt. 

view, n. manzar p. manazir; (opinion) rai v. bitferrij, 

tferrajt, tferraj 'ala. 
vigil, n. beramun. 
vigilajice, n. intibeh. 
vigilant, a. nebih. 
vigour, n. "uwi; neshat. 
vigorous, a. "owi p. awaiya; neshit (nishit^. 
vile, a. razil (rizil). 
village, n. dai'a (dey'a) p. di'a 
villager, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
villaiji, a. sherrir; khabis 



VOCABULARY. 293 

villainyy n. sherr. 

vindictive, a. ha"ud. 

vine, n. *arishi p. 'arai'ish (ursh); daliyi p. dawali. 

viyiegaVy n. khall. 

vineyard, n. kerm p. kurum. 

vintage, n. "itaf. 

violate (a promise), v. a. bin"ud, na"adt, nu'*ud kelem 

p.p. men"ud; bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab kelem; (ravish) 

V. a. bifdah, fadaht, p.p. f. mafduha. 
violence, n. shiddi; "uwi. 
violent, a. shiris. 

violet, n. bnefsaji p. bnefsaj; — colour, lown bnefsaji. 
violin, n. kamenja. 
viper, n. afa p. afe'i. 
virgin, n. bikr p. abkar ; 'adra p. *adara; the holy virgin. 

al-betul. 
virtue, n. fadili. 
virtuous, a. fadil p. afadil. 
visible, a. wadih; zahir. 
visit, n. ziyara p. ziyarat; v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; visit a 

sick person, v. bshi"'*, sha""eyt, shi"" ('ala). 
visiting-card, n. wara'*a p. wara". 
visitor, n. zeyir p. zuwwar; (guest) daif (deyf) p. 

diyuf. 
vitriol, n. zaj. 
vizier, n. wezir p. wuzera. 
vocabulary, n. "amis p. "awamis. 
voice, n. sowt p. aswat. 
void, a. khali. 

volcano, n. burken p. berakin; jebel nSr. 
volley, n. tala*'. 
volume, n. mjellad p. mjellad^t; (mass) mi"dar. 



294 ARABIC MANUAL. 

voluntarily, ad. bil-ikhtiyar ; tow'an wa ikhtiyaran. 

voluntary, a. ikhtiyari. 

volunteer, n. mutatow'i. 

vomit, V. a. braj'i, raj'at, raj'a; bintu", nata"t, ntu". 

vote, n. sowt p. aswat; v. n. bsowwit, sowwatt, sowwit. 

vow, n. nezr; v. n. binzur, nazert, nzur. 

vowel, n. hareki p. hareket. 

voyage, n. s^fer p. asfar. 

vulgar, a. derij ; {low) dun ; a vulgar wo^nan, mara dun. 

vulture, n. a"ab p. u"b^n. 



w. 



wad, n. (cardboard) kartun (karton) ; (felt) karton libbed ; 
V. a. bihshi, hashait, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 

wadding, n. hashwi. 

wafer, n. birsh^ni p. birshen. 

wager, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

wages, n. ujra (ijra); ma'ash. 

ivaggon, n. karro p. karrat; tumberu p. tmabir. (tunber 
p. tnabir. 

wainscot, n. hala*'a. 

waist, n. wast; khasr. 

waistcoat, n. sidriyi p. sidari. 

wait, V. n. bisbur, sabert, sbur ; wait for, v. a. bintizir, 
intazert, intizir; bintur, natart, ntur; / am waitiiig 
for you, ana muntizir-ak; ana natir-ak; wait upon 
(serve), v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 

waiter, n. sufraji. 



VOCABULARY. 295 

wake, V. n. bfi", fi"t, fi"; v. a. bfeyyi", feyya^'t feyyi"; 

bwa' 'i, wa' 'ait, wa' 'i. 
walk, n. shimm al-hawa ; mishwar ; v. n. bimshi, mshit, 

mshi; walk about, v. a. bmeshshi, meshshait. meshshi. 
walking, n. meshi. 
walkingstick, n. 'asa p. 'usi. 
wall, n. [of a house) hait p. hitan; (of a town) sur p. 

as war (swar). 
wallet, n. kis p. kyes; leathern wallet, jirab. 
walnut, n. jowzi p. jowz; walnut-tree, jowzi. 
wander, v. n. bjul, jilt, jul; bdur, durt, dur. 
wafit, n. ihtiyej; 'azi; v. a. bihtej, ihtajt; b'iiz, 'izt. 
war, n. harb p. hurub; they are at war, 'amm biyita- 

harabu; beyn-hum harbj to declare war, bish-hur, 

shahert, sh-hur al-harb. 
ward, n. "asir p. "ussar. 
warder, n. sejjen. 
wardrobe, n. khizenit tyeb. 
warehouse, n. makhzen p. makhazin. 
wares, n. bda'a p. badaiy'i. 
warm, a. (of the body) defien; (places) defic. a.dia,; (food) 

sukhn; v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, sakhkhin p.p. 

msakhkhan. 
warmth, n. defa. 

warn, v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht; nebbih. 
warning, n. tenbih. 

warship, n. merkeb harbi p. merakib harbiyi. 
wart, n. teluli p. tawalil. 
wash, the^ n. al-ghasil; v. a. bghassil, ghasselt, ghassil; 

V. n. bightisil, ightaselt, ightisil; wash grain, v« a. 

bsowwil, sowwelt, sowwil p.p. msowwal. 
washerwoman, n. ghass^li. 



296 ARABIC MANUAL. 

ivash-house, n. beyt al-ghasil. 

washing, the, n. al-baiyad. 

wasp, n. zur"ta (zuF'ta) p. zara'*it. 

waste, n. israf; b'aza"a; v. a. bib'azi", b'aza'*t, b'azi" p.p. 

mb*aza"; (money) bideddir, beddert, beddir; [things) 

bitluf, teleft, tluf p.p. metluf; {tijne) browwih, row- 

waht, rowwih; bdaiy'i, daiy*at al-wa"t. 
watch, n. se'a p. se'at; v. a. bra"ib, ra"abt, ra"ib; 

(guard) bihrus, harast, hrus. 
watchful, a. muntibih. 
watchman, n. haris p. hurras. 
watchword, n. sirr al-leyl. 
water, n. mai; riiyming — , mai jeriyi; stagnant — , mai 

rakdi; drinking — , mai li shirb; fresh — , mai hilwi; 

salt — , mai melha; cold — ■, mai berdi; tepid — , mai 

fetri; hot — , mai sukhni; boiling — , mai ghaliyi; 

spring of water, *ain p. *uyun; neb*a; to pass — , 

bibowwil, bowwelt, bowwil. 
watercolour, n. lown mai. 
waterfall, n. shellel (sheleli). 
watering-pot, n. reshsheshi ; mreshshi. 
waterproof, n. mshemm'a. 
waterworks, n. kombaniyit al-mai. 
wave, n. mowji p. amwej. 
waver, v. n. bitreddad, treddadt. 
wax, n. sham*a. 
way, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. tiiru"; i?i my way, bi 

derb-i. 
we, pro. nahn (nahna). 
weak, a. da'if p. da'af c. ad'afj 'aiyyen; the weak, 

du'afa. 



VOCABULARY. 297 

weakat, v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if; bi"ellil, "allelt, "ellil 

"uwi. 
weak?iessy n. du'af. 
wealthy n. ghi'na; serwi. 

weauj V. a. biftum, fatamt, ftumi p.p. maftum. 
weaning y n. ftami. 

weapoUy n. sleh (slah) p. esliha; a weapon^ "it'a sleh. 
weary v. a. bilbus, Ibist, ilbus; wear otit, v. a. bihri, 

herait p.p. mihri; v. n. (3rd per.) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. 

mihtiri. 
wearisome, a. mut'ib. 

weary, a. t'aben v. a. (31^^ per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
weather, n. ta"s. 

weathercock, n. duleb (dulab) hawa p. dwelib. 
weave, v. a. bhaiyyik, haiyyekt, haiyyik p.p. mhaiyyak. 
web (spiders), n. nesij al-'ankebut; beyt ar-rtaila. 
wedding, n. 'urs p. 'aras. 
wedge, n. sfin p. asefin. 
Wednesday , nahar (yowm) al-arb'a. 
weed, n. 'ushb ('ishb) berri p. ash^b berriyi. 
week, n. jim'a p. jim'a. 
weep, V. n. bibki, bakit, bki. 
weigh, V. a. buzin, wezent, uzfn p.p. mowzun ; it weighs 

so and so, wazn-uh keza wa keza. 
weight, n. wazn; [of a scale) 'iyar p. 'iyarat. 
welcome, ad. ahla u sahla; yoic are welcome, anast. 
well, n. bir p. biyara; a. mabsut; ad. taiyib; mlih; 

well done, ad. aferim; get well, v. n. bit'afa, ta'afeyt, 

ta'afa; bsuhh, sahhait, suhh. 
well-bred, a. asil; kahail (kaheyl). 
well-off, a. meysiir. 
west, the, n. al-gharb; western, a. gharbi. 



298 ARABIC MANUAL. 

wet, a. mbellel; v. a, bbiil, bellait (belleyt), bill p.p. 

meblul; to be wet, binbell, inbelleyt; bitbellel, tbellelt. 
whale, n. hut p. hiten. 
wharf, n. bunt; wharfage dues, ardiyi. 
what, pro. esh; shO; whatever, eshma; mahma. 
wheat, n. "amh; hinta. 
wheatmeal, n. tahin. 

wheel, n. duleb (duUb) p. dSwelib; water-wheel, na'ura. 
wheel-barrow, n. 'ajilit id. 
when, ad. aimtin; aimta (eymta); con. limma; 'indama; 

halma; wa"t illi; whenever, ay wa"t; wa"t illi. 
where, ad. weyn ; feyn ; [whither) liweyn (leyn) ; {whence) 

mineyn (min weyn) ; whereabouts, weyn ; feyn ; whereas, 

hais (heys) ; li Icon ; wlierever, weyn ma ; whether or 

not, iia. ow la ; keyf ma ken ; 'ala kuU hal. 
which, inter, pro. esh; shu; ay; which one, ay wehid; 

eni ; relat. pro. illi (halli) ; whichever, illi (halli). 
while, con. limma; beynama. 
whip, n. *'amshi ; kirbesh. 
whirlpool, n. dowwara; derdiir. 
whirlwind, n. zowba'a (zoba'a). 
whisper, n. washwashi ; v. a. bwashwish, washwasht, 

wash wish {and with ila). 
whistle, n. sufaira (sufeyra) p. swefir; v. n. bsowfir, 

sowfert, sowfir; bsaffir, saffert, saffir, 
whistling, n. saffir. 
white, a. abyad f. baida (bey da). 
whitewash, n. tarsh; v. a. butrush, tarasht, trush. 
who (whom), inter, pro. min; (whose) li min; relat. pro. 

illi (halli); whoever, kill min; eymin. 
whole, the, n. al-kill; a. sahih; kemil. 
wholesale, n. bey'a bij-jumH. 



VOCABULARY. 299 

wholesome, a. suhhi. 

whooping cough, n. sheh"a. 

why, ad. lesh. 

wick, n. ftili p. fte'il. 

wicked, a. sherrir. 

wickerwork, n. khaizeran ; a. mkhaizeran. 

wide, a. *arid; wes*i. 

widen, v. a. bwass'a, wass*at, wass'i p.p. mwass'a. 

widow, n. armeli p. aramil; widower, armel. 

width, n. *ard. 

wife, n. mara; zowji; [mo stem) hurmi; my wife, mert-i ; 

bint *amm-i; hurmt-i. 
wig, n. sh'ar 'aiyeri. 

wild, a. berri; wild beast, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 
wilderness, n. shol. 
wilful, a. 'anid. 
will, n. khatir ; iradi ; (testament) wasiyi p. owsiyi ; make a 

will, V. bwassi, wassait, wassi ; b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul wasiyi. 
willing, a. radi; raiyid; God willing, inshallah. 
willow, n. sufsafi p. sufsaf; weeping willow, sufsaf mist-hi. 
win, V. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah ; v. n. bfuz, fizt, fuz. 
wind, n. hawa p. ehwiyi; (strong wind) rih p. rieh 

(riah); v. a. (to roll) bliflf, leffeyt, lifif p.p. melfuf; 

(a watch) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir p.p. mdowwer. 
windfall, n. la"iyi. 
winding, a. ma'arwaj ; wijidings (of road or river) leftet 

u 'owjat. 
window, n. shubb^k p. shb6bik. 
wine, n. imbid ; khamr. 

wineglass, n. **adah p. **d^h ("dah); k^s p. kesdt. 
winepress, n. m*5sera p. ma'Ssir. 
wing, n. j^nih (jinih) p. jwenih. 



300 ARABIC MANUAL. 

wink, n. ghamaz; v. n. bighmuz, ghamazt, ghmuz; wink 

atf (overlook) bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr 'an. 
winner y n. ribhan; ghalib p. ghalibun. 
winnow, v. a. bderri, derreyt, derri p.p. mderra. 
winnowing shovel, n. midraiyi. 
wijiter, n. shita; to spend the winter, v. n. bshetti, shet- 

teyt, shetti ; the season of zuinter, n. shltwiyi. 
wipe, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah; {dry) bnashshif, 

nashshaft, nashshif. 
wire, n. shrit. 
wisdom, n. hikmi. 
wise, a. *a"il. 
wish, n. iradi; v. a. and n. brid, ridt, rid; v. n. bit- 

menna, tmennait, tmenna. 
wit, n. zeka (zika). 
with, pr. m'a. 
withdraw, v. a. bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bis-hab, sahabt, 

is-hab. 
wither, v. n. (3rd per.) biyidbal, dibil; biyibes, yibis; 

zvithered, debblen; yebis. 
withers, n. kitf. 
within, n. juwwa; pr. dekhil. 
without, pr. bidun; bila (bela); con. bidun ma; (outside) 

n. berra; pr. kherij. 
withstand, v. a. b"ewim, "evvamt, "ewim. 
witness, n. shehid p. shuhud. 
witty, a. zeki (ziki). 
wolf, n. dib p. diyeb. 

woman, n. mara p. niswen; hurmi p. harim. 
womb, n. rahm p. arham. 

wonder, n. 'ajab; ivonder at, v. n. bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt (min). 
wonderful, a. 'ajib. 



VOCABULARY. 30I 

wd'ntj I wd'nt, ma bedd-i (bidd-i) ; ma brid ; it wo*nt do^ 

ma biyiswa; ma biyinfa. 
wood, n. (for building) khasheb; (for fuel) hatab. 
wood cock, n. djejit ard p. djej ard. 
wooden, min khasheb. 
wool, n. suf p. aswaf. 
word, n. kilmi p. kilmet c.p. kelem ; word for word, 

kilmi bi kilmi; i7i a word, hi kilmi wehdi; al-hasil; 

word of comma?id, amr p. awemir ; to give one's word, 

V. n. bu*id, wa*adt, wu'id (wu'ud) ; to keep ones word, 

V. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz al-w'ad ; to break one's word, 

V. a. biksur, kesert al-w'ad. 
work, n. shighl (shughl); work of art, shighl da"i"; 

hard zvork, shighl sha""; kedd; v. n. bishtighil, 

shtaghalt, shtighil; at work, meshghul; fi shighl. 
workman, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 
workshop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
world, the, n. al-'alam; ad-dunia (ad-diniyi). 
worm, n. dudi p. dud; susi p. sus. 
worvieaten, to be, v. n. (3rd per. bisowwis, sowwas p.p. 

msowwis. 
worry, n. t*ab; "ala"; v. a. bdajjir, dajjert, dajjir. 
worse, a. irda; the worst, al-arda. 
worship, n. 'ibedi. 
worth, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; what is it worth? 

shu biyiswa; "add esh *'imt-uh. 
worthless, ad. bila '*imi. 
worthwhile, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyihriz. 
worthy, a. mustahi*'"; ahl. 
would that, inshallah. 
wound, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha); v. a. bijrah, jeraht, 

jrah p.p. mejruh; to be wounded, binjerah, injeraht. 



302 ARABIC MANUAL. 

woven (stuffs)y n. p. mensujet. 

wrap (up), V. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 

wrapper, n. lefefi p. lefe'if j ghlef (ghlaf). 

wreathy n. iklil p. ekelil. 

wrecked, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinkisir, inkesar. 

wrestle [with], v. n. bsar'i, sar'at, sar'i (m'a). 

wrestling, n. msara'a. 

wretched, a. ta'is; meskin. 

wrinkle, n. j'adi p. j*adet. 

wrinkled, p.p. mja'ad. 

wrist, n. resigh, p. arsegh. 

write, V. a. biktub, katabt, ktub p.p. maktub. 

writer, n. ketib. 

writing, n. kitebi. 

wrong, n. darar p. adrar; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr, p.p. 
madrur ; to be wronged, bindarr, indarrait ; a. mukhti ; 
you are wrong, al-ha'"* 'aleyk; inti mukhti; it is 
wrong, haram; mush jeyiz; this is wrong, haidi ghalat. 



Y. 

yacht, n. yakht. 

yard, n. (conrt) dar p. dur; (measure) zer'; pik (27 inches), 

yarn, n. ghazl. 

yawn (yawning), n. mtewabi; v. n. btewab, tewabt, 
tewab. 

year, n. sini p. snin; *am p. *awam; the new year, sfni 
jdidi; new year's day, ras as-sini ; last year, sint al- 
madi; 'am al-owwel; year by year, sini b'ad sini. 

yearly, a. senewi; ad. senewiyen. 

yeast, n. khamiri. 



VOCABULARY. 303 

yelloWy a. asfar f. safra p. sufr. 

yes, ad. (superior to inferior), ey; ey wah ; (inferior to 

superior, and also more politely) n'am ; ey n'am. 
yesterday, ad. imbereh ; the day before yesterday, owwelt 

imbereh. 
yet, ad. b*ad ; not yet, lissa ma. 
yield, v. n. bikhd'a, khad'at, khd'a; bsellim, sellemt, 

sellim p.p. msellem. 
yoke (for oxen), n. nir p. niyara. 
you, pro. intum ; you (your) pro. suff, kum ; polite form 

of address, hadrat-ak. 
young, a. zghir p. zghar; fiti f. fitiyi; n. [of an animal) 

jeru p. ijriyi; youftg man, shebb p. shibben; young 

woman, sabiyi p. sabaiya. 
yourself, (yourselves), pro. zet-kum. 
youth, n. ftuwa; aiyem as-siba. 



Zanzibar, zenjebar. 

zeal, n. ghiri. 

zealous, a. ghaiyur. 

zenith, n. owj. 

zero, n. sifr. 

zest, n. shehiyi. 

zigzag, a. ma'arwaj. 

zinc, n. tutia. 

zodiac, n. minta*'at al-buruj; signs of the zodiac, aA-huTuj. 

zone, n. mfnta"a. 



PART III. 
DIALOGUES. 



20 



DIALOGUES. 

(THESE SENTENCES ARE IN THE DAMASCUS DIALECT). 



Ordinary phrases. niukalemet. 

Good morning; good night, nahr-ak sa'id; leylt-ak sa'idi. 

(nahr-ak sa'id mbarek). 
How are you? goodbye. keyf hal-ak; khatir-ak (bi 

izn-ak) ; m'as-salemi. 
Excuse me, give me that, la twakhiz-ni, haida il-li *ati- 

it is mine. ni yah. 

I cannot understand you, 'ammel tist'ajil u ma li 'am- 
you speak too fast. m^l i"dir ifham minnak. 

Please repeat what you said, inkan bt'amil m*aruf t'id illi 

"ilt-uh. 
Please speak slowly. *amel m'aruf hki 'ala mahl- 

ak. 
Can you talk English, bt'arif tihki inklizi, fransewi. 

French ? 
Write it down please. ktib-ha 'amel m'aruf. 

What do you mean ? I do shu m'anat-ak, ma li fahman 
not know what you say. shu 'ammel t"ul. 



3o8 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Very well ; thank you. I am 
much obliged to you. 



Never mind, it does not 

matter. 
I am very sorry you are 

going (that you went). 
Please tell me your name. 

Where do you live? 
What o'clock is it? 
When do you leave for 

Damascus? 
Take care driver; go slowly; 

go faster; stop. 

Turn to the right, to the left. 
Go on ; wait here till I return. 
Return for me at 1 1 o'clock 

p. m. 
How far is it? 
Tell him to come and see 

me to-day. 
Tell her not to buy the 

newspaper. 
I told them to tell you that 

I was out. 
Did they tell you to tell 

me that ? 
I told the tailor to make 

me a coat. 



ktir mlih ; kettir khair-ak ; 
ana ktir memnun-ak; (ana 
ghari"t 'a Itaf-ak) lit: I am 
drowned in your kindness, 

ma biseyl. 

ana ktir z'alen 'ala rewah-ak 

(illi ruht). 
btahubb tkellif khatir-ak wa 

t"il-li shu ism-ak. 
weyn (feyn) sekin. 
"add esh as-se'a. 
eymta bidd-ak ttsherrif lish- 

sham. 
dir bel-ak ya 'arabaji; mshi 

'ala mahl-ak (su" shwayi 

shwayi); st'ajil; wa""if. 
'a yemin-ak, 'a shimal-ak. 
su"; ntur hon hatta irj'a. 
rj'a la 'and-i se'a hid'ash 

min 'ashiyi. 
"add esh biyibe'id min hon. 
"ul-luh yiji yishuf-ni al-yom. 

(f.) "uli-la la tishtri aj-jurnel. 

"ilt-il-lum ta y"ulu-lak in-ni 
kintberrat al-beyt (ghaiyib). 
"alu-lak ta t"ul-li heyk. 

"ilit lil-khaiyyat y'amil-li 
saku. 



DIALOGUES. 



309 



She told the groom not to 

ride the horse. 
He said you were going to 

church and not to the 

bazaars. 
I am sorry he has gone 

away. 
I am glad he has come to 

see me. 
I wanted to see you yes- 
terday. 
Tell her to tell the cook 

to cook the meat I gave 

him last night. 

I beat him well because 
he did not come when I 
called him. 

I dismissed my servant be- 
cause he would not do 
what I told him. 

If you do not do what I 
tell you I shall have to 
look for some one else. 

I did not let him go on 
the journey. 

I am very late I must go 
home at once. 

You ought not| to have 
done so without my leave. 

I saw the soldiers coming 
from the barracks. 



"alet lis-sa'is in-nuh ^la yir- 

keb al-hisan. 
"al in-nak raih lil-kenisi 

wa mau lis-su". 

ana z'al^n (zi'ilt) illi rah 

(sefir). 
ana inbasatt illi ija yishuf-ni. 

kint bidd-i ishuf-ak imbereh. 

"ul-la t"ul lil-ashji ta yishwi 
(yitbukh) al-lahm illi 'atait- 
uh yah imbereh min 'as- 
hiyi. 

darabt-uh ktir li kun wa"t 
illi nadaht il-luh ma ija. 

''al'at (shahatt) khiddem-i 

li kun illi "ilt-il-luh yah 

ma kan y'amil-uh. 
iza kint ma bt'amil illi bi"il- 

lak yah bfettish 'ala 

ghair-ak. 
ma khallait-uh yisefir. 

ana t'owwa"t ktir lazim 
ruh 'al-beyt halla". 

ma kan lazim tsawi heyk 
bila izn-i. 

shuft al-'asker jei min al- 
"ishli'\ 



310 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I heard the military band 

playing in the street. 
When I entered the house 

I smelt a disgusting smell. 
As soon as you have finished 

the work I gave you, 

•tell me. 
Directly you arrive go and 

see him. 
I can no longer bear him. 

Close the door which leads 

into the garden. 
I should have been glad to 

have seen you yesterday. 
I hoped you would have 

come last week. 
He was well the last time 

I saw him. 
As soon as he comes send 

him to me. 
I recollected it when it was 

too late. 



sma'at al-'asker 'ammel 
idu" "al-musika fid-derb. 

wa"t illi fitt lil-beyt shem- 
mait riha keriha. 

wa"t illi btkhallis ash-shighl 
illi 'atait-ak yah "il-li. 

owwel ma btusal ruh li 

'and-uh u shuf-uh. 
da" sidr-i min-nuh (min 

ihtimel-uh). 
sekkir al-bab halli biyinfud 

lij-jneyni. 
low kint shuft-ak imbereh 

kint ibkun mabsut. 
t'immelt in-nak kint btiji 

fi jim'at al-madi. 
ekhir marra shuft-uh kan 

taiyib. 
hatta yiji b'at-li yah. 



ftunt fih wa 
al-wa"t. 



lakin mada 



Travelling by train. 

Has the train from Beirut 
arrived ? 

Please tell me when the 
Damascus train arrives. 

It will probably be late to- 
day. 



sefer fil-babor. 
ija al-babor min beyrut. 

'amel m'aruf "il-li eymta 
babor ash-sham byiji. 

al-ghalib al-yom biyit' 
owwa". 



DIALOGUES. 



3" 



When does the train leave 

for Damascus? 
Every morning at / a. m. 

Where is the station master 
I want to speak to him? 
Where is my place? 
How many places do you 



require 



I am alone. 

I want a first-class ticket 

to — . 
I want a second class ticket 

for my servant. 
What luggage will you take 

with you in the carriage ? 
I will take my bag with me 

and you can put the rest 

in the luggage van. 
Please register my luggage. 
Where do we stop for lunch ? 

What is the name of this 

station ? 
Is this your first visit to 

Syria ? 
No, I have been in Beirut 

before but I have never 

visited the Lebanon. 
The view is very fine. 

Where is Mt. Hermon? 



eymta al-babor bisafir lish- 

sham. 
kill yom 'ala bukra se'a 

seb'a "abl ad-dohr. 
feyn mudir al-mhatta bidd-i 

ihki m'a-uh. 
feyn matrah-i. 
kam matrah bidd-ak. 

ana wahd-i. 

bidd-i i"t'a bil-brimo li — . 

bidd-i wara"it sekondo ila 

khadim-i. 
shu m'a-ak hmuli ('afsh). 

m'a-i shanta wa al-ba"i 
btahutt-uh m'a al-'afsh. 

'amel m'aruf sokur-li hmult-i. 
feyn biwa""if al-babor lil- 

ghada. 
shu ism hal-mhatta. 

hai owwel marra jit lis-suria. 

la, ana jit li beyrut "abl 
hal-marra lakin lissa ma 
ruht lil-libnan. 

al manzar hulu (jemil) (be- 
di'a) ktir. 

feyn jebel ash-sheykh. 



312 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



When do we reach Mallaka ? 
We arrive at 12 and leave 
at 12.30. 

Will you go to Baalbek? 

What is the cost of a car- 
riage to Baalbek from the 
station ? 

15 francs; it is too much, 
I will give you 12. 

I will leave my luggage at 
the station. 

How many hours does it 
take to drive to Baalbek ? 

Please drive to the hotel 
Palmyra. 

Take the luggage to my room. 

You have forgotten my box, 
please go and fetch it. 

We will spend the night 
at Baalbek and return 
next day to Mallaka, in 
order to catch the train 
to Damascus. 

The carriage is ready, if 
you want to catch the 
train we must start at 
once (in half an hour). 

Please bring me the bill. 

Can you give me change 
for a lira? 



eymta mnusal lil-m'alla"a. 
mnusal se'a tn'ash franjiyi 

(ad-dohr) wa mnimshi b'ad 

ad-dohr nuss se'a. 
btruh la ba'albek. 
"add esh biakhadu 'al-'ara- 

biyi min al-mhatta la 

ba'albek. 
khamst 'ashar frank ; haida 

ktir ana b'ati-k tn'ash bes. 
ana bitruk hmult-i fil- 

mhatta. 
kam se'a min hon li ba'al- 
bek bil-karrosa. 
'amel m'aruf su li lokanda 

Tidmur. 
khod al-'afsh la udat-i. 
nesit sandu"i ruh dowwir 

'aleyh 'amel m'aruf. 
minnam al-leyli bi ba'albek 

u mnirja teni yom lil- 

m'alla"a hatta nilha" al- 

babor lish-sham. 

al-karrosa hadra inkan bidd- 
ak tilha" at-tren lazim 
mnirkab halla" (b'ad nuss 
se'a). 

'amel m'aruf jib-li "a'imit 
al-hisab. 

bti"dir tisrif li lira. 



DIALOGUES. 



313 



You are too early (too late) bekkirt (t'owwa'*t) ktir 'a 

for the train. at-tren. 

I want a carriage for three bidd'i karrosa tis'a tlet 

persons. ashkhas 

Put the luggage in the car- hutt al-'afsh bil-karrosa, 

riage, be quick. st'ajil. 



Arrival at the hotel. 

Can you tell me which is 

the best hotel? 
I want a sitting-room and 

two bed-rooms. 
What do you charge a day 

for the three rooms? 
Twelve francs a day each 

person, including meals. 

I will dine in my own room. 

Let us have dinner imme- 
diately we want to go to 
bed early. 

Light the fire in the sitting- 
room. 

I want a hot (cold) bath. 

If you take the rooms by 
the month it will be 
cheaper. 

The bed is damp, please 
change the sheets. 



al-wusul lil'lokanda. 

bti"dir tkhabber-ni eni lo- 

kanda ahsan. 
bidd-i matrah lil-isti"bal wa 

matraheyn lil-menami. 
"add' esh bidd-ak *ala hal- 

tlet matarih kuU yom. 
bidd-i itn'ashar frank 'ala 

kuU wahid kuU yom bi 

ma fih al-akl. 
ana bitghadda bi udt-i. 
khalli-na nitghadda "awam 

bidd-na nam bekku*. 

sha'il an-nar bi udat al- 

ma'"ad. 
bidd-i hammam sukhn (be- 

rid). 
arkhas iia kint btakhud 

al-uwad bi shahriyi. 

al-fershi rutbi inkan bt'amil 
m*aruf tghaiyir ash-sha- 
rSshif. 



314 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Call me at five o'clock to- 
morrow morning, we want 

• to visit the bazaars. 

I want another pillow, (an- 
other blanket). 

I want a candle, hot water, 
a towel, a lamp. 

Ring the bell. 

Have you cleaned my boots, 
bring them to me. 



feyyi"ni se'a khamsi 'ala 

bukra bidd-na ruh ndur 

fis-su". 
bidd-i mkhaddi teni (hram 

teni). 
bidd-i sham'a, mai sukhni, 

manshfi, dow. 
di" "aj-jaras. 
lamm'atil-li saramit-i, jib 

li yaha. 



With a dragoman. 
Are you a dragoman? 

What do you charge a day ? 



I charge 6 francs a day. 

Do you recommend this 
man? 

Yes sir, he is honest and 
intelligent. 

I shall remain here a week. 

I want to visit the bazaars, 
the mosques, the town 
walls and to go for a 
drive in the neighbour- 
hood. 

Damascus is divided into 
three quarters, Moslem, 
Christian, and Jewish. 



'trCa at-terjuman. 

terjuman inti (terjuman ha- 

drat-ak). 
"add esh btakhud min-ni 

kuU yom. 
bidd-i kull yom sitti frankat. 
shu bt'arif 'an haz-zalemi, 

nilih. 
n'am ya sid-i hui amin u 

shatir. 
ana bidd-i ib"a hon jim'a. 
bidd-i dur fis-su" wa ruh 

'aj-jawem'i wa shuf as- 

swar wa dur li dura bil 

karrosa hawal al-beled. 

ash-sham ma"sumi li tlet 
harat hara lil-islam wa 
hara lin-nasara wa hara 
lil-yahud. 



DIALOGUES. 



315 



The Christian and Jewish 
quarters are very dirty. 

The streets of Damascus 
are narrow and dark. 

The citadel stands at the 
back of the bazaars. 

The Omeiyad mosque is 
open all day. 

It is approached by a door 
leading out of the book- 
sellers' bazaar. 

In the centre of the court- 
yard is the fountain. 

The mosque has three mi- 
narets. 

The minaret of the bride, 
of Jesus and the western 
minaret. 

We want to climb the 
western minaret, there is 
a fine view from the 
top. 

We will drive to the gates 
of God and we shall see 
the meydan on the way. 

Saladin's tomb is a hand- 
some building near the 
great mosque. 

The Sinanieh has a cele- 
brated minaret. 



harat an-nasara wal-yahud 

wiskha ktir. 
z"a"at ash-sham daiy"a u 

m'atmi. 
al-"ara hakimi bi "afa as- 

swa". 
aj-jem'i al-amwi bidall tul 

an-nahar maftuh. 
biyinfeth luh min al-bab 

illi bitull 'ala su" bey'an 

al-kutub. 
bi wast ad-dar an-nofara. 

aj-jem'i fih tlet mawadin. 

al-wahdi ism-ha mednit al- 
'arus wa at-teniyi mednit 
'isa wa at-telti al-medni 
al-gharbiyi. 

bidd-na nitl'a lil-medni al- 
gharbiyi fi min fo" man- 
zar zarif ktir. 

bidd-na nitl'a bil-karrosa li 
bawwabt allah wa mnit- 
ferraj bi derb-na 'al al- 
midan. 

fi "abr zarif li salah ad-din 
"iddam aj-j^m*i al-amwi. 

fi medni mesh-hura bij-j^mi 
as-sinaniyi. 



3i6 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



The Khan Asad Pasha de- 
serves a visit. 

What is that building, hill, 
street, house? 

You must be here at 8 to- 
morrow morning. 

Very good, sir, I will be 
punctual. 

Where is the silversmiths', 
saddlers' sweet, shoe-ma- 
kers' bazaar? 

Where is the straight street? 

Is this the way to the eastern 
gate? 

The lepers' hospital is out- 
side the eastern gate. 

Where is the English hos- 
pital ? 

On the Aleppo road. 

N.B. (Kassa\ the name of 
a fountain on this road). 

Please take me to the Brit- 
ish Consulate, the railway 
station, the post-office, 
the telegraph-office. 

Is there an English church 

here? 
Can you tell me where the 

doctor lives? 



khan as'ad basha biyistihi" " 

al-firji. 
shu hal-'amara, hat-tell, haz- 

z"a", hal-beyt. 
bukra 'ala bukra se'a tme- 

niyi franjiyi lazim tkun 

hon. 
'ala ras-i ya sidi bukra se'a 

tmeniyi tamam bkun 

'and-ak. 
feyn su" as-siyagh, assrujiyi, 

su "al-halawiyat, al-kin- 

derjiyi. 
feyn z"a" al-musta"im. 
biyinrah min hon li bab 

ash-shar"i. 
khastakhanit al-ma'atalin 

berrat bab ash-shar"i. 
feyn khastakhanit al-inkli- 

ziyi. 
'ala tari" al-"assa'. 



bitrajja-k in-nak takhud-ni 
ila kunslato al-inkliz, lil- 
mhatta at-tren (as-sikki), 
lil-bosta, la mahall at- 
tilaghraf. 

fi honi kenisi inkliziyi. 

bt'arif feyn beyt al-hakim. 



DIALOGUES. 



317 



Whose house is this? 
Knock at the door, go in. 
Go straight up the hill. 
The Russian Consulate is 
outside the town. 



li min hal-beyt. 
du""al-bab u fut (tfaddal). 
tl'a dughri il al-jebel. 
kunslato Rusiya hakimi ber- 
rat al-beled. 



Post- and Telegraph-office, 



Bosta zua mahall at- 
tilaghraf. 



When does the post leave 

for England? 
The post leaves daily for 

Beirut. 
Letters reach England in 

about ten days. 

When does the English 

mail arrive. 
Once a week. 
Please register this letter 

and give me a receipt. 
Give me twelve 20 para 

stamps (i piastre stamps) 

and five 2 piastre stamps. 

Take these letters to the 
post and stamp them. 

Ask whether the post has 
arrived. 

Are there any letters for 
me? 



eymta al-bosta bitsafir li 

Inkilterra. 
kull yom f i bosta ila beyuit. 

al-mektub bidd-uh hikaiyit 
'ashert iyam hatta yusal 
li Inkilterra. 

eymta bitusal bostat al- 
inkliz. 

kull jum'a marra. 

kellif khatir-ak sokur li hal- 
mektub wa 'at-ni f ih wasl. 

'ati-ni itn'ashar buli min 
shiyat al-"emeri (min shi- 
yat al-"irsh) wa khamsi 
min bta'at "irsheyn. 

khud hal-meketib 'al-bosta 
wa hutt 'aleyhum al-bul. 

s'el li izakan fjit al-bosta. 

fi il-li shi meketib. 



3i8 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Please send this telegram 

to Beirut. 
Can I telegraph in English ? 
What is the cost per word ? 



di""iMi dakhl-ak hat-tila- 

ghraf li beyrut. 
be"dir du" "-uh bil-inklizi. 
"add esh bitkellif al-kilmi. 



Presenting a letter of 
introduction. 

Is it far to the house of 

Mr so and so? 
No sir, it will take three 

minutes in a carriage. 
Drive to Mrs so and so's 

house. 
Go and fetch a carriage, 

choose a good one. 
Close the carriage, it is cold. 

Open the carriage, it is hot. 
Is Mr so and so (Mrs so 
and so) at home? 

No sir, he is out. 
When will he return? 
Not before dinner (mid-day). 
Give him this letter and 

my card and tell him I 

will call to-morrow at 

lo a. m. 
Tell him I was sorry to 

find him out {that I could 

not meet him). 



ta'dim mektub tbsiyi, 
be'id beyt al-khowaja fulan. 

la ya sid-i bidd-uh tlet 

da"ayi" bil-karrosa. 
khud-ni li beyt as-sitt fulani. 

ruh jib karrosa wa na" "i-ha 

tkun mliha. 
sekkir al-karrosa ad-diniyi 

berd. 
ftah al-karrosa fi shob. 
al-khowaja fulan biyilta"a 

fi beyt-uh (as-sitt fulani 

bitilta"a fil-beyt. 
la tili'a ila berra (ghaiyib). 
eymta byirj'a. 
ma byirj'a lid-dohr. 
'ati-h hal-mektub wa hal- 

kart u "il-luh bukra se'a 

'ashra franjiyi bitsherrif 

li 'and-uh. 
khabber-uh in-ni tkeddert 

illi ma "edirt ijtim'a fih. 



DIALOGUES. 



319 



Very good. 

Please give him this letter 
and ask if he will see me. 

How long have you been 

here? 
I arrived the day before 

yesterday ? 
How do you like Damascus ? 
It is a very interesting town. 
It is very dusty and very 

hot. 
How long do you propose 

to remain here? 
I want to make a journey 

to Palmyra. 
Is it possible to drive the 

whole way in a carriage ? 
It will take you five days. 
You should also visit Mt. 

Hermon. 
It will not take you more 

than three days. 
You should see th^ sunrise 

or sunset from the top 

of the mountain. 
There are some pleasant 

drives in the neighbour- 
hood to Dummar, Sal- 

hiyeh and elsewhere^ 

Damascus is not an unheal- 



taiyib (mlih). 

'amel m'aruf 'ati-h hal mek- 

tub wa shuf inkan be"dir 

shuf-uh. 
sar lak zeman jit (eymta 

sherraft. 
sar li yomeyn (tsherrafna 

min owwelt imbereh). 
inshallah habbeyt ash-sham, 
ash-sham beled muhimmi. 
wiskha ktir u harra ktir. 

"add esh fikr-ak tduU hon. 

bi fikr-i safir la Tidmur. 

bitisal al-karrosa la honik 
(f i derb karrosa la honik). 

bidd-ak khamsit lyam. 

daruri in-nak truh li jebel 
ash-sheykh. 

bi tlet iyam btusal ila honik. 

lazim in-nak tshuf ash-shems 
keyf bititl'a wa keyf bit- 
ghib min ras aj-jebel. 

fi matarih zarifi bi "urb 
ash-sham li shemm al- 
hawa mitl dummar was- 
salhiyi wa ghair-uh ghai- 
rat-uh. 

hawa ash-sham bis-seyf mau 



320 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



thy place in summer 
though it is rather hot. 



Most of the foreign resi- 
dents spend the summer 
at Bludan or in the Le- 
banon. 



'atil lakin-ha mishubi (ma 
an-nuh ash-sham fi-ha 
shob bis-seyf hawa-ha mau 
redi). 
aktar al-ajanib biruhu bis- 
seyf ya la bludan yimma 
la libnan. 



Visit to a curiosity shop. ziyara li makhzen al-anttkat. 



I want to purchase a few 
souvenirs of Damascus. 

Look and see what you 
would like, we have car- 
pets, brasswork, silver 
work and inlaid mother- 
of-pearl work. 

You can find some fine 
tiles and silk embroide- 
ries here. 

I want a carved table and 
a few brass trays and 
bowls. 

Please show me a brass 
bowl inlaid with silver. 

This is a very fine one, 
the engraving is well done, 
it has an inscription from 
the Koran. 



bidd-i akhud li kam shaghli 
min ash-sham hatta tib"a 
m'a-i mitl tezkar. 

fi 'and-na sijjad wa nahas 
men'*ush wa *and-na ash- 
ghal fudda u shughl ti- 
ta'im shuf shu bturid. 

biyilta"a fish-sham "ishani 
'aal u shughl titriz (harir 
mtarraz) mu'eteber. 

bidd-i towli meshghuli wa 
kam s^niyi nahas wa kam 
tasi ghma". 

'amel m'aruffarrji-ni(arji-ni) 
tasi nahas meshghul 'aley- 
ha fudda. 

hai 'aal wa na"sh-ha zarif 
wa mahfur 'aleyha kitebi 
min al-kuran ash-sherif. 



DIALOGUES. 



321 



This work is more expen- 
sive than the ordinary 
brass work. 

Most of the brass work is 
done by the Jews. 

The best trays are sent to 
Egypt. 

Tourists prefer to buy cheap 
articles and these are 
made here specially for 
them. 

If you want better work I 
can have it made for you 
but it will cost more. 

Make me a folding tea table 
and a brass tray. 

Can I see it being made ? 

If you will come to my 
workshop to-morrow af- 
ternoon you will see the 
tray being made. 

We first cast the brass in 
a mould and, when the 
bowl is made, we fill it 
with pitch; the design is 
then drawn on the out- 
side and carved with a 
sharp instrument, and 
beaten ont with a ham- 
mer and a nail. 



ash-shughl haida bikellif ak- 

tar min shughl an-nahas 

al-'aadi. 
aktar shughl an-nahas bi- 

sow-uh al-yahud. 
as-sawani al-mliha (al-ahsan 

ma yakun) biyib'atu-ha la 

masr. 
as-suwwah byifaddlu shrai- 

yit al-bda'a ar-rkhisa wa 

hai m'amuli minshan-hum 

makhsus. 
izakan bidd-ak shi mlih ana 

b'amil lak lakin bikellif 

aktar. 
'amil li towlit shay bitun- 

tuwi wa seniyi nahas. 
be"dir shuf-ha u hiyi 'am- 

mel tinshighil. 
iza jit bukra b'ad ad-dohr 

lid-dukken titferrij 'ala 

shughl as-seniyi. 

bil-owwel minsubb an-nahas 
bil-"elib b'adeyn wa"t illi 
bisir tasi mintelli-ha zift 
b'adeyn mniktub 'aleyha 
kitebi min berra wa min- 
"ush 'aleyha bi ali haddi 
tkun wa mnihfur 'aleyha 
bil-matra"a u mismar. 



31 



322 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I want a frame inlaid with 
mother-of-pearl and a 
small table. 

What does this carved chair 
cost? 



bidd-i birwaz 
skemli. 



mta'am u 



*add esh 
bikellif. 



al-kursi al-hafir 



Residence with a family. 

I want to find a family with 
whom I can pass the 
winter in order to learn 
Arabic. 

Do you want merely to 
have rooms in the house 
or will you take your 
meals with the family? 

I want to reside among 
them and have my meals 
with them, so that I can 
hear them talk and learn 
the spoken Arabic. 

It is not the custom here 
to receive strangers, our 
habits are very different 
to yours; it will not be 
comfortable for you. 

It is the only way to learn 
Arabic quickly. 

How am I to find a family ? 

I will enquire among my 
friends with pleasure but 
I fear it will be difficult. 



al-ma'ishi ma ''aVeli, 

bidd-i la""i li 'ai'eli iskun 
m'a-ha shitwiyi hatta t'al- 
1am 'arabi. 

bidd-ak bes tiskun yimma 
bidd-ak kaman takul m'a- 
ha. 

bidd-i iskun u akul m'a-hum 
hatta ism'a-hum keyf by- 
uhku wa t'allam al-'arabi 
ad-derij. 

ma fi 'adi *and-na in-na 
ni"bel al-ghurb 'awa'id-na 
ma mitl 'awa'id-kum ma 
tinbusit. 

ma fi ghair hat-tari" hatta 
t'allam 'arabi "awam. 

kif bidd-i la""i 'ai'eH. 

ana bi kull ferah bis'el lak 
sahab-i lakin bzunn in-nuh 
s'ab. 



DIALOGUES. 



323 



I think I know of a house bzunn in-ni b'arif beyt bi- 

which will suit you, we wafi"-ak minruh al-yom 

will call there together b'ad ad-dohr sawa wa 

this afternoon. minzur-uh. 



Interview with the head 
of a family. 

Do you understand what I 
require ? 

I have taken a house which 
is too large for my fa- 
mily, and I can let you 
have two rooms. 

Can I have my meals with 
you? 

Yes, if you are able to eat 
our Arab dishes, you are 
welcome (there is no ob- 
jection). 

I do not mind anything as 
long as the house is clean. 

We have dinner at noon 
and supper at sun-set, 
and you can have coffee 
or anything else you re- 
quire in the morning. 

Those hours suit me very 
well ; what are your terms 
for the month? 

I cannot take less than 200 
francs a month and I shall 



m^'*abeli nCa raiyis al-ai'eli, 
fahman hadrat-akshu bidd-i. 

akhadt beyt kbir 'ala 'ai- 
'ilt-i wa be"dir bistaghni 
lak 'an udateyn. 



be"dir bekol u bishrab 

m*a-ak. 
iza bti"dir tekol min ekel- 

na ahla u sahla (ma fih 

man'i). 

shi li bihimm-ni in-nuh ye- 
kun al-beyt ndif. 

mnitghadda ad-dohr wa 
mnit'ashshaal-mughrib wa 
izakan bturid "ahwi ow 
shi ghair-uh 'ala bukra 
minhaddir lak. 

al-wa"t 'aal "add esh btu- 
rid ash-shehr. 

ma be"dir bakhud a"^l min 
miteyn frank kuU shehr 



324 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



gain very little (lit: I shall 
be treating you liberally). 

I shall probably remain with 
you three months. 

I should like to come to 
you to-morrow, will every- 
thing be ready? 



wa bkun ra'it-ak ktir. 

al-ghalib bu" 'ud 'and-ak 

tlet ish-hur. 
iza jit li 'and-ak bukra bi- 

kun kull shi hadir. 



Visit to a barber. 
Cut my hair; cut it short. 

Do not cut it very short. 
Leave it long in front and 
cut it short at the sides. 

Give me a brush and a comb. 
Be careful not to cut me. 
Do not put any pomade 

on my hair. 
Wash my head. 
Dry it well or I shall catch 

cold. 
Shave me. 
Give me some hot water, 

soap and a razor and I 

wil shave myself. 
Your razor is blunt, give 

me another. 
Sharpen this razor for me. 



^and al-halla'\ 

"uss il-li sh'ar-i; bidd-i-ha 

zghir. 
la tzaghghur-uh ktir. 
khalli li yah min "iddam 

tawil wa min 'al aj-jenab 

zaghgher-uh. 
'ati-ni firshaiyi u musht. 
dir bel-ak tijrah-ni. 
ma bidd-i rihataiyibi (dhun). 

ghassil li ras-i. 
neshshif-uh taiyib ahsan ma 

reshshih. 
hh"li. 
'ati-ni shwayit mai sukhni 

u sabuni u mus u ana 

behli" la hal-i. 
mus-ak mau madi (hadd) 

'ati-ni ghair-uh. 
sinn il-li hal-mus. 



DIALOGUES. 



325 



In the cafe. 



fil'^ahwi. 



Give me a cup of coffee. 

Do you want it with or 
without sugar? 

I prefer Turkish coffee with- 
out sugar. 

How much is it? 

Boy, bring me a few sweet- 
meats, a glass of water 
and the chess-board. 

Bring me a narghileh. 

I should Hke aglassofarak 
and a few pistachio nuts. 

Buy me a box of cigarettes, 
third quality, and give 
me a box of matches. 

Have you a newspaper? 

The Suria is printed in 
Turkish and Arabic and 
contains all the official 
news. 

I am tired and want to 
return to the hotel, fetch 
me a carriage. 



'ati-ni finjan "ahwi. 

bturid-ha hilwi yimma 
murra. 

bhubb-ha 'osmalliyi bela sik- 
ker. 

"add esh bturid. 

ya walad yib li shwayit hulu 
u kasit mai u hat as-sa- 
taranj. 

bidd-i nefes (arkili). 

bidd-i "adah 'ara" wa shwa- 
yit fistu" (maza). 

shtri li *elbit sikarat nii- 
mero tleti wa *ati-ni 'elbit 
shahat. 

fi m'a-ak jeridi. 

jeridit suria bitintib'i bit- 
turki wal-'arabi wa fiha 
kuU al-akhbar ar-resmiyi. 

sirt t'aben u bidd-i irj'a 'al 
al-lokanda jib li karrosa. 



The washerwoman. 

How soon can you let me 
have my linen back? 



al'ghasseli. 

eymta btrijj'a li (awa'i) al- 
baiyad. 



326 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I cannot send the shirts be- 
fore Thursday, sir, the 
other things you can have 
tomorrow. 
Very good, but you must 
promise to send them all 
on Thursday evening. 
Here is a list of my things : 
8 shirts. 
7 collars. 
3 pairs of socks. 
12 pocket-handkerchiefs. 
2 pairs of drawers. 
2 undervests. 
6 white ties. 
You must put plenty of 
starch in the shirt fronts. 
(I like the shirts well 
starched). 
How much do you charge? 

20 paras a piece for every- 
thing. 

Dont leave my flannels to 
soak in the water it ma- 
kes them shrink. 

Wash them quickly and 
hang them out to dry. 

Don't put soda in the water. 



ma be"dir b'at lak al-"um- 
san "abl al-khamis wa 
ba"iyit al-awa'i bib'at lak 
yahum bukra. 
ktir mlih lakin bidd-ak tu- 
'id-ni in-nak tib'at-hum 
kull-hum khamis 'ashiyi. 
u hai "a'imit ighrad-i. 
tmen "umsan. 
seb'a "abbat. 
tlet ijwaz jrabet. 
itn'ashar mahremi. 
kalsoneyn. 
"amiseyn 'adi. 
sitt "amtat ra"bi. 
neshshi li al-"umsan ktir 
(bhubb al-*'umsan yekun 
nisha-hum ktir). 

"add esh bturid ijra (shu 
btakhud 'aleyhum). 

bidd-i eshrin misriyi 'ala 
kull "ut'a. 

la tkhalli al-flanella tghubb 
mai ktir ahsan ma tdubb. 

ghassil-hum "awam wa 
nshiir-hum hatta yinshufu. 
la tahutt "ili fil-mai. 



DIALOGUES. 



327 



At the shoemaker's. 



'and al-kinderji. 



Please make me a pair of 
shoes. 

Take my measure. 

These shoes are too tight, 
they hurt my feet. 

Do you want them made 
of black or brown leather ? 

Will you have them to but- 
ton, lace or elastic sides? 

I want high (low) heels and 

thick (thin) soles. 
This pair of boots wants 

mending. 
The soles (heels) are worn 

out. 
Put on a new sole. 
There are nails sticking up, 

knock them down. 
I want a pair of boot-laces 

and a pair of slippers. 



'amel m'aruf 'ami'l li sir- 

maiyi. 
khod "iyas rijl-i. 
hal-kundura daiy"a bituj'a 

li rijl-i. 
shu bturid yekun lon-ha 

soda ow safra. 
bturid sawi lak yaha bi zrar 

ow bi shrit ow bturid-ha 

mugheyt. 
bidd-i k'ab-ha 'aali (wati) 

wa n'al smik (khafif). 
hal-kundura bidd-a taslih. 

n'al-a (k'ab-a) mihtiri. 

hutt il-la n'al jdid. 

fi mesamir nab "a du""hum. 

bid-di joz shraiyit lil-kun- 
dura wa shahata. 



At the stationer s. 



'and bey' a al wara'*. 



Have you writing paper, 
pens, envelopes, blotting- 
paper, pencils, indiarubber 
and ink? 



'and-ak wara" kitabi wa 
"ilam wa mughallifat wa 
wara*' neshshaf wa "ilam 
resas wa mahaiyi wa hibr. 



328 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



What size writing paper do 
you require ? 

Show me what you have 
and I will choose. 

I want some larger (smaller) 
paper than this and some 
envelopes to match. 

I will take this, please wrap 
it up in paper for me. 

Is there anything else you 
want? 

Yes, I want some red seal- 
ing wax and some reed 
pens and Turkish ink. 

In Turkey they use sand 
instead of blotting-paper. 

I want a pocket-book and 

an account- book. 
Have you an almanac? 
Where shall I send the 

parcel ? 



al-wara" "add esh bidd-ak 

yekun "add-uh. 
arji-ni illi 'and-ak wa ana 

bna" "i. 
bidd-i wara" akbar (azghar) 

min haida wa mughallifat 

*ala "add-um. 
bidd-i hai liff il-li yaha 

kellif khatir-ak. 
bturid shi ghair-uh. 

eywah bidd-i sham'a ahmar 

u "ilam 'arabi wa hibr 

as wad. 
fi belad al-'osmalli bista'- 

melu rami bedel wara'* 

an-neshshaf. 
bidd-i jizdan byinhatt bij- 

jeybi wa defter hisab. 
'and-ak riznami. 
liweyn akhud ar-rizmi (al- 

hizmi). 



Travelling, 

I want a good dragoman 

who knows the road to 

Palmyra. 

This man is honest and 

his charges are moderate. 



as-sefer. 

bidd-i terjuman mlih illi 
biy'arif at-tari" la Tidmur. 

haz-zalemi amin (hal-insan 
taiyib) mau tamma'a. 



What is our best way of mneyn ahsan nruh la Tfd- 
going to Palmyra? mur. 



DIALOGUES. 



329 



How much will it cost, we 
are a party of four? 

You can drive or ride as 
you like. 

It is better to take tents 
with you. 

You should apply to the 
Governor for gendarmes, 
two will be sufficient. 

I am ready to provide hor- 
ses, food and tents for 
all the party. 

We will start as soon as 
you have made all ar- 
rangements. 

The journey will take four 
days. We shall spend the 
first night at Jerud, the 
second at Karyateyn, the 
third at Khan al-lebn and 
reach Palmyra on the 
evening of the fourth day. 

We must ride faster or it 
will be dark before we 
reach the place where we 
are to sleep. 

The horses are tired we 
cannot galop. 

This is where we are to 
spend the night. 



nahna arb'a shu bidd-na 

masruf. 
btahubb truh khaiyal wa 

in habbeyt btruh bil-kar- 

rosa (bil-'arabaiyi). 
al-ahsan takhud m'a-ak khi- 

yam. 
al-ahsan in-nak tutlub min 

al-wali in-nuh y'ati-k zab- 

tiyi itneyn zabtiyi bikef- 

fi-k. 
wa ana hadir in-ni "addim 

li kull aj-jema'a al-kheyl 

wa al-akl m'a al-khiyam. 
metama waddabt kull shi 

mnimshi. 

bidd-na arb'at iyam hatta 
nisal minnam owwel leyli 
fi jerud wa at-teni leyli 
bil-'uriateyn telit leyli bi 
khan al-lebn wa rab'i yom 
al-masa mnisal la Tidmur. 

ahsan in-na nist'ajil '*abl 
ma tmessi ad-diniyi wa 
ma nla" "i matrah an-nam 
fih. 

al-kheyl t'abit ma mn^"dir 
ntarid. 

hon bidd-na ninzel (nhow- 
wil). 



330 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Put the horses in the stable 
and see that they are pro- 
perly fed and attended to. 

Have you a clean room? 

This is the largest room I 
have but it has no beds. 

We dont want beds, we 
have them with us. 

We are hungry, will you 
prepare us some dinner? 

I can give you a chicken 
and some rice. 

The meat is not cooked 
enough, cook it a little 
more. 

Send me the dragoman as 
soon as he returns. 

There is a great draught, 
block up the windows 
and light the fire. 

Put my bed in this cor- 
ner, the dragoman will 
sleep outside. 

We will start at sun-rise 
tomorrow, see that the 
horses are ready. 

We will have some coffee 
and boiled eggs before 
starting. 

Give a present to the owner 
of the house, he has been 
very obliging. 



hutt al-kheyl fil-yakhur u 
lahiz akl-un u tutmir-un. 

'and-ak uda ndifi. 

hai akbar uwad illi 'and-i 

lakin ma fi-ha firshat. 
ma bidd-na firshat 'and-na. 

je'na bthaddir-na al-ghada. 

bwaddib lak ferruj m'a 

shwayit riz. 
al-lahmi ma-i mistwiyi sat- 

wi-ha shwayit al-ukhr. 

wa*'t il byiji at-terjuman 

b'at li yah. 
fi hawa ktir sidd ash-she- 

bebik wa sha'il an-nar. 

hutt il-li fersht-i bi hal-"urni 
at-terjuman binam berra. 

bukra tlu'a ash-shems bidd- 
na nimshi shuf inkan ad- 
dawab hadra. 

bidd-na "ahwi u beyd mas- 
lu" "abl ma nsafir. 

sahib al-beyt kan.ktir latif 
m'a-na 'ati-h ikramiyi. 



DIALOGUES. 



331 



Saddle the horses. 

Tighten (loosen) the girths. 
This bridle is too small 

change it. 
Does this horse trip at all, 

is he fast, quiet, lame? 
The horse has lost a shoe 

have him shod. 
I will hold the horse while 

you load the mules. 
Make haste and pack up 

the things, we are late. 
Can we cross the river here ? 
Yes, it is not deep and the 

bridge is some way off. 
Call me the headman of 

the village. 
Can you send a man to 

guide us? 
How far is it to Nebk? 

How many hours shall we 
take to reach Karyateyn 
on horseback? 

The road is very steep, 
narrow and stony. 



wallif 'al al-kheyl ('al ad- 

dawab). 
shidd (hill) al-hizemet. 
hal-ljam zghir bdil-uh. 

hal-hisan byisk'a shi, rak- 

kid, hadi, 'araj. 
al-hisan hafian min rijl-uh 

al-wahd-i beytir-ha. 
ana bimsik al-hisan wa inti 

hammil al-bghal. 
st'ajil wa dubb al-ighrad 

t'owwa"na. 
mne"dirnu"t'a an-nahr hon. 
n*am mau ghami" wa aj- 

jisr be'id. 
*aiyit li (ndah li) 'ala sheyk 

ad-dey'a. 
bte'*dir tib'at m'a-na delil. 

"add esh tib'ed an-neb" 

min hon. 
kam sa'a bidd-na Hl-"uria- 

teyn 'al-kheyl. 

at-tari" sair daiyi" u wa'ir 
u kull-uh tlu'a. 



Shooting, 

Which way does the wind 
lie? 



aS'Seyd. 

mneyn j^i al-hSlwa (al-h5wa 
keyf hakim). 



332 ARABIC MANUAL. 

It is in the North, which al-hawa shimali 'aal 'a as- 

is excellent for sport. seyd. 

It is in the South, the birds al-hawa jenubi wa at-tuyur 

will now be up in the halla" bitilta"a bij-jebel 

mountains, there will be wa as-seyd 'abes. 

no sport. 

Have you got my cartrid- m'a-ak feshekat-i. 

ges? 

Have you loaded the gun ? dakkeyt aj-jift. aj-jift musli. 

the gun is cocked. 

Fetch the dogs. jib al-klab. 

There is a bird on your fi teyr 'a yemin-ak (min 'a 

right (left). I have hit it. shimal-ak). subt-uh. 

I have wounded it. jeraht-uh. 

There is a covey of par- fi ruff hijal bi ras aj-jebel. 

tridges on the top of the 

hill. 

Do you see where they shaiyif-un feyn rahu. 

went? 

They have gone over the rahu min fo" al-wadi. 

valley. 

Look out, there is a pig tall'a beyn al-'alley'* fi 

in the bushes. khanzir. 

Keep the dogs back, dont khalli al-klab wara-na la 

make a noise. tdowwij. 

There he is. Here he is. leyk-uh honik. shahowki-h 

hon. 

Come along. He is wounded mshi ley-na, injerah ma 

he cannot get away. byi"dir yuhrub. 

Give me my knife, cut it's 'ati-ni mus-i, dbah-uh. 

throat. 

All right, I am ready. taiyib ana hadir. 



DIALOGUES. 



333 



How many woodcock did 

you get? 
It was too warm, we could 

get no woodcock, we got 

five quail, a hare and 

three duck. 
We saw a bear but we 

could not get near enough 

to him. 
There are ibex in these hills. 
Take your rifle with you 

in case we see any big 

game. 
They say there are gazelle 

in the neighbourhood. 
Is there any game in that 

plain ? 
The wood is full of game. 
Take the bag back to the 

tent and prepare dinner, 

we shall be back in a 

quarter of an hour. 
I want to cross over to the 

other side of the stream. 
Walk down the mountain 

slowly. 
There is a good spring of 

water at the bottom. 
The water is icy cold (chil- 
ly) wait till the sun gets 

on it before you water 

the horses. 



kam djajit al-ard jibit. 

kan shob ktir ma "edirna 
njib djaj ard, jibna khamsi 
firraiyat arnab u tlet battat. 

shufna dubb lakin ma "edir- 
na n"arrib la nah-uh. 

fi bi hal-jibal wa'al. 

jib m'a-ak barudt-ak mshesh- 

khani berki shufna wu- 

hush kbar. 
bi"ulu in-nuh fi han-nawahi 

fi ghuzlan. 
fi seyd bi haidak as-sahil. 

fi seyd ktir fi hirsh. 
khod al-kis lil-kheymi wa 

haddir al-ghada wa b'ad 

rub'a sa'a mnirj'a. 

bidd-i u"t'a li haidak aj- 

jeneb min an-nahr. 
inzel min aj-jebel 'ala 

mahl-ak. 
fi bi k'ab-uh neb'a mu'e- 

teber ('aal). 
al-mai mjeldi (msa" 'a) la 

tis"i ad-dawab "abl ma 

tutl'a ash-shems. 



ERRATA. 



Page 13, line 3, 'atshen 

58, „ 23, hid'ash 

58, ^ 26, wehid J 

97, y, I, fow "al-hadd „ 

97, „ 2, fow "al-"iyes „ 

„ 100, „ 7, haniiyit 

^ 103, ^ 21, irwet 

104, ^ 2, uda „ 

„ 104, ^ 10, d 

„ 107, ^ 29, instinbat ^ 

^ 233, „ 16, telmizp.telemiz„ 

^ 245, y, 23, serur 

„ 317, , 18, 'at-ni , 



should be 'atshen. 
„ hid'ash. 



„ wehid. 

„ fow" al-hadd. 

„ fow" al-"iyes. 

„ haniyit. 

„ 'irwet. 

ff uda. 

. P- 

„ istinbat. 

„telmizp. telemiz. 

„ serwi. 

„ 'ati-ni. 



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The Same. Part II : First Half of Glossary. 4to, pp. 112. 

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Anne, Countess of Winchilsea, The Poems of. Edited from the 

Original Edition of 1713 and from Unjjublishcd Manuscripts, with an 
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436. 1 5J. net. 

Aston (W. G.).— Grammar of the Japanese Written Language. 

Third Kditi«)n. Revised and Corrected. 8vo, pp. 198, Ixxiv, 1905, cloth. 
\2s. net. [Luzac's Oriental (Irammars Series, V.] 

Aston (W. G.). — Grammar of the Japanese Spoken Language. 

I'ourth IMition. 8vo, ])p. 212, cloth. 7.?. bJ. net. 

'Awfi Muhammad. -The Lubdbu'l-Albab. Part II. Edited in 

the Original Persian, with Preface, Indices, and Variants. Hy P^nwARD G. 
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[Persian Historical Series, \'ol. II.] 

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works of men of whom \\r should otherwise know little or nothing." — S/kctator. 

Bana^s Harsa Carita. — An Historical Work, translated from the 

.Sanskrit, by li. 11. <<'\vk1! nnd I'. W Tmomvs. Svo, pp. \iv, 284, 
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Sana's Kadambari. — Ir.mslaliHl, with (Occasional Omissions, with 
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Bartholomaei (J.).— Lettres Numismatiques et Archeologiques, 

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Bastian (A.). .<« • Satvdtpatti and Buddhistic Essays. 

Beal (Eev. S.).— Two Papers. Reprint. 8vo, pp. 88. \s. 
L Brief Kemarka on lome Japanese Titles. 
JL Account of the Sbui Lui, or Infernal Machint. 



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Belleli (L.).— Un Nouvel Apocryphe. Etude sur un Fragment de 

Manuscrit du Vieux Caire. Roy. 8vo, pp. 23. 2s. 6d. net. 

Belleli (L.).— Greek and Italian Dialects, as spoken by the Jews in 

some places of the I>alUan Peninsula. Ue]uint, Svo, pp. 8. is. net. 

Bemmelen (T. F. van) and Hooyer (G. B.).— Guide to the Dutch 

East Indies. Composed Wy invitation of the Royal Steam Packet Company. 
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Beveridsre (A. S.).— The History of Humayun. By Gul-Baden 

Begam (Princess Rose-Hody). Translatetl, with Introduction, Notes, 
Illustrations, and Biographical Appendix ; and reproduced in the Persian 
from the only known manuscript of the British Museum, by A. S. 
Beveridgf.. Svo ; pp. xiv, 332, and 96 pages of Persian text, with 
10 Plates ; cloth, los. net. 

Bezold (Ch.).— Oriental Diplomacy : being the transliterated Text 

of the Cuneiform Despatches Ijetween the King of Egypt and Western A.sia 

in the Fifteenth Century before Christ, discovered at Tell el Amarna, and now 

preserved in the British Museum. With full Vocabulary, Grammatical 

Notes, etc., by Charles Bezold. Post Svo, pp. xliv, 124, cloth, i8j.net. 

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he has done his work well."— The Academy. 

" Die in dem Hauptvverke (The Tell el Amarna Tablets in the British Museun> 
with autotype Facsimiles, etc ) vermisste Transcription des Keilschrift-textes dcr 
Tafeln, sowie ein sehr ausfiihrliches. mitunter die Vollstiindigkeit einer Concordanz 
erreichendes \'ocabu!ary biciet die Oriental Diplomacy von C. Bezold, das eben 
deshalb gewisserniassen als Schlttssel zu dem I^ublicalionswerke betrachtet werden 
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Bhag-avad-Gita. — The Book of Devotion. Dialogue between 

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W. Ci. Jui)(;k. .Small bvo, pp. 133, limp leather, y. 6r/. net. 

Biblia. A IMontlily Journal of Oriental Research in Archoeology, 
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etc. V^ol. xviii in progress. Annual subscription, 5^. net. 

Biblical World (The). Edited by William R. Harper. 

Published monthly. \'ol. xxvi in progress. Annual sul>scription, includini:j 

postage, I2.f. 
" The Biblical World makes a faithful record and helpful critic of present Biblical 
work, as well as an efHcient. practical, and positive independent force in stimulating 
and instnicting the student, preacher, and teacher." 

Bibliographical List of Books on Africa and the East. Ptiblished 

in England. 2 vols. Vol. I : Containing the Books published between the- 
Meetings of the Eij^'hth Oriental Congress at Stockholm in 1889 and the 
Ninth Congress in London in 1892. Vol. II : Containing the Books 
published between the Meetings of the Ninth Oriental Congress in Londtm 
in 1892 and the Tenth Oriental Congress at Geneva in 1894. Systematically 
arranged, with Preface and Author's Index, by C. C. LuzAC. l2mo. Each 

vol. I.e. 

De Boer (Dr.T J.).— The History of Philosophy in Islam. Translated, 

with the sanction of the Author, by E. R. Jones, B.D. Roy. 8vo, pp. 216, 

cloth, -f. dd. net. [Luzac's Oriental Religions Series, A'ol. II.] 

" It is, we believe, the most useful work of its kind that has ever yet appeared in 

our langfuagc, and it will undoubtedly be fountl to be of the greatest possible value tc» 

missionaries, historians, and all students of subjects relating to the Arabians of suIj- 

Islamic times." — Asiatic Quartcrlv Rcvieiv. 



Complete List of Books and Heriodicals. 7 

Bbhtlingk (0.). — Sanskrit Chrestomathie. Zweite, ganzlich 

uingearlx;itete Aurtage, Roy. Svo, jip. i, 372. 4^. (xi. net. 

Bdhtlingk (0.) and R. Roth.— Sanskrit Worterbuch, herausgegeben 

von (Icr Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaflen, Si. Petersburg. 
7 parts, 4to. £,% its. dd. net. 

The Same. Smaller Edition. 7 parts, +to. ^3 3^. net, 

Bolognese (Dr. S.).— The Economical Interpreter. English and 

Italian. With a Treatise on Italian Pronunciation and the Conjugation <>f 
Italian Verbs. Second Edition. ( )l)long, pp. 26S. 2.f, net. 

Book of Consolations, or the Pastoral Epistles of Mar Isho-Yahbli 

of Kuphlana in Adiabene. Edited with an English Translation by 
P. ScuTT-iMoNCRiKFF, I). A. (Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and 
Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum). Part I : Syriac Text. Svo, 
pp. Ivi, loi, cloth. lo.r. bd. net. [Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation 
Series, Vol. XVL] 

Borel (H.).— Wu-Wei. A Phantasy based on the Philosophy of 

Lao-Tse. Translated from the Dutch by M. I.anson. Svo, \>\>. 69, cloth. 
3 J. nci. 

Brhadaranjakopanishad. In dcr Madhjamdina Recension. 
HerausgegelK-n und iiber.setzt von OrT<.) BoHilinck. Svo, pp. iv, 72, 
100. 5j. net. 

Bronnle (Paul).— Contributions towards Arabic Philology. Part 1: 

The Kiiab al-niaksur wal-mamdud. By Ibn Wall.vd. Being a Treatise, 
Lexicographical and Grammatical, from Manu.scripts in Berlin, London, 
Paris. Edited with Text, Critical Notes. Introduction, Commentary, and 
Indices. By Dr. P.\ul Bro.nnle. I : Arabic Text. Roy. Svo, pp. xii, 
128, cloth. 7^. dd. net ; paper covers, 6x. net. 

" This is the first of a series of ten parts, in which it is intended to publish some 
important works of the earliest Arabic authors, together with systematic investigations 
into the various branches of Arabic Philology." 

"In the -second part, whicii contains the IntrtKhiction and Commentary to the 
Arabic text given in the first part, along with a Preface and Bibliography to the whole 
series, the Author will have opportunity of enlarging at .some length upon the principles 
by which he has Ijeen guided in embarking ui>on this schenn.." 

Browne (E. G.). Sec Persian Historical Series. 

Browne (E. G.).— Account of a rare Manuscript History of Ispahan. 

8vo, pp. 90. \s. td. net. 

Browne (E. G.).— Biographies of Persian Poets. Cotuaincd in 

Chapter \. Stction 0, of ihc T;'ii ikh-i-( lu/.nla, 01 •'. Select History," of 
lianulu'llah Mustawfi of (^a/win. Translated by E. C. BkoWNl.' Svo, 
pp. So. 2J. net. 

Browne (E. G.).— The Chahar Maqala (Four Di.scourses) of 

Nidhami-i-'arudij-samanjandi. Transjatiti into EnL'lisli bvE. C. Brownk. 
Demy Svo, pp. 139, cloth. 4J. net. 

Buck (C. D.).— A Sketch of the Linguistic Conditions of Chicago. 

Reprint. 410, j>p. 20, pajKT covers. \s. hd. net. 



8 Luzac <Sr^ Co. 

Buddhaghosuppatti, or Historical Romance of the Rise and Career 

of Buddaghosa. Edited and translated by Jaafks (jRAY, I'rofcssor of Pali, 
l\ani;oon College. Two parts in one. 8vo, pp. viii, 75, and 36, cloth, ds. 

Buddhism. An Illustrated Quarterly Review. Vol. I. Rangoon, 
1904. Annual suljscription, \os. 6d. post free. 

Buddhist Pali Texts. Edited under the direction of W. A. de Silva. 
In Pali with Singhalese Translation byW. A. Samauasekara. Vols. I and II: 
The Digha Nikaya. loj. each net. 

The Digha Nikaya will be complete in 3 vols. 

Buddhistic Essays referring to the Abhidhamia. With Introduction 
in German. By A. Bastiax. 8vo. pp. 21. \s. net. 

Budge (E. A. Wallis). — Oriental Wit and Wisdom, or the 

'•Laughable Stories." Collected by M.ir Gregory John Bar-Hebraeus, 
Maphrian of the East from a.d. 1264 to 1286. Translated from the 
Syriac by E. A. Wallis Budgk, M.A., Litt.D., D.Lit. Roy. 8vo, 
pp. xxvii, iv, 204, cloth. 6s. net. 

" In the Pieface to the present publication the satisfactory reni;irk is made that the 
volume containing l)oth the Syriac Text and the Translation, published 1897, price 2Ij-. 
(see the notice in the Athejicrum for March 13th, 1897), ' has been well received, both 
in England and on the Continent,' and that ' in .inswer to many requests from students 
of literature generally" Messrs. Luzac & Co. 'have decided to issue the English 
Translation of it sep;irately in a handy form." "' 

" In such circumstances the new volume is likely to succeed, and we need only add 
that, although many of the Siiyings are at war with the finer aesthetic taste of the 
present day, the collection is fairly representative, and of considerable vahie. Of some 
special interest appears to us to be the twentieth chapter, ' Physiological Characteristics 
described by the Sages." '— . \thenuuvt. 

Budge (E. A. Wallis).— The History of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

and The History of the Likeness of Christ which the Jews of Tiberias made 
to mock at. The Syriac Texts edited with English Translations by E. A. 
Wallis Budge, M.A., Litt.D., D.Lit., Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian 
Antiquities in the British Museum. Vol. I : The Syriac Texts, pp. xi, 224. 
\zs. (ui. net. Vol. II : English Translations, pp. xvii, 246. \os. 6d. net. 
[Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series, Vols. IV and V.] 

" To Mr. Budge belongs, however, the great merit of having very materially 
enriched no fewer than four different branches of Oriental Literature. Several of his 

editions will no doubt serve as the groundwork for future publications 

The general aspect of the volumes is all that could Ik- desired."— . ////<•//«-// w. 

" It may be regarded as an exceptionally excellent commentary on the New 
Testament, the main lines of which it closely follows, for in dealing with the same 
facts it lets in a great deal of light on the manners, customs, and ideas of the country 

and the period The translations are in admirabl; English, and evince 

singular v>.h\\\\.y." —Catholic Times. 

Budge (E. A. Wallis).— The Histories of Rabban Hormizd, the 

Persian and Rabban Bar-'Idta. The Syriac Text, edited with English 
Transitions by E. A. Wallis IUdoe, M.A., Litt.D., Keeper of the 
Eg)'ptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum. Two vols, in 
three. Vol. I : The Syriac Texts, pp. xv, 202. 12s. 6J. net. Vol. II, Part I : 
English Translations, pp. xlii, 304. izr. (ai. net. Vol. II, Part 2 : The 
Metrical Life of Rabban Hermizd, by Mar Sergius of Adhorbaijan. 
English Translations, 8vo, pp. ix, 207. los. 6d. net. [Luzac's Semitic Text 
and Translation Series, Vols. IX, X, XL] 

" We have in these handsome volumes valuable records of two of the most 
remarkable Ncstorians who ever lived." — Expositorv Times. 



Complete List of Books and Penodicais. 9 

Budge (E. A. Wallis). — The Laughable Stories collected by Bar- 

Hebraeus. The Syriac Text, with an English Translation, by E. A. Wallis 

IUdge, Liit.D., F.S.A., Keeper of the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian 

Antiquities, British Museum. 8vo, cloth. 2is. net. [Luzac's Semitic Text 

and Translation Series, Vol. I.] 

" Dr. Budge's Ixjok will be welcome as a handy reading-book for advanced 

students of Syriac, but in the meantime the stories will be an addition to the literature 

of gnomes and proverbs, of which so many are found in India, and in Persian, 

Hebrew, and Arabic, although not yet published. We are happy to say that 

Dr. Budge's new book is well edited and translated, as far as we can judge." — 

Athentrum. 

" The worthy Syrian Bishop's idea of humour may excite admiration when we 
hear that he collected his quips in the grey dawn of the middle ages." — Pail Matt 
Gazette. 

Buhler (J. G.). — On the Indian Sect of the Jainas. Translated from 

the German, and Edited with an Outline of Jaina Mythology by J. BuRGESS, 
CLE., LL.D. 8v(), pp. 79, cloth. 3^. 6</. net. 

Burnell. — The Samavidhanabrahmana. Being the Third Brahmana 

of the Sama \eda. Edited l)y A. C. BuRNELi.. Vol. I : Text and Com- 
mentary, with Introduction. 8vo, pp. xxxviii, 104, cloth. (Publ. 12s.) 
5j. net. 

Buttenwieser (M.). — Outline of the Neo-Hebraic Apocalyptic 

Literature. Roy. 8vo, pp. 45. 2s. 6d. net. 

Cappeller (Carl). — A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Based upon the 

St. Petersburg Lexicons. Roy. 8vo, pp. viii, 672, cloth. (Published 2ls.) 
Reduced to lar. M. net. 
" The book is certainly the cheapest, and. for a beginner, in some respects the 
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Castren (M. A.). — Nordische Reisen und Forschungen. Heraus- 

gegebcn von A. Schiefnkk. 12 vols. £2 i6.f. net. 

Ceylon, A Tale of Old. Sec Sinnatamby. 

Ceylon Handbook (The), and Directory, and Compendium of 
Useful Information, t(» which is prefixed a Review of the Planting Enterprise 
and Agriculture of the Colony ; with Statistical Information referring to the 
Planting Enterprise in other Countries. Compiled and Edited by J. 
Ferguson. Thick royal Svo, cloth. 24^. net. 

Chakrabarti (J. Ch.).— The Native States of India. Svo, pp. xiv, 

274, cloth. With Map. 5r. net. 

Chapman (Major F. R. H.).— English Hindustani Pocket Vocabulary 

(containing 1500 Useful Words in Classified Lists). Romanized. 32mo, 
pp. 92, cloth. IJ. bd. net. 

Chatterjee (B. C.).— Chandra Shekhar. Translated from the Bengali 

by Manmatha Nath Roy CuowDHtikv, of Santosh, a distinguished writer 

and orator of liengal. With Illustrations. Svo, pp. viii, 318, cloth gilt. 

6s. net. 

" ' rhandra SeJchar' is one of the greatest of B. C. Chatterjec's works, and 

Ani: who have not hitherto been acquainted with either the author or 

his y now read in their own language a work which will give pleasure in its 

pen.:..!., i i.c .iuthor has been called the * Sir Walter Scott of India,' an'' ■"•—>.• >,vho 

would tike to verify this high tribute of praise cannot do l)cttcr tlian pro of 

the worlc. nnd prm<;c it. We tnist thr linok will provr a stircc<;s, and . l.itc 

\hc -Capital. 

iec, has been ably 

tnwi...... -•-■N ; i-v ,^ y. . . . English 

readers who do not know th< II be glad of this opportunity to catch a 

Klimpae of the writings of the n)o noveli-it of Bengal."— /f«//iMjw./«. 



lo Luzac &^ Co. 

Chattopadhyaya (A.).— The Original Abode of the Indu-European 

or Arya Races. 8vo, pp. iii, 224. 2s. 6J. net. 

Chiplunkar (Vishnu K. S.).~Kavi-panchaka. Essays on the 

Sanskrit Classical Poets. Translated into Sanskrit from the Marathi. 8vo, 
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The same, cloth. 4^'. 6d. net. 



Chotzner (J.) — Hebrew Humour, and other Essays. Roy. 8vo, 

pp. 186, cloth. $s. net. 

These essays deal somewhat extensively with the humour and satire that is not 
infrequently to be found in the works both of ancient and modern Hebrew writers. 

Codrington (0.). — A Manual of Musalman Numismatics. 8v'o ; 

PP- 239, with 2 Plates, clolh. "js. 6d. net. 

Collins (M.). — The Idyll of the White Lotus. Svo. pp. 131, 

cloth. 4^. 6d. net. 

Comite de I'Asie Francaise. — Bulletin ^Mensucl. Single numbers, 
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Annual subscription of asfrs. (^^i) entitles the subscriber to membership, and the 
Bulletin is supplied free. Messrs. Luzac & Co., having been apjwinted Agents to 
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Cool (W.).— With the Dutch in the East. An Outline of the 

Military Operations in Loml)ock, 1S94, giving also a Popular Account of 
the Native Characteristics, Architecture, Methods of Irrigations, Agricultural 
Pursuits, P'olklore, Religious Customs, and a IJistoty of the Introduction of 
hlamism and Hinduistn into the Island. By CajDt. W. Cool (Dutch 
Engineer). Translated from the Dutch by E. J. Taylor. Illustrated by 
(1. B. ITf)OYKR. late Lieutenant-Colonel of the Dutch Indian Army. Royal 
8vo ; pp. viii, 365, x, with numerous Plates, Illustrations, and Plans, and 
a Map of Lombock ; cloth. (Published 2iJ.) Reduced to "js. 6d. net. 

" The book contains an interesting account of the Balinese and Sassak customs, 
and throws some light on the introduction of the Mahomedan and Hindu religions 

into Lombok The translation by Miss E. J. Taylor is satisfactory, and 

some of the illustrations are excellent."— The Time^. 

Cordier (H.).— Les Origines de deux Etablissements Francais dans 

TExtreme- Orient: Chang-Hai -Ning-Po. Documents Inedits publics avec 
une Introduction et des Notes, 4to, pp. xxxix, 76. 6s. net. 

Cowell (E. B.). See Sana's Harsa Carita. 

Cowper (B. H.). — Principles of Syriac Grammar. Translated and 

abridged from the work of Dr. Hoffmann. Svo, pp. 184, cloth, "js. 6d. net. 

Crow (F. E.).— Arabic Manual. A Colloquial Handbook in the 
Syrian Dialect. For the use of visitors to Syria and Palestine, containing 
a simplified Grammar, a Comprehensive English and Arabic Vocabulary and 
Dialogues. The whole in English Characters, carefully transliterated, the 
Pronunciation being fully indicated. Crown Svo, pp. viii, 334, cloth. 
7j. 6d. [Luzac's Oriental Grammars Series, Vol. IV.] 

" Messrs. Luzac have now issued a manu:il of colloquial Syrian Arabic, which 

•will be of the greatest use to visitors, merchants, and consular officers 

Mr. Crow, formerly one of the most brilliant linguists of the student-interpreters of 
^Constantinople, afterwards Vice-Consul at Beyiut." — The Speetator. 



Complete List of Books and Periodicals, 1 1 

€ust (R. N.).— Linguistic and Oriental Essays. Third Series. 

1S91. Svo, pp. 611, cloth. 7J-. 6d. net. 

The Same. Fourth Series. 1895. Svo, pp. 634, cloth. 

js. 6./. net. 

The Same. Fifth Series. 1898. 2 vols. 8vo, cloth. 15j.net. 

The Same. Sixth Series. 1901. Svo, pp. 4S5, cloth. 

7 J. 6d. net. 

The Same. Seventh Series. 1904. Svo, pp. 40S, 237, cloth. 

•js. (id. net. 

Cust (R. N.).— Essay on the Common Features which appear in all 

Forms of Religious Belief. Svo, pp. xxiv, 194, cloth. 5^. net. 
Cust (R. N.). — The Gospel Message, or Essays, Addresses, 

Suggestions, and Warnings of tlie diflerent aspects of Christian Missions to 
Non-Christian Races and Peoples. Svo, pp. 494. Paper, 6^-. 6</'. : cloth, 
7J. dd. net. 

" The scheme is so compreliensive as to include almost every detail of the 
missionary enterprise. Every essay is stamped, of course, with the personality of its 
author, whose views are expressed with characteristic force and clearness," — The 
Record. 

Cutting (S. W.).— Concerning the Modern German Relatives 

• Das ■ and ' Was ' in Clauses dependent upon substantivized Adjectives. 

Reprint. 4to, pp. 21, paper covers. \s. Gd. net. 

Dawlatshah. — The Tadhkiratu'sh - Shu'ara ("Memoirs of the 

Poets") of Dawlatshah Bin 'Ala'u'd - Dawla Bakhtishah Al - Ghazi of 
Samarqand. Edited in the original Persian with Prefaces and Indices by 
Edward G. Browne, M.A., M.B., M.R.A.S. Svo, pp. xvi, 10, 622, cloth. 
i8j. net. [Persian Historical Series, Vol. I.] 

"Critical editions of tlie chief historical and biographical works of reference in 
Persian are much wanted, and it is earnestly to Ixj hoped that the series projected by 

Prof. Browne will receive encouraging support As regards the editing little 

nec<l be said. Mr. Browne's name is a pledge that it has been done in the most exact 
and scholarly fashion." — Aihencrum. 

" It would be ungracious not to recognise the advantage which this edition 
possesses over all Oriental publications, not only in the correctness of the text, but in 
carefully prepared indices of the names of persons, places, and books mentioned in the 
lew.."— Asiatic Quarterly Rcvie^v. 

Dhamma-Sangani.— A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics of 

the Fourth Century B.C. Being a Translation, now made for the First Time, 
from the Original Pali of the First Book in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. entitled 
Dhamma-Sangani (Compendium of States or I'henomena). With Introtluctory 
Essay and Notes by Caroline A. F. Rhys Davids, M.A., Fellow of 
University College. Svo, pp. xcv, 393, cloth. IOj. net. 

Digha Nikaya. ' See Buddhist Pali Texts. 

Distracted Love. Being the translation of Udbhranta Prcm. By 

I). N. Shinghaw. 8vo, pp. 97. 2$. 6d. net. 

Dorn (B.). — Muhammedanische Quellen zur Oeschichte der Sudlichen 

Ktlitenljuider dei Kaipitohen Meeres. ncrausgegcl>en, iilKrsctzt, und or* 
lautcrt von B. Dorn. 4 vols. 8vo. i, i l8x. net. The vohimen arc also sold 
sqwratcly. Vol. I, 15/. ; Vol. II, 6/. 6tf. ; Vol. III. 4/. 6./. ; Vol. IV, 12s. 



12 Luzac &^ Co. V 

Dsanglu. — Der Weise und der Thor. Aus dem Tibetischen iibersetzt 

und niit dem original texte herausgegeben von I. J. Schmidt. 2 vols. 
4to. 15^. net. 

Dunkley (M.).— Nature's Allegories and Poems. Illustrated. 8vo, 

pp. 167, cloth. 2s. 6d. net. 

Dvivedi (Mahavira-prasada). — Kavya-manjusha. A Collection of 

Poems. In Sanskrit and Hindi. 8vo, pp. 243. 3^. net. 
Economy of Human Life. Complete in two Parts. Translated from 

an Indian Manuscript written by an ancient Bramin. To which is prefixed 
an account of the manner in which the manuscript was discovered, in a letter 
from an English gentleman then residing in China to the Earl of Chesterfield. 
New Edition, prepared with a Preface, by Douglas M. Gane. Small Svo, 
pp. 164, cloth gilt. 2J. dd. ; parchment covers, 3J-. net. 

Little more than 100 years ago this work enjoyed a wide popularity, not only in 
Great Britain, but throughout Western Europe, and passed through mmierous editions 
in each country in which it appeared. In the British Museum alone there are copies 
of more than fifty different English editions. 

" Somewhat similar in form to the Proverbs of Solomon. The ' Economy of 
Human Life' is even more interesting, inasmuch as the precepts are not disconnected, 
but display a method in arrangement. Together they form one complete system, 
perfect as u whole, and the parts exquisite condensations of wisdom." — Simday Special. 

Edkins (Joseph).— China's Place in Philology. An attempt to show 

that the Languages of Europe and Asia have a Common Origin. Demy 8vo, 
pp. xxiii, 403, cloth. (Published \os. 6d.) Js. 6d. net. 

Edkins (Joseph).— Chinese Architecture. Contents: (i) Classical 

Style ; (2) Post-Ctmfucian Style ; (3) Buddhist Style ; (4) Modern Style. 
Svo, pp. 36. IS. net. 

Edkins (Joseph).— Chinese Currency. Roy. Svo, pp. 29. is. net. 
Edkins (Joseph).— Introduction to the Study of the Chinese 

Characters. Koy. Svo, pp. xix, 211, loi, Ixjards. (Published i8j.) 
I2,f. 6d. net. 

Edkins (Joseph).— Nirvana of the Northern Buddhists. Svo, 

pp. 21. 6d. net. 

Edkins (Joseph). — Ancient Symbolism among the Chinese. Svo, 

pp. 26. 6d. net. 

Efes Damim. — A Series of Conversations at Jerusalem between 

a Patriarch of the Greek Church and a Chief Kabbi of the Jews, concerning 
the Malicious Charge against the Jews of using Christian Blood. By J. B. 
Levinsohn. Translated from the Hebrew by Dr. L. Loewe. Roy. Svo, 
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Eitel (E. J.). — Europe in China. The History of Hongkong. 

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Far East (The). A Monthly Illustrated Periodical. Edited by 
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Complete List of Books and Periodicals. 13 

Faridu'ddin 'Attar.— Tadhkiratu'l-Awliya (Memoirs of the Saints) 

of Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim Faricluddin 'Attar. Part I. Edited in the 
original Persian, with Preface, Indices, and Variants, by R. A. Nicholson, 
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Fausboll (V.).— Indian Mythology according to the Mahabharata, 

in Outline. Roy. Svo, pp. xxxii, 208, cloth, gx. not. [Luzac's Oriental 
Religions Series, Vol. I.] 

** This is a very learned work, and should be interesting — nay, will be found 
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printing." — Asiatic Quarterly Review. 

Fansb&U (V.). — The Dhammapada, being a Collection of Moral 

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*' II Dhammapada resta sempre il libro piu adatto e per molti riguardi conveniente 
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(P. E. P.) Cultura. 

Ferguson (A. M.). — All about Pepper; including Practical 

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Ferguson (J.). — Limited Companies in Ceylon for Tea and other 

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Ferguson (J.).— Ceylon in 1903. Describing the Progress of the 

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Ferguson (J.). The Coffee Planter's Manual for both the Arabian 

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Flagg (W. J.). — Yoga, or Transformation. A Comparative 

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Franson (Rev. F.).— The Religion of Tibet and the True Religion. 

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Gaster (M.). — The Chronicles of Jerahmeel, or the Hebrew Bible 

Historiale. A Collection of Jewish Legends and Traditions. Translated 
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Gibb (E. J. W.).— A History of Ottoman Poetry. By the late 
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Complete List of Books ami Periodicals. 1 5 

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Harper (R. F.). — The Code of Hammurabi, King of Babylonia 

(about 2250 H.C.). The most ancient of all codes. In 2 Vols. \'ol. I : 
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Indices. By Robert Francis Harper, Professor of Semitic Languages 
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writings. In view of the great influence of the Mosaic Code upon subsequent legis- 
lation, a competent inquiry into the relations of this code with that of Hammurabi and 



Complete List of Books ^ and Periodicals. 17 

othei- contemporary or possibly antecedent enactments is at the present time pertinent 
and sure to yield results of great historic value. This book, published as the 
complement of Part I, will be a work that must of necessity find a place in the library 
of every man interested in ancient Oriental civilization and desirous of apprehending 
the great debt of the present to the past. 

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Harper (R. F.).— Assyrian and Babylonian Letters, belonging to 

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Hartmann (F.).— Magic, White and Black. The Science of Finite 

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Seventh Edition. Revised. 8vo, pp. 292, cloth. 9/.; paper covers, 7j. 6</. net. 

Hartmann (Martin).— The Arabic Press of Egypt. By Martin 
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Heeres (J. E.).— The Part borne by the Dutch in the Discovery of 

Australia, 1606-1766. By J. E. Hkekes. LL.D., Professor at the Dutch 
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Xvjf Jan Carstcnsz on his voyage of 1623 to the (iulf of < with the Pcra and 

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Hendrickson (G. L.).— The Proconsulate of Julius Agricola in 

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JacoUiot (L.). — Occult Science in India and among the Ancients, 

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Jastrow (M.). — A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Bahli 

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Jinalankara, or *' Embellishments of Buddha." By Buddha- 

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King (Leonard W.). — Babylonian Magic and Sorcery. Being 

"The Prayers of the Lifting of the Hand." The Cuneiform Texts of 
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other Kings of the First Dynasty of Babylon. The Original Babyloniaa 
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••Mr. K=-~ -~- ' ':• 1 on Yi\% cop- ' '' f' '-'—'^ tcxu, and itill 

more on! . . 11. II references to 

tbe dates! of the pen it sevend ofthe 

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King (Leonard W.). — The Seven Tablets of Creation, or the 

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' ' To all students of comparative religion, to those who are interested in the dualism 
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King (Leonard W.). See Studies. 

Xing (Major J. S.). — History of the Bahmani Dynasty. Founded 

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Xittel (Rev. F.). — A Kannada-English Dictionary. Roy. Svo, 

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Korea Review. Edited by H. B. Hulbert. Published monthly. 
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Kosegarten. — Hudsailitarum Carmina. Arabic Text. Edited by 
J. G. L. Kosegarten. Sumptu Societatis Anglicx quce Oriental Fund 
nuncupatur. Vol. I. (All published.) London, 1854. 30J. net. 

Kosegarten.— Taberistanensis Annales Begum atque Legatorum 

Dei. Edited (in Arabic and Latin) by J. G. L. Koskgarten. Greifswald, 
1843. Vol. III. %s. net. 

To students of Arabic literature it is likely to be of great interest to hear that of 
the two works indicated above, both edited by Kosegarten, and long looked upon 
as being out of print, there have been found, after the death of the printer, some 
■copies which we are able to sell at a very reduced price. Whereas the second work, 
forming a certain part of the great historical work of al-Tabari, has to some extent 
been superseded by the complete edition of this monumental work under the editorship 
of Prof, de Goeje, in Leiden, it is' particularly gratifying that the famous collection of 
the Poems of the Hudsailites, made by the renowned philologian al-Sukkari, about 
275 A.H., which has, for the first time, been edited by Kosegarten, and afterwards 
continued by Wellhausen, has been preserved in some copies. We are glad to be 
thus enabled to put this work, which has been sold of late for £-i and ^1^4, on sale at 
the greatly reduced price of ;^i 10s. 



Complete List of Books a?id Periodicals. 2 r 

Land (J. P. N.).— The Principles of Hebrew Grammar. B} J. P. N. 

L\ND, Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Leyden. 
Translated from the Dutch by Reginald Lane Poole, Balliol College. 
Oxford. Demy 8vo, pp. XX, 219, cloth. (Published yj. 6//.) Reduced price 
5J. net. 

Levertoff (P.). — The Son of Man. A survey of the Life and Deeds 

of Jesus Chri>l. In Hebrew. Roy. 8vo, pp. 113, paper cover. 2s. dd. net. 

Loewe (L.). — A Dictionary of the Circassian Language. In two 

parts: English-Circassian-Turkish and Circassian -English-Turkish. 8vo^ 
cloth. (Published 2\s.) Reduced price 6^. net. 

Loewe (L.). — Efes Damim. See Efes. 

Light on the Path. A Treatise written for the Personal Use of 
those who are ignorant of the Eastern Wisdom, and who desire to enter 
within its influence. Written down by ^L C. With Notes and Comments. 
Small 8vo, pp. 92, cloth, zs. 6d. net. 

The same, leather. 3.?. bd. net. 

Luzac's Oriental List and Book Review.— A Record of Oriental 

Notes and News and containing a Bibliographical List of all new Oriental 

works, published in England, on the Continent, in the East, and in America. 

Published every two months. Annual subscription, y. Vols. I to IV are 

. entirely out of print. Vols. V to XV are still to be h.id at 5J. each vol. 

" It deserves tlie support of Oriental students. Besides the catalogue of new books 

published in England, on the Continent, in the East, and in America, it gives, under 

the heading of " Notes and News," details about important Oriental works, which 

are both more full and more careful th.an anything of the sort to be found elsewhere. '" 

— Academy. 

"A bibliographical monthly publication which should be better known." — Tti* 
Record. 

Luzac*s Oriental Grammars Series. See Aston, Crow, Rosen,, 
Wynkoop. 

Luzac's Oriental Religions Series. See De Boer, FausboU. 

Luzac's Semitic Text and Translation Series. See Budge, King, 

Scott-Moncrieff, Thompson. 
Macnaghten (Sir W. Hay).— Principle of Hindu and Mohammedan 

Law. Republished from the Principles and Prece<lences of the .same. 
Edited by the late II. H. W11.SON. 8vt), pp. 240, cloth. 6s. net. 

Majumdar (Puma Ch.).— The Musnud of Murshidabad ( 1 704-1 904). 

Being a .Synopsis of the History of Murshidabad for the last two Centuries. 
To which are appended Notes of Places and Objects of Interest at 
Murshidabad. With many Illustrations. 8vo, pp. 322, xxiv, cloth. 
7i. 6d. net. 

Margoliouth (D. S.). — Chrestomathia Baidawiana. The Com- 
mentary of El-Iiaidawi on Sura III. Translated and explained for the use 
of Students of Arabic. By D. S. Margoliouth, M. A., Laudian Professor 
of Arabic in the University of Oxford, etc., etc. Post 8vo, cloth. \2s. net. 

"The txx)k is as schokirly as it is useful. Of particular impfjrtance are the 
iuim«»rous gramninticn! nnnotation«i which givt* the Iwginnoran insifjht into thomrihwl 
f.f : • "^ • ■ '1 form nn t 'ndy 

fo ... I thr 

rciii- , . 1 irgollouih 1 ■ nw 

literatures of Moslim 1 raditiun. Gmmnmr, and Kalaim. . . . The peiUiMil of the 
book affonb pleasure from beginning to end." ^/ourna/ Royal Asiatic Sociefy. 



Liizac (S^ Co. 



Mead (George H.).— The Definition of the Psychical. Reprint. 40, 

pp. 38, paper covers. 2x. net. 

Michell (R. L. N.). — An Egyptian Calendar for the Koptic Year 

161 7 (1900-1901 A.D. ). Corresponding with the Years 1318-1319 of the 
Mohammedan Era. By Roland L. N. Michell. Demy 8vo, 130 pp. 
Cloth, 3^. ; paper covers, 2J. dd. net. 

Some Notices of an Egyptian Calendar for the year 1395 A.H. (1878 A.D.), published 
by Mr. Michell in Kgypt in 1877: — 

" One of the strangest pieces of reading probably ever offered under the name of 
contemporary literature. . . . There is no fear that anyone who uses this little 
book for consultation during a visit to Egypt will fail to see any particular celebration 
for want of exact information as to its probable date." — Saturday Rcfiew. 

"This quaint and entertaining pamphlet may claim a foremost place among 
■curiosities of modern literature. . . . Never was information so new, so old, 
so varied, so fantastic, or packed in so small a compass. . . . The Glossary may 
be described as a local gazetteer, a brief biographical dictionary of holy and historical 
personages, an epitome of popular customs and superstitions, and a handbook of the 
agricultural and natural phenomena of the Nile Valley." — Academy. 

Minayeff (J.).— Pali Grammar. A Phonetic and Morphological 

Sketch of the Pali Language. ^Vilh an Introductory Essay on its Form and 
Character. Translated and rearranged with some modifications and additions 
for the use of English Students. By C. G. Adams. 410, pp. xliii, 95. ^s. net. 

Mii'khond.— The Rauzat-ns-Safa ; or, Garden of Purity. Translated 

from the Original Persian by E. 1\KHA rsEK ; edited by F. F. ArbuthNOT. 

Vols. I to V. 8vo, cloth. lOJ. each vol. net. 
Vols. I and II contain : The Histories of Prophets, Kings, and Khalifs. 
Vols. Ill and IV contain : The Life of Muhammad the Apostle of Allah. 
Vol. V contains : The Lives of Abu Bakr, O'mar, O'thman, and All, the four 
immediate successors of Muhammad the .\postle. 

Modern Philology. A Quarterly Journal devoted to Research in 
Modern Languages and Literatures. \'ol. Ill now in progress. Annual 
suhscriptic^n, post free, I5.f. net. 

Monier-Williams (Sir Monier).— Indian Wisdom ; or, Examples of 

the religious, philosophical, and ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, with a brief 
History of the chief Departments of Sanskrit Literature, and some account of 
the past and present Condition of India, moral and intellectual. By Sir 
Monier Monier-Williams, K.C.LE., M.A., Hon. D.C.L. Oxford. 
Fourth Edition, enlarged and improved. Post 8vo, pp. 575, cloth. 2lJ. 

" His book . . . still remains indispensable for the growing public, which 
seeks to learn the outline of Indian literature and thought in a simple and readable 
form. We are glad to welcome the fourth edition of this eminently readable book." 
— Daily Chronicle. 

" It is a fine volume and contains valuable additions by the author . . . this 
edition will be more than ever prized by students of Indian lore." — Scotsman. 

Moorat (Mrs. M. A. C). — Elementary Bengali Grammar in English. 

Small Svo, pp. vi, 135. 3j-. net. 

Moorat (Mrs. M. A. C.).— Pahari and Santali Music. Containing 

two Pahari and five Santali airs with words. Folio, pp. 10. 35. net. 

The same can be supplied with English translation in MS. 

Price 5J. net. 

Moore (A. W.).— Existence, Meaning, and Reality in Locke's Essay 

and in present Epistemology. Reprint. 410, pp. 25, paper covers, u. 6^. net. 

Mostras (C). — Dictionnaire Geographique de I'Empire Ottoman. 

8vo, pp. xii, 241. 3J. 6d. net. 



Complete List of Books and Periodicals. 23 

Muallakat. — The Seven Poems suspended in the Temple at Mecca. 

Translateil from the Arabic. By Capt. Y. E. JoiiNSON. With an Intro- 
duction by vShaikh Faizullabhai. Svo, pp. xxiv, 238. yj. 6d. net. 

Mtiller (F. Max).— Selections from Buddha. 4to, pp. 52, cloth. 

3.f. 6d. net. 

Mailer (F. Max). Address delivered at the Opening of the Ninth 
International Congress of Orientalists, held in London, September 5th, 1892. 
Svo, \\\). 66. IS. bd. net. 

Miiller (Wilhelm), Diary and Letters of. In German. Edited by 
P. S. Allen and J. T. HATPrKLn. With Explanatory Notes and a 
Biographical Index in English. With Portrait. Svo, pp. 200, cloth. 6j. net. 

H'iemand (J.). — Letters that have helped me. Compiled by Jasper 

NiEMANi). Reprintc<l from The Path. Y\i\\\ Edition. Svo. pp. 90, cloth. 
2 J. (ni. net. 

Nitiprakasika. In Sanskrit. Edited with Introductory Remarks 
by GusTAV Oppert. 8\ro, pp. 83. y. 6d. net. 

Noer (Frederick Augustus). — The Emperor Akbar, a Contribution 

towards the liisiory of India in the 1 6th Century. Translated and in part 
Revised by A. S. Bkveriimjk. 2 vols. Svo, cloth. Sj. net. 

Oltramare (P.). — Le Bole du Yajamana dans le sacrifice 

Brahmaniqae. Memoire presente au xiii' Congres des Orientalistes, 
a Hambourg. Reprint. Roy. Svo, pp. 34. zs. net. 

Oppert (G.). — On the "Weapons, Army Organization, and Political 

Maxims of the Ancient Hindus, with Special Reference to Gunixjwder and 
Firearms. Svo, pp. vi, 162. 6s. net. 
" A very interesting and instructive work, throwing great light on the early use of 
»*xpIosivcs in warfare." 

Oppert (G.).— Contributions to the History of Southern India. 

Part I : Inscriptions. Svo, pp. 73, with IMate. 2s. net. 

Oppert (G.).— On the Classification of Languages. A Contribution 

to Comparative Philology. Svo, pp. 146. 6s. net. 

Oppert (G.).— On the Classification of Languages in Conformity 

with Ethnology. Reprint. Svo, p)). 20. i.^ net. 

Oppert (G.).— On the Ancient Commerce of India. A Lecture 

delivered in Madras. Svo, pp. 50. 2s. net. 

Osbom (L. D.). — The Recovery and Restatement of the Gospel. 

Svo, pp. 253, duth. 6s. Gd. net. 

Oudemans Jzn. (A. C). — The Great Sea-Serpent. An historical and 

critical Treatise. With the Reports of 187 .AppcnMnces (including those of 
the Apjxindix), the Suppositions and .Suggestions of Scientific and Non« 
.Scienlinc Pcrson.s, and the Author's Conclusions. WMth 82 Illustrations. 
Roy. Svo, pp. XV, 592, cloth. 25J. net. 
" Tlic volume is extremely interesting.*' — .tthentrum. 

Oung (Tha Do).— A Grammar of the Pali Language. (After 

Kaccaya.na.) In 4 vols. Roy. Svo, p]v '^- m . net. 
Vols. I and II contain the whole of the 1' r (I. S.indhi NAma and 

Kftraka, and Sam/Ua : II. T.iddhita. Kita. Ud m. t'pasagga, and Nipdta 

particles), dx. bd. each. Vol. III. Dictionary of Pali Word-Roots. 6.f. 6d, Vol IV, 
(.'handam, etc., y. 



24 Luzac &^ Co. 

Paracelsus.— The Life and Doctrines of Philippus Theophrastus, 

Bombast of Hohenheim, known by the name of Paracelsus. Extracted and 
Translated from his Rare and Extensive Works and from some Unpublished 
Manuscripts by F. Hartmann, M.D. With Portrait. 8vo, pp. 367, cloth. 
9J-. net. 

Parker (E. H.).— The Taoist Religion. Reprint. 8vo, pp. 35. 

is. 6d. net. 

Parker (E. H.). Sec Tao-Teh King. 

Persian Historical Series. Edited by Edavard G. Browne, M.A., 
M.B. See *Awfi — Dawlatshah Faridu'ddin 'Attar. 

Pfangst (Arthur). — A German Buddhist. (Oberpmsidialrat T. 

ScHULZE.) Translated from the Second German Edition by L. F. de 
Wilde, 8vo, pp. 79, cloth. 2s. net. 

Picart (Bernard).— Scenes de la vie Juive, dessinees d'apr^s Nature 
par Bernard Picart. 1663-1733. Sixteen Plates (Reproduction en helio- 
gravure Dujardin). Together in a l>eautiful Cloth Cover, richly ornamented 
with (iold and Colours. Folio. (Frs. 50.) I2s. 6d. net. 

Picton (N.).— The Panorama of Sleep, or Soul and S3rinbol. With 

Illustrations by R. W. Lane. 8vo, pp. 160, cloth. 4J. 6d. net. 

Pischel (Richard). — The Home of the Puppet-Play. An Address 

delivered by Richard Pischei. on assuming the oftice of Rector of the 
Konigliche Vereinigte Friedrichs-Universitat, Halle-Wittenljerg, on the 12th 
July, 1900. Translated (with the Author's permis^on) by Mildred C. 
Tawney (Mrs. R. N. \'yvyan). Small Svo, pp. 32, cloth. 2s. net. 

Poletti (P.). — Chinese and English Dictionary. Arranged according 

to Radicals and Sul>- Radicals. New and Enlarged Edition. Roy. Svo, 
pp. cvii, 307, half-lx)und. i5j-. net. 

Poletti (P.).— Explanation of the use of the Sub-Radical. Svo, 

pp. 17. i.^ net. 

Pryse (J. M.).— Reincarnation in the New Testament. Svo, pp. 92, 

paper covers, is. 6ii, net. 

The same, cloth. 3J. net. 

Pryse (J. M.). — The Sermon on the Mount, and other Extracts from 

the New Testament. A \^erbatim Translation from the Creek, with Note> 
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The same, cloth, ^s. net. 

Radloff (W.). — Das Kudatku Bilik des Jusuf Chass-Hadschih aus 

Balasagnn. Theil I : Der Text in Transcription herausgcgeben. 410, 
pp. xciii, 252. 13J. 6d. net. 

Radloff (W.).— Kudatku Bilik. Facsimile der uigurischen Hand- 

schrift der k.k. Hof-Bibliothek in Wien. Folio, pp. xiii, 200. £2 los. net. 

Ray (Prithwis Chandra). — The Map of India. From the Buddhist 

to the British Period. An open Letter to Lord Curzon. 410, pp. 36, 
with 6 Maps. Calcutta, 1904. is. 6d. net. 



Complete List oj Books and Pcnodicals. 25 

Records of the Reign of Tukulti-Ninib I. See Studies in Eastern 
History. 

Redcliffe.— The Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, K.G. By 

SlAN'l.KV Lank-1'<>»m.i:. I'ojMilar I'.iliti.m. With 3 I'oiuails. Svo, pp. 377, 
2s. (xi. iiel. 

Reis (Sidi Ali).— The Travels and Adventures of the Turkish 

Admiral Sidi Ali Reis in India, Afghanistan. Central Asia, and Persia, 
during the years 1553 1556. Translated from the Turkish with Notes by 
A. Vambery. 8vo, pp. xviii, 123, cloth. 5j-. 

Reuben (Paul).— Critical Remarks upon some Passages of the Old 

Testament. 15y V\\\. Rkiijicn, rii.D. 4to, pp. ii. 24, 14. cloth. 3^. 6^/. : 

pajKT Covers, 2.v. 6</. 

" It may suflice to congratulate ourselves that a scholar of vigorous mind and 

accurate philological training is devoting his leisure to a subject worthy of attention. 

. . . . Very many of the notes are in a high degree stimulating and suggestive. 

The get-up of the lx>ok is excellent." -Academy. 

" Dr. RcubtMi shows nuich originality, a wide knowledge of authorities, and a true 
grasp of critical principles." — Jc-vish Chronicle. 

Rhys Davids (Mrs. C. A. F.). See Dhamma-Sangani. 

Rockhill (Hon. W. W.).— China's Intercourse with Korea from the 

Fifteenth Century to 1895. Illustrated. Svo. pp. 00. 3v. 0,/. net. 

Rogers (R. W.).— A History of Babylonia and Assyria. By Roiieri 

William Roc.kks, rh.I). (Leip/.ig,^ D.O., LL.D., F.K.(i..S., Professor in 
Drew Theological Seminary, Madison, New Jersey. Third Kdilion. Two 
vols. Roy. 8vo, pp. xx, 430, and xv, 418, cloth. 20s. net. 

"The first volume of one of the most useful works yet published on Assyriology 
has just appeared. It is not only a history of Babylonia and .\ssyria brought up to 
<late, it is also a history of .Assyrian and Rdiylonian excavation and of cuneiform 
ileciphermenl. I-'or the first time the reader has placed liefore him a full and interesting 
account of one of the romances of historical .science— the discovery and decipherment 
of the cuneiform inscriptions." — Expository Times. 

" I consider Rogers's * History of Btibylonia and Assyria' a really useful book, the 
b«-st of its kind so far written in Kngli-sh. The fairness with which the author 
i-ndeavours to represent different views so frequently held with regard to the earlier 
dynasties and «'vents makes his work especially desirable for the student in the clas.s- 
n)om."— H. \". Hilprvcht. Ph.D.. D.D., LL.D., Professor in the University ot 
iV-nnsylvania. .Scirntifu Director of Babylonian ICxploration Fund. 

Rosen (Dr. F.).- Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar. ('()iuainin.u 

a sh()rl (irammar, Dialogues, and lAtraels from Na.sir Idtliti .Shah's 

Diaries, Tales, etc., and a Vocabulary. Svo. pp. xiv, 400, cloth. lOJ. 6</. 

[Liuac's Oriental Grammars .Scries, \oI. Ill.j 

" I>. Rosens U-anu-d work will l)e useful to all who have occision to go to 

P«Tsia, Baluchistan, and .Xfj^hanistan. The Vocabulary will Ix* a l)oon to students. 

••specially as it is in the same volume with the jramniar and the dialogtics. "--/*«A/. 

t'irculnr. 

" Very useful to students." — U'esttuitis/er Hcvictv. 

" Model (irammar. KxcelUmt (iuid<' to the ac(|uisition of Pci-si.in. "— .•ljiV»//V 
< h/a rterly Kn •ir-.i'. 

Rosen (Baron von).— Notices sommaires des manuscrits arabes du 

Mntie Aiiatique. i" livr. ii\'), pp. li, .:5<i. 3^. o./. net. 

Rosthorn (A. de).— On the Tea Cultivation in Western Ssuch'uan 
and the Tea Trade with Tibet via Tachienln, With Sketch-.Map. 8v(i, 
pp. 40. 2s. net. 



26 Luziic &^ Co. 

Samalochak.— A Literary Review. In Hindi. Vol. II. 8 parts. 

August, 1903 -July, 1904. is. dd. nel. 

Sankaranarayana (P.).— English-Telugu Dictionary. By P. San- 

KARANAKAVANA, jNI.A., M.R.A.S., Tutor to their Highnesses the Princes of 
Cochin. 8vo, pp. 61, 756, 2, cloth. \os. dd. net. 

Sarkar (Kishori Lai).— The Hindu System of Self-Culture, or the 

Patanjala Yoga Shastra. Small Svo, pp. iii, 160, cloth, is. bd. net. 

Sarkar (Kishori Lai).— The Hindu System of Moral Science. A few 

words on liie Sattwa, Raja, and 'lama Ciunas. S.-.-.ind ]-,(htion. Small Svo. 
pp. iv, 156, cloth. 2s. 6d. net. 

Sarkar (Kishori Lai). — A Synopsis of Lectures on the subject of 

the Rules of Interpretation in Hindu Law, with special reference to tla- 
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Sarnalata, or a Picture of Hindu Domestic Life. Iranslated from 

the Bengali by Uakshina Charan Koy. Svo, pp. 280, cloth. 4J. net. 

Sastramukthavali.— A collection of Vedanta Mimansa and Nyaya 

Works. IJlited l)y 1". U. Ananthachakiak. 

Sastri (Pandit S. M. Natesa). — Tales of Tennalirama, the famous 

Court Jester of Southern India. Svo, in lx)ards. is. net. 

Satvotpatti Vinischaya and Nirvana Vibhaga. An Enquir}- into 

the Drigiii of Heings and Discussions al>out Nirvana. Translated by 11. M. 
Gu.NA.stKAkA and Revised by Josetta Sinha. With an Introduction in 
German by A. Bastian. Svo, pp. 66, xli, 8. 5.V. net. 

Sauerwein (G.).— A Pocket Dictionary of the English and Turkish 

Languages. Small Svo. pp. 298, limp cloth, ^s. bd. net. 

Sayce (A. H.).— Address to the Assyrian Section of the Ninth 
International Congress of Orientalists. Svo, pp. 32. is. net. 

Schmidt (I. J.).— Grammatik der Mongolischen Sprache. Mit i 

Tafel in Steindruck. 4I0, pp. xii, 179. 5.V. bd. net, 

Schmidt (I. J.). — Grammatik der Tibetischen Sprache. 4to, 

pp. XV, 320. I IS. bd. nel. 

Schmidt (I. J.).— Mongolisch-deutsch-russisches Worterbuch, nebst 
einem deutschen und einem russischen Wortregister. 410, pp. viii, 613. 

9J-. net. 

Scholia on Passages of the Old Testament. By Max Jacob, Bishop 

of Edessa. Now first edited in the original Syriac, with an English 
Translation and Notes by G. Phillip, D.D. Svo, paper covers. 5J. net. 

Seth (Mesrovb J.).— History of the Armenians in India. From the 

Earliest Times to the Present Day. Svo, pp. xxiv, 199, cloth. 7^', 6ii. net. 

Shorey (Paul).— The Unity of Plato's Thought Reprint. 4to^ 

pp. 88, paper covqjs. 6s. net. 



Complete List of Books and Periodiaxls. 2~ 

*' Sinnatamby." — Letchimey. A Tale of Old Ceylon. Small 4to, 

pp. iii, 54, cliiih. With Phoiogiaph IMates and Illustraiions. 2s. 6ii. 

"It is an interesting and characteristic tale of old times, prettily illustrated :ind 
bound, and will \w read with ]5leasure lx)th by young and old." — Indian Afagiisinr. 

Sranta-Sutra of Drahyayana (The). With Dhanvin's Commentary. 
In Sanskrit. Edited by J- i^'- Kkutkr. Part I, containinij Pat.alas i-io- 
410, pp. 216. London, 1904. los. 6d. net. 

The work will be completetl in three parts, each io.f. 6d. 

Sreemut Vidyaranya Swami. — Panchadasi. A Handbook of Hindu 

Panthcisni. Translated with copious Annotations by N.\ND.\LAI, l)H(»i,i:. 
.Second Kdiiion. Two vols, in one. Svo, p]). ^t^t^, cIiKh. Sj. i>et. 

Sri Brahma Dhara.—'* Shower from the Highest." Through ilir 

favour of the .Mahatma Ski Aga.mva (iURi; I^aram.aha.msa. With Portrait. 
Svo, pp. vii, 87, cloth. 3^. 6d. net. 

This book of teachings is the work of one of the most distinguished leaders of 
Indian thought. 

Stein (Dr. M. A,). — Catalogue of the Sanskrit MSS. in the 

Eaghunata Temple Library of His Highness the Maharaya of Jamnni and 
K.ishinir. 410, \^\^. 423. cloth. I2s. net. 

Strong (D. M.).— The Doctrine of the Perfect One ; or. The Law of 

Piety. Compiled by Major-tleneral I). M. Stkon(J, C. I>. Small Sv.^ 
pp. 19. (hi. net. 

Strong. See TIdana. 

Studies in Eastern History.— Records of the Reign of Tukulti- 

Ninib I, King of Assyria, about B C. 1275. Kditetl and translated Iron* 
a Memorial Tablet in the British .Museum, l)y L. W. King, .M.A., P'.S.A. 
Vol. I. 8vo : pp. 204, with 10 half-tone Plates ; cloth gilt top. 6s. net. 
Vol. H. Chronicles concerning early Babylonian Kings, now in the Press. 

" The records furnish us with a wholly new and deeply interesting chapter in the 
history of the Kings of Assyria. Mr. King's book contains not only the translation 
of the tablet, but also portraits of the tablet itself, its text, ami notes. .And he has 
added to it other text and translations which throw light upon Tukulti-Ninib's place 
in history. Few will require to be told that Mr. King's work reaches tlw highest mark 
of scholarship and insight." — Expository Times. 

•• Mr. King explains certain discrepancies in the different HabylcM>ian Chronicles, 
and gives a new reading of some lines on a seal of the .Assyrian King, whenci* it 
appears that the seal was originally the property of Bibeashu's father, and was altenxl 
by Tukulti-Ninib more than three thousand years l>efore it found its way to the Hriush 
Mus<um. Mr. King is to l>e congratulated not only upon this excellent piece of work, 
but also upon having materially enriched our national collection. "—^/A^wrt-w///. 

Subhasita-Samgraha.— An Anthology of Extracts ft:om Buddhist 

Works rnuipiled by an unknown author, to illustrate the Doctrines of 
Scholastic and of Mystic i^Tantrik) liuddhi.sm. In the Koman character. 
Edited by C. Bksdall. Extract. Roy. Svo, pp. lOO. y. net. 

Suhrilleka (The); or ''Friendly Letter," written by Ling Shit 

(N.ijjarjuna) and adtlrcsscd to King Sa«lvaha. Translated frtMii the Chinc«e 
Edition of I-Tsing, by the late Rev. S. Beal. With the Chinese Text. Svo, 
pp. 51, xiii. 5J. net. 



2S Litzac &^ Co. 

Talcherkar (H. A.).— Lord Curzon in Indian Caricature. Roy. 8vo, 

pp. 48, boards. 2s. dd. net. 

'Ihis work consists of a collection of cleverly executed cartoons illu;-lriiting the 
■career of Lord (Jurzon in India, selected from the illustrated comic journals of that 
country and arranged in chronological order, with an explanatory narrative of the 
<*vents dealt with. 

Tao-Teh King.— A Translation of the Chinese Classic. ]5y E. H. 

Paukkk. Iveprint, 8vo, pp. 40. \s. dd. net. 

Tarbell (F. B.).— A Greek Hand-Mirror in the Art Institute of 

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Tattvarthadipa of Vallabhacharya. In Sanskrit. Edited by 

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Taw Sein Ko.— Suggested Reforms for China. Second Edition. 

Kcprint. Roy. Svo, pj). 32. \s. net. 

Tawney (C. H.).— The Kathakoca, or Treasury of Stories. Trans- 
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Temple (G.).— A Glossary of Indian Terms relating to Religion, 

Customs, Oovernment. Land, and other Terms and Words in Common Use. 
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" The book is handy, well printed, and well got up, and no student of Indian 
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\%s. net. 

Thomas (F. W.).— Deux Collections Sanscrites et Tibltaines de 

Sadhanas. Extract. Roy, Svo, pp. 42. 2s. net. 

Thomas (F. W.). Sec Sana's Harsa Carita. 

Thompson (R. Campbell).— The Reports of the Magicians and 

Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon. In the Hritish Museum. The 
Original I'evl, printed in Cuncif(jnn ("haraciers, edited with Translations, 
Notes, \'ocabulary, Index, and an Introduction. Hy K. Campbell 
Thomi'SON, B.A. (Cantab.), Assist.ani in the Department of Egyptian and 
Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. In two vols. \ ol. I : The 
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" Mr. Thompson gives us the cuneiform text of what is, practically, the complete 
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— lixpositorv Times. 



Complete List of Hoo/cs and Periodienls. 29 

Thompson (R. Campbell). — The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia. 

Wmg Ba]>yU>nian and Assyrian Incanialions against ilio Demons, ClhouU- 
\'ampircs, Hohgolilins, Ghosts, and kindred Evil Spirits which attack Man- 
kind. Translated from the Original Cuneiform Texts with Transliterati(ms, 
Vocabulary, Notes, etc. By R. Campuell Thompson, M. A., Assistant in 
the Department of Eg\'ptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. 
In two vols. Vol, I : Evil Spirits. Vol. II : " Fever Sickness " and 
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Te.xt and Translation Series, Vols, XIV and XV.] 

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is a work which will render abiding service to the cause of Biblical antiquities and 
theologiail learning." — Asiatic Quarterly Kci'icw. 

*' Mr. Thompson's work will be found a mine of wealth to all students of the wcinl 
and occult. . . . The valuable introduction with which Mr. Thompson pi-efaces 
his first volume shows that the jews were not the only students wiio drank from this 
fountain of mysticism, for much Chaldean magic survives in the charms and incanta- 
tions in use among the Syrian Christians. . - . . The most important point which 
Mr. Thompson clearly demonstrates is the immense vitality of this magical literatiuv." 
— Times. 

Thompson (R. Campbell). — On Traces of an Indefinite Aiticle in 

Assyrian. Svo. pp. 31, boards. 2s. net. 
Tiele (C. P.). — Western Asia, according to the most Recent 

Discoveries. Rectorial Address »)n the occasion of the 3i8lh Anniversary of 
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"An authoritative summary of the results of recent Oriental research and 
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Tilbe (H. H.). — Pali Grammar. Svo, pp. 115, cloth, (k^. not. 

.^^tudenls' Pali .Series. 

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Tolman (A. H.).— What has become of Shakespeare's play "Love's 

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T'oung Pao.— Archives pour servir a I'etude de I'histoire, dos 

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Tyler (T.).— The Hittite Seal from Bor. Reprint. 8vo, pp. 7. 6^. 
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from the Pali, by Majoi-General D. M. SiRoNii, CB. Roy. Svo, pp. viii, 
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TJhlenbeck (C. C.).— A Manual of Sanskrit Phonetics. In Com- 
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Vallee Poussin (L. de la).— Bouddhisme — Etudes et Materiaux. 

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Complete List of Books and Periodicals. 31 

Vivekananda (Swami). — The Vedanta Philosophy. An Address 

l)ef(ire the Graduale Philosophical Society of Harvard College, with Intro- 
duction by Prof, C\ C. EVERETT. Price 9^. net. 

Vivekananda (Swami), Pamphlets by. Price ^d, each net. 
The Ideal of a Universal Religion. 
The Cosmos. 
The Atman. 

The Keal and Apparent Man. 
Bhakti Yoga. 
World's Fair Addresses. 

Vizianagram Sanskrit Series. Under the Superintendence of 
Arthur Venis, M.A. ()\on. ; Principal, .Sanskrit College, Benares. 
Various prices. 

Vopadeva. — Mugdhabodha. Herausgegebcn und erklart von Otto 

K«iH 11 iNc.K. Svo, jip. \iii, 465. Qj. net. 

Waddell (L. Austine).— The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, with 

its Mystic Cults, Synil>oli»ni, and Mythology, antl in its relation to Indian 
IJuddhisn. By L. Austine Waddell, M.B., F.L.S., F.R.G.S. Roy. Svo, 
pp. xix, 593, cloth. With numerous Plates and Illustrations. 25J. 
"This is a book which considerably extends the domain of hum.in knowledge. 
Ho is the first European who, etiuipped with the resources of modern scholarship, has 
jvMvtratcd the exoteric Buddhism of Til)et. '. . . . Kvory page of his closely- 
printed volume contains new material ; many of his chapters are entirely new, and the 
whole forms an enduring memorial of laborious original research."— T'/wrf. 

Walker (E. D.). — Reincarnation. A Study of Forgotten Truth. 

Svo, pp. 350, cloth. 7j. ; paper covers, 5.*-. dd. net. 

Wassiljew (W.). — Der Buddhismus, seine Dog-men, Gesehichte, und 

Litteratnr. Aus dem Kussischcn iibersetzt. I^rslcr Thcil. Svo, pp. xv, 380. 
5/. net. 

Watters (T.).-On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India, 629-645 A.D. 

Kdited after his death by T. W. Rhys Davids, F.B.A., and S. W. BusHELL, 
M.D., C.M.G. Svo, pp. 401, cloth. lar. net. 

Werner (A.).— Zulu Exercises. Svo, pp. 51. \s, net. 

West (Sir Raymond).- Higher Education in India, its Position and 

Claims. Svo, pp. 61. xa. net. 

Wildeboer (G.).— The Origin of the Canon of the Old Testament. 

.\n Historico-Critical Kncjuiry. Translated by Wisner Bacon. Kditetl 
with Preface by Prof. George F. Moore Roy. Svo, pp. xii, 1S2, cloth. 
-js. ed. 
" We will only add that we cordially echo the Professor's hope that his l)ook may 

not only be read by professed students, but that it may come also into the hands 

of such as have already left the University."— (///<//-</w». 

Wilkinson (J. R.). — A Johannine Document in the First Chapter of 

St. Lake's Gospel. Roy. Svo, jip. 3S, cloth. 2s. ; paper covers, i.v. (>./. not. 

Winckler (H.).--The Tell-El-Amarna Letters. Transliicraiion, 

Kng]i«ih Tran'ilation. Vocabulary, etc. Roy. Svo : pp. xlii, 416, and 50 pages 
Indices ; cloth. 2is. net. 

The same, in paper covers. 20s. 

• The present work cIo«*s not aim to give the Hnal exposition of tl)e 'rcll-ol-AmAma 
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<lif^icultics. " 

■ • llw purpose of the vocabularies and catalogue of [)roper names is to make easy 
the penetration and independent im..-^»if. iiwm of mir snhiici fUiii«( iilU m msc of 
the tirsi, it was important to hit titiont. 

.\ full citation of .ill the pKiccs v. . .'•." 



33 Lit::ac ^ Co. 

Winternitz (Dr. M.).— Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Royal 

Asiatic Society's Library, with an Appendix l)y V. \V. Thomas. 8v(», 
pj). \vi, 340, 5j-, net. 

Word (The). A Monthly Magazine devoted to Philosophy, Science, 
Religion, Eastern Thought, Occultism, Theosophy. and the Brothcrhfxxl of 
Humanity. Vol. I. Roy. 8vo. Annual subscription, Qj. net. 

Wright (W.)- — The Book of Jonah in four Semitic versions — 

Chaltlcc, Syriac, .l'.lhii>i)ic. and Aral)ic. With correspond inj^ Glossaries. 
8vo, pp. 148, cloth. 4-v. net. 

Wu-Wel. Sec Borel. 

Wjrnkoop (J. D.). — Manual of Hebrew Grammar. Translated from 
the Dutch by C. van dkn Hiksen. 8vo, cloth. 2j. (id. net. [Luzac's 
Oriental C^rammars Series, Vol. II.] 
"We have nothing but praise for tJie Rev. Wynkoop's Manual of Hebrew 

Grammar. It is clear and concise ; the rules are very intellijjible. and the examples are 

telling. . . . We heartily recommend this book, and congratulate Messrs. Luzac 

on the style of its production." — Asiatic Quarterly Rci'ic-n.'. 

Wynkoop (J. D.). — Manual of Hebrew Syntax. Translated from 

the Dutch by C. VAN din 15n:si;N. Svo; pp. x\ii, 152, and Imlex ; cloth. 
zs. 6d. net. [Luzac's Oriental lirammars Series, Vol. I.] 
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reader." — Jncish \\ orld. 

" It is one of those lx>oks which will Ix'come indispensable to the I'.nglish student 
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this takes a high rank and will undoubtedly becomt; a general textbook on the subject 
in many colleges and univ«isitics. "— . /w<7/Vr/// Hrhrm.' A'rrf.f. 

Yatawara (J. B.).— The Ummaga Yataka. (The Story of the 

Tunnel.) Translated from the Sinhalese by J. B. Vatawaka, M.C.B.R.A.S., 
Ratemahatmaya. Roy. Svo, pp. vii, 242, cloth. \os. 6d. net. 



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